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The human body is made up of a head, neck, torso, two arms and two legs. The average height of an adult human is about 5 to 6 feet tall. The human body is made to stand erect, walk on two feet, use the arms to carry and lift, and has opposable thumbs (able to grasp). The adult body is made up of: 100 trillion cells, 206 bones, 600 muscles, and 22 internal organs. There are many systems in the human body: Circulatory System (heart, blood, vessels) Respiratory System (nose, trachea, lungs) Immune System (many types of protein, cells, organs, tissues) Skeletal System (bones) Excretory System (lungs, large intestine, kidneys) Urinary System (bladder, kidneys) Muscular System (muscles) Endocrine System (glands) Digestive System (mouth, esophogus, stomach, intestines) Nervous System (brain, spinal cord, nerves) Reproductive System (male and female reproductive organs) Every square inch of the human body has about 19 million skin cells. Every hour about 1 billion cells in the human body must be replaced. The average human head has about 100,000 hairs. The circulatory system of arteries, veins, and capillaries is about 60,000 miles long. The heart beats more than 2.5 billion times in an average lifetime. There are about 9,000 taste buds on the surface of the tongue, in the throat, and on the roof of the mouth. The strongest muscle in the body is the tongue. The human heart creates enough pressure when it pumps out to the body to squirt blood 30 feet. You blink over 10,000,000 times a year. The human brain weighs about 3 pounds. It takes about 20 seconds for a red blood cell to circle the whole body. Only 10% of the population are left handed. One fourth of the bones in your body are in your feet. Children tend to grow faster in the spring. The most sensitive finger on the human hand is the index finger. More men are color-blind than women. More people have brown eyes than any other color.


CIRCULATORY SYSTEM Circulatory Combined with the cardiovascular system, the circulatory system helps to fight off disease, helps the body maintain a normal body temperature, and provides the right chemical balance to provide the body’s homeostasis, or state of balance among all its systems. The circulatory system consists of four major components: The Heart: About the size of two adult hands held together, the heart rests near the center of the chest. Thanks to consistent pumping, the heart keeps the circulatory system working at all times. Arteries: Arteries carry oxygen-rich blood away from the heart and where it needs to go. Veins: Veins carry deoxygenated blood to the lungs where they receive oxygen. Blood: Blood is the transport media of nearly everything within the body. It transports hormones, nutrients, oxygen, antibodies, and other important things needed to keep the body healthy. Oxygen enters the bloodstream through tiny membranes in the lungs that absorb oxygen as it is inhaled. As the body uses the oxygen and processes nutrients, it creates carbon dioxide, which your lungs expel as you exhale. A similar process occurs with the digestive system to transport nutrients, as well as hormones in the endocrine system. These hormones are taken from where they are produced to the organs they affect. The circulatory system works thanks to constant pressure from the heart and valves throughout the body. This pressure ensures that veins carry blood to the heart and arteries transport it away from the heart. (Hint: to remember which one does which, remember that that “artery” and “away” both begin with the letter A.) There are three different types of circulation that occur regularly in the body: Pulmonary circulation: This part of the cycle carries oxygen-depleted blood away from the heart, to the lungs, and back to the heart. Systemic circulation: This is the part that carries oxygenated blood away from the heart and to other parts of the body. Coronary circulation: This type of circulation provides the heart with oxygenated blood so it can function properly. SKELETAL SYSTEM What is the Skeletal System? Your Skeletal system is all of the bones in the body and the tissues such as tendons, ligaments and cartilage that connect them. Your teeth are also considered part of your skeletal system but they are not counted as bones. Your teeth are made of enamel and dentin. Enamel is the strongest substance in your body. How does the Skeletal System help us? Support The main job of the skeleton is to provide support for our body. Without your skeleton your body would collapse into a heap. Your skeleton is strong but light. Without bones you'd be just a puddle of skin and guts on the floor. Protection Your skeleton also helps protect your internal organs and fragile body tissues. The brain, eyes, heart, lungs and spinal cord are all protected by your skeleton. Your cranium (skull) protects your brain and eyes, the ribs protect your heart and lungs and your vertebrae (spine, backbones) protect your spinal cord. Movement Bones provide the structure for muscles to attach so that our bodies are able to move. Tendons are tough inelastic bands that hold attach muscle to bone. Contents Who has more bones a baby or an adult? Babies have more than adults! At birth, you have about 300 bones. As you grow older, small bones join together to make big ones. Adults end up with about 206 bones. Are bones alive? Absolutely. Old bones are dead, dry and brittle. But in the body, bones are very much alive. They have their own nerves and blood vessels, and they do various jobs, such as storing body minerals like calcium. Bones are made of a mix of hard stuff that gives them strength and tons of living cells which help them grow and repair themselves. What is a bone made of? A typical bone has an outer layer of hard or compact bone, which is very strong, dense and tough. Inside this is a layer of spongy bone, which is like honeycomb, lighter and slightly flexible. In the middle of some bones is jelly-like bone marrow, where new cells are constantly being produced for the blood. Calcium is an important mineral that bone cells need to stay strong so keep drinking that low-fat milk! Contents How do bones break and heal? Bones are tough and usually don't break even when we have some pretty bad falls. I'm sure you have broken a big stick at one time. When you first try to break the stick it bends a bit but with enough force the stick finally snaps. It is the same with your bones. Bones will bend a little, but if you fall the wrong way from some playground equipment or maybe your bike or skateboard you can break a bone. Doctors call a broken bone a fracture. There are many different types of fractures. Luckily, bones are made of living cells. When a bone is broken your bone will produce lots of new cells to rebuild the bone. These cells cover both ends of the broken part of the bone and close up the break. How do I keep my bones healthy? Bones need regular exercise to stay as strong as possible. Walking, jogging, running and other physical activities are important in keeping your bones strong and healthy. Riding your bike, basketball, soccer, gymnastics, baseball, dancing, skateboarding and other activities are all good for your bones. Make sure you wear or use the proper equipment like a helmet, kneepads, shin guards, mats, knee pads, etc... to keep those bones safe. Strengthen your skeleton by drinking milk and eating other dairy products (like low-fat cheese, frozen yogurt, and ice cream). They all contain calcium, which helps bones harden and become strong.
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