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AB0 BLOOD TYPES

1. After watching the video twice, work with a partner and brainstorm a short explanation for pictures 1-4 (exercise 0).

2. Complete all exercises below and remind... as long as you stay curious and believe in yourself, there is no limit to what you can achieve. 

 

TRANSCRIPT


00:00 There are a lot of phenotypes that are easy to tell. Your eye color, your hair texture, your height, whether you have a straight thumb or hitchhiker thumb. But one phenotype that you can’t just tell by looking is your blood type. Your blood type is really made of many things: platelets, plasma and red blood cells. But you have probably heard before that when blood is donated, it’s important that it is matched correctly. And that’s true, because blood type phenotypes vary. It really boils down to the fact that red blood cells are not naked. They have proteins on their surface. And it turns out that your immune system is very protective and if it gets blood donated that have different proteins that it’s not used to, it will attack them!!


00:56 With blood type, you can have several different phenotypes A, B, AB, or 0. These letters stand for antigens that are found on red blood cells. So type A blood, for example, has A antigens on the surface of red blood cells. Type B blood, for example has B antigens on the surface of red blood cells. Type AB has both A and B antigens on the surface of red blood cells. Type 0 – I like to think of it is looking like a zero- it doesn’t have A or B antigens. It’s naked!


01:28 Well, OK, it does have other proteins on its surface. But not A or B. So think 0 is zero! So if you are type B blood you have B antigens on the surface of red blood cells. That means, a person with B can accept another type B person’s blood because it recognizes the B antigen. But if you try to give that person a type A blood type, that’s an antigen that the immune system does not recognize. It will attack!! It would also attack AB blood, because that includes the A that it doesn’t organize. Type 0 would be safe though. Remember 0 looks like a zero- it doesn’t have A or B antigens. So type 0 can donate to everyone!!
02:15 Now while 0 individuals can donate to everyone, they can only receive blood from another type 0. Because of type 0 blood does not have A or B antigens, so their immune system will attack any other blood type? Neither of us have type AB blood, but this is a cool blood type to have in the sense that you could receive blood from anyone. If an AB person receives blood from a type A person, they’ve got that, so it’s all good. If an AB person receives blood from a type B person, they’ve got that, so it’s all good. They can receive blood from type 0 of course as well – there’s not any antigen to even worry about. One thing we want to add that makes all of this a bit more complicated – blood types also have a plus or minus sign listed by the blood type. This also makes a big difference with blood donations.
-Ooohhh, are we teaching match now, too??
-1! 2! Two signs that can be listed with blood types Ah hahahaha!


03:13 If you have a plus it means that you have another little protein called Rh factor on the surface of your blood cells. If you have a negative, it means that you do not have that little protein called Rh factor on the surface of your red blood cells. We are not going to be able to go into that in this short clip so – to the Google ® for that if you would like to learn more about that- it is also an inherited trait just. Blood type is genetically inherited and a great example of multiple alleles. Remember that alleles are a form of a gene- like a flavor. Just an analogy
- Flavor??


03:42 So let’s put this into practice, Let’s say a couple gives birth to a baby boy. Both parents have type A blood. But then, there was a mix-up at the hospital! And now – hahaha, sorry I get real into my drama – there are these two baby boys and the hospital doesn’t know which one belongs to the couple! Probably not a hospital where you want to have kids but let’s try and use our blood type genetic problem solving skills to help out here.
-Worst hospital ever!!
The babies are named baby Phil and baby Silvester (Two names that have never been in my classroom before). Baby Phil is type B blood and baby Silvestre is type 0 blood. Could either of these babies belong to the couple, who both have type A blood??


04:28 Let’s talk phenotypes and genotypes. The phenotype of type A blood is A. But the genotype is written like this IAIA or IAi. The format of writing helps with multiple alleles like blood type problems, and we can show you why when we work out the problems, and we can show you why when we work out the Punnet squares. The I, in case you are wondering, stands for immunoglobin. Now you may notice that I said that blood type A could be IAIA or IAi. Without testing, you don’t really know. You can consider IAIA to be homozygous and IAi to be heterozygous. The phenotype of type B blood is B. But the genotype is written is IBIB or IBi. The phenotype of type AB blood is AB. But the genotype is written IAIB. There is no other way to write that one. The phenotype of type 0 blood is 0. And the genotype is written ii. Remember that one. The phenotype of type 0 blood is 0. And the genotype is written ii. Remember how I said that type 0 looks like a zero and you can think of that as having zero blood type antigens?? Well, that’s what it is ii. No coefficient. None.

5:36 back to the babies- we have a baby Phill with type B blood and baby Silvestre with type 0 blood.
- This looks like a job for inspector Petunia.
We are told the parents both have type A, but remember that we don’t know whether that means they are IAIA or IAi. And the mom could be one of those genotypes and the father could be the other genotypes – or they could both be the same genotype – we don’t know. OK so let’ just try it out with all possibilities. Remember that we write the parent genotypes on the top and side of the Punnet squares, like this.

06:01 We fill in the squares and make sure to have capital I’s first just for formatting. OK so is it possible to get baby Phil – who has type B in any of these offspring?? No, he must be someone else’s baby.
-Scandal!!!
What about baby Silvestre with this type 0? Yes!! It’s possible. But both parents would have to be heterozygous. A – that means both were IAi- them yes, you have a 25% chance here of having a baby with type 0 blood.
-Remember that Punnet squares are predictions (possibilities).

6:40 Of course, if I was advising the couple, I would also insist on a DNA test as this bood type problem only shows that it’s possible that baby Silvestre is theirs. Well that’s it for the amoeba sisters- and we remind you to stay curious.

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