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Rozenn Milin - Brezhoneg (hag saosneg)

Ma, Rozenn eo va ano, Rozenn Milin. Dond a ran deus Breizh, eveljust, deus Bro-Leon, deus ur geriadenn hag a so anwed Plougin, med bremañ meus un ti e Landunvez. Ganed on e 1960. Va zud ne c’houient ked a c’halleg a-raog ma z-achent d’ar skol; brezhoneg a c’houient nemetken hag o zud, va zud-kozh din-me, o zud deżo, ne ouient nemed brezhoneg eveljust en derwezhioù-se, kar an dud ne c’houient ked a c’halleg. Ssetu me so deus ar ğeneratîon gentañ a viche bed kaoseed galleg deżo ez-vihan. Ha da c’houde neuhe, en ur greskĩ, dre ma ne veze kaoseed nemed brezhoneg war-dro, meus en em lakeed me îe da gaoseal brezhoneg. Well, my name is Rozenn, Rozenn Milin. I come from Brittany, of course, from Bro Leon, from a village called Plouguin, but now I have a house in Landunvez. I was born in 1960. My parents didn’t know French before they went to school; they only knew Breton, and their parents, my grandparents, only knew Breton in those days, because people didn’t know French. So I am of the first generation that was spoken to in French when little. Later on, then, as I grew up, since only Breton was spoken around me, I too began to speak Breton.
Ya, d’ar poent-se, me oa yaouank er bloawezhioù 1970, ha d’ar poent-se e oa ur sseurt… an dud a oa komañssed da veżã… penaos e vez lavared an dra-he… d’ar poent-se e oa ur sseurt “renewal” – c’houezan ked memes penaos e vez lavared an dra-he… nag e brezhoneg nag e galleg… an dud oa komañssed da veżã interessed en-dro gant o yezhoù, gant o yezhoù bihan, gant an doare da vewã a-gozh, gant ar gisioù kozh, gant an dañssoù hag all hag all. D’ar poent-se oa bed Alain Stivell, oa bed en Olympia, ha gwraed ur ssapre abadenn. Ssetu an dra-he noa rôed lañss d’ar brezhoneg ha d’ar sevenadur breizheg dre vras. Ha d’ar poent-se, ur bern tud yaouank, ur bern krennarded er bloawezhioù 1970 so en em lakeed da’n em interessĩ en-dro d’ar yezh. Ha me oa en o zoues eveljust.Yes, at that time, I was young in the 1970s, and at that time there was a kind of… people were beginning to be… how to say it?... at that time there was a kind of “renewal” ‒ I don’t even know how to say that, neither in Breton nor in French… people were getting interested again in their languages, their small languages, traditional ways of life, old traditions, dances, etc. etc. That was when Alain Stivell gave a fantastic concert at the Olympia (in Paris). That gave a great fillip to Breton and Breton culture in general. At that time, a lot of young people, a lot of teenagers in the 1970s began to get interested in the language again. And I was among them, naturally.
Ssetu ni oa toud bed saved er memes tro-dro, hom zud a oa peisanted toud, hag en em lakeed hon eus oll, ur bern diouzhomp, da gaoseal brezhoneg en-dro. Un dra naturel edo ewidon, peogwir er gêr ne veze kaoseed nemed brezhoneg. Va zud kenetrezo ne gaoseent nemed brezhoneg; va zud gant va zud-kozh ne gaoseent nemed brezhoneg. War-lerc’h, va breur, ha’ so un tammig kozzhoc’h egedon-me, pa z-ae d’ar parkeier, da skouer, er parkeier, ar c’hẘased a gaosee brezhoneg kenetrezo. Med er gêr, ar merc’hed a oa troed muioc’h war-zu ar galleg. Ssetu, din-me veze kaoseed kentoc’h galleg. Mes, memestra, war-dro ne oa nemed brezhoneg. Ssetu, anad dit, poent a zeue, e oa red deomp kompren pezh a veze lavared gant hom zud ha gant an dud war-dro. Setu pa oann martese ’tro mareoù daouzeg, trizeg, pewarzeg vloaz e meus divised: “Boñ, bremañ e kaosein ar yezh, peogwir an-dra-he so sod pitilh nompas kaoseal ar memes yezh gant va zud.” Hag ewid va mignoned war-dro eo bed ar memestra îe. We were all raised in the same environment; our parents were all farmers, and we all, many of us, began to speak Breton again. It was a natural thing for me, because only Breton was spoken at home. My parents only spoke Breton among themselves; my parents spoke only Breton with my grandparents. Later on, my brother, who is a little older than me, when he was out in the fields, for instance, in the fields, the men spoke Breton among themselves. But at home, the women were more inclined to French. So I tended to be spoken to in French. Even so, all around there was only Breton. So of course there came a point when you had to understand what was being said by our parents and by other people around. So when I was somewhere around twelve, thirteen, fourteen years old, I decided: “OK, now I’m going to speak the language, because it’s just crazy not speaking the same language as my parents.” And for my friends around the area it was the same thing.
Med kaled eo bed, dîaes eo bed cheñch yezh gant hom c’herent. Peogwir an dra-he en ur mod oa e-gis lavared deżo: “C’hwi peus saved ahanomp e galleg; n-eo ked an dra-he hon diche bed kared ni; an dra-he oa ked reizh.” Ssetu, en ur mod e oa tamall da va mamm ha da va zad beżã bed desked deomp ur yezh ha na blije ked deomp, pe da veżã gwraed un dra ha na oa ked reizh. Ha neuse, eveljust, eo bed dîaes cheñch yezh ganto, ewidomp-ni oll, krennarded. Hag ouzhpenn, ewid tud e-gis hom zud, ar ğeneratîon-se, e choñje deżo e oa fall ar brezhoneg, e oa un dra sod, ne noa talvoudegezh ebed. Mezh o doa deus o yezh, mezh deus o sevenadur; an dra-he oa beżã “plouked”. Ne noa talvoudegezh ebed o yezh. Hag er c”hontrol, kaoseal ar yezh ewito a oa ur skoilh da vond war-raog ’barzh hom buhez. Red e oa kaoseal galleg, hag ouzhpenn galleg, saosneg, eveljust, hag ataw an dud a lavare deomp: “Mes petra reoc’h da ober gant ar brezhoneg sod-se? An dra-he ne jervij da nentra! Gwelloc’h veffe deoc’h kaoseal saosneg, n-eo ked brezhoneg eo!” hag all, hag all, hag all. An dra-he hon eus klewed na ped ha ped gwech! But it was tough, it was difficult to change languages with our parents. Because that was like telling them: “You brought us up in French; that’s not what we would have wanted; that wasn’t right.” So in a way, it was like blaming my mother and father for having taught us a language we did not like, or for having done something that was not right. And then, of course, it was difficult to change languages for all of us teenagers. Furthermore, for people like our parents, that generation, they thought Breton was bad, something crazy, worthless. They were ashamed of their language, of their culture: that was like being yokels. Their language was utterly worthless. On the other hand, speaking the language was an obstacle to getting ahead in our lives. You had to speak French, and not only French, but also English, of course, and people kept telling us: “What will you do with that useless Breton? It’s good for nothing! Better for you to speak English, not Breton!” etc. etc. etc. How many times did we not hear that!
Mes memestra edomp pennog a-walac’h, hag hon eus divised da genderc’hel ha da gaoseal hom yezh, hag an dra-he neus ked mired ouzhomp da gaoseal galleg, saosneg, na da ober studîoù, na da gaoud micherioù mad, na nentra. Med memestra, ’pad deg vloaz, pemzeg vloaz, ugent vloaz eo bed kaled cheñch yezh gant hom c’herent. Ewidomp-ni toud eo memestra. Hag e renkan lavared memestra, gant va zad, n-eo ked bed ken dîaes, peogwir va zad pa neus… er penn kentañ blije ked deżañ, tamm ’bed. “Ah! Brezhoneg!” Mes da c’houde, memestra, a-neubeudoù eo deud da dommã ouzh ar ffed ma gaoseenn brezhoneg, hag e lavare d’e vignoned: “Kaoseal a ra brezhoneg, med n-eo ked toud! N-eo ked kaoseal nemetken! Skrivã a c’hẘoar ober îe!” Hag an dra-he, ar ffed ma oann gouest da skrivã, a oa e-gis reĩ talvoudegezh d’ar yezh. Peogwir, ma ne viche bed nemed gerioù kaoseed, ne noa ked ar memes noblañss. Ur yezh a oa ur yezh ma oa skrived. Ha neuhe, ar ffed ma oann gouest da skrivã ar yezh a oa dreist, d’ar poent-se e oa mad kaoseal ar yezh. Still, we were pretty stubborn, and we decided to continue to speak our language, and that didn’t stop us from speaking French, English, or from doing studies, or from getting good jobs, or anything else. Even so, for ten, fifteen, twenty years, it was difficult to change languages with our parents. It was the same for all of us. I must say, all the same, that with my father, it wasn’t that difficult, because my father, when he… to begin with, he didn’t like it at all. “Ah! Breton!” But later on, even so, he gradually came to warm to the fact that I spoke Breton, and used to tell his friends: “She speaks Breton, but that’s not all! She doesn’t just speak! She also knows how to write it!” And that, the fact that I could write Breton, was like giving the language some value. Because if it had only been a question of spoken words, that wasn’t as noble. A language was a language if it was written. And so, the fact that I could write the language was great, then it was fine to speak the language.
Gant va mamm eo bed kaletoc’h. Va mamm – ah! – so bed nec’hed ataw. Ewiti, ar brezhoneg, an dra-he oa traoù kozh… Ffaote ked deżi klewed… Med, boñ, a-neubeudoù, ar bloawezhioù so tremened hag a-neubeudoù memestra neus en em lakeed da gaoseal ganin, nemed ’pad bloawezhioù ne gaosee ked ganin e brezhoneg war-eün, med pa veze ur strollad a dud, an dud a gaosee kenetrezo e brezhoneg, ma vichenn er strollad, e kaoseffe ganin e brezhoneg îe peogwir ne ouie ked, ne ouiche ked e oa o kaoseal ganin. Med pa vichemp just hom diw, diche poan da gaoseal ganin e brezhoneg; kentoc’h e z-ache e galleg. Ha bremañ e z-eomp gant an daou, brezhoneg, galleg, ra ked forzh, an eil pe egile. Ha memes e kav din he deus plijadur ’kaoseal brezhoneg ganin. Ssetu an dra-he so memestra… kaled eo bed; bloawezhioù neus kemered, med dedennus a-walac’h eo.With my mother it was more difficult. My mother ‒ah! ‒ was always worried. For her, Breton was old stuff… She didn’t want to hear… But, no matter, gradually, the years passed and little by little she nevertheless began to speak with me, but for years she wouldn’t speak to me directly in Breton, only when there was a group of people, speaking Breton among themselves, if I was in the group, she would speak to me in Breton because she didn’t know, she didn’t realize she was speaking to me. But when we were alone, she had a hard time speaking Breton; she preferred using French. And now we use both, Breton and French, either one, doesn’t matter. And I think she even likes speaking Breton to me. So that was… it was difficult; it took years, but it’s quite interesting.
Ha ’skoaz gant va zud-kozh, ar re-he neuhe eo bed… duzhtu meus cheñched yezh ganto, n-eus bed kudenn ebed da jeñch yezh gant va zud-kozh. Va zud-kozh a oa lorc’h en enno, memes, da glewed ahanon ’kaoseal brezhoneg. Ha va zad-kozh a so marwed – oh! tost kant vloaz edo – ha p’edo erru kozh-kozh e noa ankounac”heed toud an traoù noa ked eżom, hag e noa ankounac”heed ar galleg dreist-oll. Ssetu ar vugale vihan a c’helle kaoseal ganto. Ne jome nemed va breur ha me, peogwir hom c’houşined ne c’houient ked a vrezhoneg. Ha va breur ha me a c’helle kaoseal brezhoneg, ssetu neus gelled kaoseal ganeomp beteg ar ffin, hag an dra-he oa dreist-dreist, hag hon eus bed plijadur bominabl o kaoseal gant va zad-kozh beteg ffin e vuhez. Ssetu memestra neus serviched d’un dra bennâg.Whereas, with my grandparents, with them it was… I changed languages immediately with them, there was no problem changing languages with my grandparents. They were proud, even, to hear me speaking Breton. And my grandfather died ‒ oh! he was nearly 100 ‒ and when he grew very old, he forgot everything he didn’t need, especially French, he forgot. So he could speak to his grandchildren. There was only me and my brother, because our cousins didn’t know Breton. My brother and I could speak Breton, so he could speak to us right up to the end, and that was really great, and we had tremendous pleasure speaking with my grandfather until the end of his life. So it really did serve a purpose.
D’ar poent-se, ’gis meus lavared, e oa bed Alan Stivell, ouzhpenn Alan e oa bed ur bern strolladoù sonerezh, ur bern kanerien, Glenmor, Dan ar Bras hag all hag all, tud bruded hag a oa e-barzh ar c”hasetennoù, e-barzh an tele, ar re-he a oa tud war-wel, ssetu ni hon oa toud c’hẘant da veżã tost deuzh an dra-he. Ur bern tud deus en em lakeed da studîal brezhoneg, mond a raemp d’ar ffest-nos – ar ffest-nos so bed îe d’ar poent-se lakeed da dreĩ en-dro, peogwir ’pad ur pennad ne oa ked ken deus ar re-he. D’ar poent-se îe, gouelioù meur ’gis Gouelioù meur Kerne, Gouelioù meur an Oriant, toud an dra-he so bed adlañssed d’ar poent-se, hag eo deud da veżã un dra dreist ewid ar re yaouank. Ul lodenn vat deus ar re yaouank d’ar poent-se o deus en em lakeed da ober war-dro sevenadur Breizh hag ar yezh îe. Eveljust e vez ataw muioc’h a dud o h-ober war-dro ar sevenadur peogwir eo aessoc’h deskĩ ober sonerezh, deskĩ an dra-mañ ’n dra, deskĩ dañssal eged deskĩ ur yezh, peogwir ur yezh memestra eo red deskĩ da vad, hag e kemer amser hag e kemer youl. Med memestra ez eus bed kalsig a dud o h-en em lakad. An dra-he oa er bloawezhioù 1970. At that time, as I said, there was Alan Stivell, and in addition there were lots of music groups, lots of singers, Glenmor, Dan ar Bras and many others, famous people in the newspapers, on television, well in the public eye, so we all wanted to be close to that. Many people began to study Breton, we used to go to fest-noz ‒ the fest-noz started up again at that time, because they had disappeared for a while. At that time, too, major festivals, like the Fêtes de Cornouaille, the Lorient Festival, all of those started up around that time, and became a great thing for young people. A good part of young people at that time started getting involved in Breton culture and the language too. Of course, there were always more people involved in culture because it’s easier to learn to make music, learn this and that, learn to dance rather than learn the language, because a language you have to learn properly, and that takes time and willpower. Even so, quite a lot of people started to get involved. That was in the 1970s.
Goude se, er bloawezhioù 1980, ez eus bed ur sseurt ehan – e galleg e reomp deus an dra-he “le creux de la vague” – ar stourmerien a-benn ar ffin a so… n-eus ked bed klewed aneżo kement peogwir er bloawezhioù-se e oa… ar pezh a gonte a oa an arc’hant, bruderezh, traoù disheñvel, ne oant ked ken ar memes aergelc’h hag er bloawezhioù 1970. Er bloawezhioù 1970 e oa “le retour à la terre”, traoù a-sseurt-se; er bloawezhioù 1980 e oa e galleg “les années fric”, ha toud ar pezh a oa yezhoù rannvroel, brezhoneg eveljust, an dra-he oa ked deuzh ar c’his ken. Ssetu ar ffestoù-nos so aed un tammig war an diskenn. Med ’pad ar bloawezhioù-se îe, an dud o deus en em lakeed da zeskĩ ar yezh da vad, ar c”hentelioù-nos so bed digored forzh pegement. Ur bern tud o deus studîed sonerezh. Ssetu ahe eo bed bloawezhioù labour, kentoc’h.Later on, in the 1980s, there was kind of a pause ‒ in French we call it “le creux de la vague” [the trough of the wave] ‒ the activists, it seems… we didn’t hear so much from them because in those years it was… what counted was money, adverts, different things, it wasn’t the same atmosphere as in the 1970s. In the 1970s, it was “back to the land”, things like that; in the 1980s it was what people called in French “les années fric” [the money years], and everything regional, Breton of course, was no longer in fashion. So the fest-noz started declining a bit. But during those years, people began learning the language properly, plenty of evening classes opened. Lots of people studied music. So those were years of work, more like it.
Ha goude se eo bed deud ar bloawezhioù 1990, hag ahe z eus bed un eil “revival” er bloawezhioù 1990 gant adarre strolladoù all, hag ar sonerezh keltîeg so deud da veżã adarre “cool” kea, hag ar yezh îe, ssetu a-benn ar ffin eo gwagennoù e-gis-se, boñ, mareoù so eo deuzh ar c’his, mareoù so e kustum diskenn, hag e teu en-dro, hagë boñ, da c’houde c’houezomp ked, peogwir etretant ar yezh, memestra, a gendalc’h da ziskenn peogwir z-eus memestra forzh penaos neubeutoc’h-neubeutañ a dud hag a gaose brezhoneg. Ssetu, beteg-henn n-eo ked trawalac’h ’wid saveteĩ ar yezh.Then came the 1990s, and with them a second “revival” in the 1990s, with yet more groups, and Celtic music was “cool” once again, and the language, too, so in the end you have these waves, at times it’s fashionable, at other times it goes downhill, and then it comes back, and well, then we don’t know, because in the meantime, the language, all the same, continues to go downhill because there are nevertheless fewer and fewer people speaking Breton. So thus far, it hasn’t been enough to save the language.
Gant ar c”hembraeg, n-int ked ehaned james da zeskĩ ar yezh d’o bugale. E Breizh, er bloawezhioù… war-lerc’h ar bresel, azaleg ar bloawezhioù, ya, 1950, 1960, an dud so ehaned da zeskĩ brezhoneg d’o bugale. E Kembre, e Bro-Gembre, an dra-he n-eo ked en em gaved. War ar maes, war bord ar mor, ar besketaerien hag all, a so kendalc’hed da zeskĩ kembraeg d’o bugale en un doare naturel. Me so bed kelennoures e Bro-Gembre, hag an oll er skol a gaosee kembraeg. Nemed ar Saoson, hag e oa neubeud diouto. Mod-all, an oll a gaosee kembraeg hag e oa un dra naturel; ne oa ked ur skol dre gembraeg ez-officîel – ur skol normal edo – nemed an oll a gaosee kembraeg en un doare naturel. Ha me a rae skol e kembraeg îe. Ssetu an dra-he deja a so un diforc’h meur etre ar brezhoneg hag ar c”hembraeg. With Welsh, they never stopped teaching the language to their children. In Brittany, in the… after the war, from the, let’s say, 1950s, 1960s, people stopped teaching their children Breton. In Wales, that never really happened. In the countryside, by the sea, fishermen, etc. kept on teaching Welsh to their children in a natural fashion. I was a teacher in Wales, and everybody in the school spoke Welsh. Except for the few English kids. Otherwise, everybody spoke Welsh quite naturally; it wasn’t officially a Welsh-medium school, just an ordinary school, but everybody spoke Welsh naturally. And I taught in Welsh too. So that’s already a big difference between Breton and Welsh.
Da c’houde se, ar skolioù e yezh kembraeg, officîel neuhe, a so ganed e Bro-Gembre kals, kals a raog Breizh. Be’ z-eus bed ur radio e kembraeg, e kembraeg toud, azaleg, me joñj, ar bloawezhioù 1970. E Breizh ne oa en em gaved an dra-he nemed kals, kals war-lerc’h. Ur jadenn tele e kembraeg penn-da-benn o deus gonezed… e 1982 eo kroged S4C, hag an dra-he so bed gonezed er mare ma oa Maggie Thatcher e penn ar c’houarnamant, pezh n-eo ked nentra, memestra. Ssetu an dud o deus stourmed en un doare kaled, en un doare kreñv. Ahe z-eus bed ur bern tud o vond, aed d’an toull-bac’h, o vond er prison ablamour d’ar stourm. Hag int bed, ya, ssolud. Ssetu z-eus bed ar skol, ar radio, an tele. Eveljust, toud ar vuhez fforan e kembraeg e Bro-Gembre, a c’hell beżã bewed e kembraeg, ar pezh n-eo ked heñvel e Breizh. Ssetu toud an traeoù a so bed gwraed e Bro-Gembre kals a-raog ar pezh a so bed gwraed e Breizh.Later on, Welsh-medium schools, officially, were launched in Wales way before Brittany. There was an all-Welsh radio from, I think, the 1970s. In Brittany that came only much, much later. They obtained an all-Welsh television channel… S4C started up in 1982, and that was achieved at a time when Maggie was head of government, which is not nothing, all the same. So people fought hard and strong. Lots of people went to prison for the cause, and they were tough. That’s how they got schools, radio, television. Naturally all public life in Wales can be experienced through Welsh, unlike in Brittany. So all the things achieved in Wales were done long before what was done in Brittany.
Hag e Breizh eo bed gwraed an traoù un tammig re ziweżad ewid saveteĩ ar yezh er memes mod ma z-eo bed gwraed e Bro-Gembre. Hag e lavaran ataw, pemp ploaz war-nugent so, pe tregont vloaz so e oa pemp kant mil a dud o kaoseal kembraeg ha pemp kant mil a dud o kaoseal brezhoneg. Bremañ, tregont bloawezh war-lerc’h, e z-eus c’hwec’h kant mil a dud o kaoseal kembraeg – ssetu int deued a-benn da bignad en-dro – hag e Breizh e z eus bremañ neubeutoc’h eged daou c’hant mil. Ssetu hon eus kolled… p’o deus int-i gonezed kant mil a dud o kaoseal kembraeg, ni hon eus kolled tri c’hant – ouzhpenn tri c’hant mil hon eus kolled. Ssetu int-i a z-a e-gis-se [d’an nec’h] ha ni a z a e-gis-se [d’an traoñ]. Ha da va joñj, ar yezh keltîeg nemeti hag he deus ur jañss da gendelc’her dre ar c”hantved-mañ a so ar c”hembraeg. Peogwir ar brezhoneg, welan ked aneżañ o… erffin, bez’ e vo ataw tud o kaoseal brezhoneg, med pas evel yezh da gaoseal gant an oll dud. ’Skoaz ar c”hembraeg e z-eus c’hẘazh ur bern tud o kaoseal kembraeg, hag a vew e kembraeg penn-da-benn. Ar gouezeleg ahe, pe an iwerzhoneg n-eo ked kals gwelloc’h eged ar brezhoneg, ssetu… Din-me, da va joñj, n-eus nemed ar c”hembraeg e niche ur jañss da basseal.In Brittany, things were done a little too late to save the language in the same way as in Wales. And I always say, twenty-five, thirty years ago, there were 500,000 Welsh-speakers and 500,000 Breton-speakers. Now, thirty years later, there are 600,000 Welsh-speakers ‒ so they have managed to climb back up ‒ while in Brittany there are now fewer than 200,000. So we have lost… while they have gained 100,000 Welsh-speakers, we have lost 300,000, more than 300,000. So while they go [up], we go [down]. To my way of thinking, the only Celtic language that has a chance of continuing into this century is Welsh. Because Breton, I just can’t see it…a well, there will always be people speaking Breton, but not like a language to speak to everybody in. Whereas Welsh still has plenty of speakers, and people living completely in Welsh. Irish, now isn’t much better than Breton, so… For me, to my way of thinking, only Welsh has a chance of surviving.
Kals e meus choñjed er goulenn-se, e renkan lavared, hag e z-eus meur a respont a c’hellffenn reĩ. Bremañ n-eo ked aes da respont peogwir an traoù-se so traoù deus ar galon, peogwir on me deus ur ffamilh lec’h ma veze kaoseed brezhoneg. Ssetu dîaes eo din lavared petra viche kolled ewid ar bed, peogwir me ran ked forzh deus ar bed, e-keñver ar brezhoneg. Ar pezh a gont ewidon eo ar pezh meus bewed me gant va zud ha va zud en un doare ledan, pas nemetken va c’herent – an dud war-dro, Breizhis war-dro. Ma gollan an dra-he eo ur rann deus ouzhin a gollan. C’houezan ked penaos lavared dit, med un dra deus ar galon eo. Un dra émotionnel kenañ. C’houezan ked penaos lakad an dra-he e gerioù… ya ’gis koll ur rann diouzhin. Hag eveljust eo un dra poanius. Dîaes eo da lakad e gerioù, med un dra poanius eo.I have thought a lot about that matter, I must say, and there are many answers I could give. Now it is not easy to answer because those are things of the heart, because I am from a family where Breton was spoken. So it is difficult for me to say what would be lost to the world, because I don’t care about the world, with respect to Breton. What counts for me is what I have experienced with my parents and my folks in a broader sense, not only my parents - people around about, Bretons around about. If I lose that it is a part of myself I am losing. I don’t know how to tell you ‒ it is part of my heart, something highly emotional. I don’t know how to put it into words… yes, like losing a part of myself. And of course it is something painful. Difficult to put into words, but it is something painful.
Hag e rankan lavared memes, pa glewan, en derwezh a hirio, tud yaouank o kaoseal brezhoneg, boñ… kaoseal a reont en un doare disheñvel penn-da-benn deuzh an doare ma gaose va zud, da skouer, peogwir ar yezh a so cheñched ganto. N-eo ked ma viche lakeed gerioù galleg e-barzh, med ar poues-mouezh a so gall, an doare da sevel frasennoù a so disheñvel, a so tostoc’h deuzh ar galleg un tamm mat. Hag e vez lakeed ur bern gerioù newez – ni a ra “brezhoneg chimik” deus an dra-he. En un tu, on kontant tre e viche c’hẘazh tud yaouank o kaoseal ar yezh – hag e roan arc’hant da Diẘan da skouer beb mis – ’baoe c’houezan ked ped ha ped vloaz! – mes en un tu all, rankan lavared, n-on ked en va aes gant an dud-se, peogwir ar yezh-se ne lavar nentra din-me. Ar yezh-se n-eo ked tost deuzh va c’halon. Ar yezh-se n-eo ked liammed gant va amser-dremened, gant ar bed meus anavezed, gant ar garantez meus bed ewid an dud war-dro, ewid ar vro e-gis ma oa. Un dra a so kolled deja ahe.And I must even say, when I hear, nowadays, young people speaking Breton, well… they speak completely differently from the way my parents spoke, because the language has changed with them. Not that they put French words in, but the accent is French, the manner of speaking is different, much closer to French. And they use a lot of new words, which we call “chemical Breton”. On the one hand, I am very happy that there are still young people speaking the language ‒ and I give money to Diwan [Breton-language immersion schools] every month, for instance ‒ don’t know how many years I’ve been doing so! ‒ but on the other hand, I must say I don’t feel at ease with those people, because that language means nothing to me. That language is not close to my heart. That language is not linked to my past, to the world that I have known, to the love that I have had for the people around me, to the country as it was. Something has been lost there.
Ssetu moarvad ar re yaouank o deus ur mennozh all deus ar pezh a viche kolled ma viche kolled ar brezhoneg. Ewidon, va brezhoneg din-me a so kolled dija. Hag e meus kolled ur rann diouzhin. An dra-he so un dra perssonel kenañ, eveljust. Goude se, lavared petra viche kolled gant ar bed ma viche kolled ar brezhoneg… ah! eveljust e vez lavared e vez kolled un doare da joñjal, e vez kolled ur yezh, ha blablabla, an dra-he a c’houezomp toud. Med ma z-eomp dreist ar mennozh-se, e lavarffenn, ar pezh emomp o tifenn, ni, pa vezomp o tifenn ar brezhoneg, a so ar mennozh e z-eus ezom er bed deus liester – la diversité – ne c’hellomp ked oll bewã er memes doare, ne c’hellomp ked oll koms ar memes yezh, dribĩ ar memes boued, beżã gwisked er memes mod.So young people have a different idea of what would be lost if Breton were lost. For me, my kind of Breton is already lost. And I have lost a part of myself. That is something highly personal, of course. But then, to say what would be lost if Breton were lost… ah! of course people say that a way of thinking is lost with a language, and blablabla, we all know that. But if we go beyond that idea, I would say that what we are fighting for in fighting for Breton is the idea that the world needs diversity ‒ we can’t all live in the same way, we can’t all speak the same language, eat the same food, wear the same clothes.
Hag ar yezh a so un dra pouesus kenañ ewid delc’her da gaoud sevenadurioù disheñvel. Ur wech pa vez marwed ar yezh eo echu gant ar sevenadur en ur mod. Ha me meus aoun bominabl da weled an deiz ma vo kaoseed ur yezh nemetken dre ar bed, pe diw yezh pe teir yezh nemetken. An derwezh ma vo an oll o kaoseal ar memestra, o choñjal ar memestra, o tribĩ ar memestra, o veżã gwisked er memes mod, vo ked ezom da veżã echu memes ken, an dra-he a ra aoun din ez-perssonel, îe. Ssetu, din-me, ar stourm ewid saveteĩ ar brezhoneg a so ur stourm ewid saveteĩ îe ar yezhoù all er bed. Peb hini a renkche stourm ewid e yezh, ewid delc’her ar ffed ma z-eus sevenadurioù disheñvel, hag a so a-boues bominabl din-me.And language is very important for maintaining different cultures. Once a language dies, the culture is over in a way. And I am terribly afraid of seeing the day when a single language is spoken all over the world, or just two or three languages. The day when everybody speaks the same, thinks the same, eats the same, wears the same clothes, there won’t be any need to be finished any more, that really scares me personally. So for me, the fight to save Breton is a fight to save the other languages in the world. We should all fight for our own languages, to ensure that there are different cultures, which is terribly important for me.
Hag ataw e lavaran d’ar C’hallaoued a c’houlenn diganin: “Med, ar brezhoneg da betra? Ne jervich da nentra!” Ataw e lavaran: “Ne’n em rentoc’h ked kont? Un derwezh bennâg, matrehe eo ar galleg a veżo en arvar!” Ha me so sur, ar re a stourm hirio ewid ar brezhoneg a vo ar re a stourmo warc’hẘazh ewid ar galleg, ma viche ar galleg en arvar.And I always say to French people who ask me: “But what do you want Breton for? It’s not good for anything!” I always say: “Don’t you realize? It may be that it is French that will one day be under threat!” And I am certain that those who are today fighting for Breton will be those that will fight tomorrow for French if French should come to be under threat.
Komañssed on da stourm ewid ar yezh, ewid ar brezhoneg, ez-yaouank. Krennardes edonn c’hẘazh, war-dro pewarzeg vloaz meus en em lakeed da stourm, d’ober c’hẘariva e brezhoneg, ar c’hẘariva oa un dra pouesus din-me, hag e raenn an dra-he e brezhoneg, reĩ a raenn kentelioù brezhoneg, a-beb-sseurt traeoù a raenn. Hag eveljust e vewenn ar muiañ possubl e brezhoneg. Ssetu, anavezed edonn er c”horn-bro, ’lec’h ma vewenn ahe, e Goueled-Leon, ewid beżã ur stourmeures.I began fighting for the language, for Breton, very young. I was still a teenager, around fourteen, when I began to fight, to do Breton theatre; theatre was very important for me, and I used to do that in Breton, I gave Breton lessons, all sorts of things. And of course, I lived as much as possible in Breton. So I was well known, in the area where I lived, in western Leon, for being an activist.
Hag ar paotr a oa, an hini a oa e-karg deus an abadennoù radio ha tele e brezhoneg d’ar poent-se, Fañch Broudig, a noa gweled ahanon meur a wech hag e noa choñjed e raffenn matrehe un dra bennâg a-zoare gant ar radio. Ssetu noa kinniged din labourad ewid ar radio, hag er penn kentañ moa choñjed: “Oh, sapresti, me n-eus ked pres warnon labourad e-gis-se.” Ur wech erru er skol-veur e oann kentoc’h prest da riboulad kentoc’h eged da labourad. Ssetu d’ar poent kentañ meus nac’hed, hag a-benn ar ffin p’edonn triwec’h vloaz, meus assanted labourad ’wid ar radio peogwir moa eżom da c’honid va zamm buhez, ewid paëã va studîoù, kea. Hag on komañssed e-gis-se da labourad ’wid ar radio ’gis kasetenneres e brezhoneg, e-sser ober va studîoù. Deus ar radio on aed d’an tele. Boñ, etretant meus beached îe, deued en-dro d’ar radio, aed en-dro d’an tele, ’ffin, toud va buhez so passeed ’gis-se ’tre ar radio hag an tele.And the guy who was in charge of the radio and television programmes in Breton at the time, Fañch Broudig, saw me a number of times and thought I might be good on the radio. So he proposed that I should work for the radio, and to begin with I thought: “Oh my God, I’m in no hurry to work like that.” Once I got to university, I was more keen on going out on the town than on working. So at first I declined, and finally when I was eighteen years old, I agree to work for the radio because I needed to earn a living, to pay for my studies. And I began working for the radio as a Breton-language journalist, while continuing my studies. From the radio I went to television. And in the meantime I travelled, came back to the radio, went back to the television, and well, my whole life has been spent between radio and television.
Daoust hag an dra-he neus chikoured, daoust hag ar radio hag an tele o deus chikoured ar brezhoneg? Chikoured… ar mediaioù dre vras o deus chikoured ar yezh da nompas merwel ker buan, matrehe. Med ataw, ataw, ha beteg hirio e choñjan ar memestra, red e viche bed kals muioc’h a draoù e brezhoneg er radio hag en tele, ewid ma diche ur jañss ar yezh da veżã saveteed. Hagë siẘoazh, ar re a oa e penn an abadennoù brezhoneg d’ar poent-se, radio pe tele, ne oant ked stourmerien, n-o deus ked gwraed toud ar pezh o diche gelled ober ewid redîã ar stad gall da reĩ muioc’h a abadennoù e brezhoneg.Has that, have the radio and television helped Breton? Helped… the media in general have helped the language not to die so quickly, maybe. But still, still today I think the same thing: there should have been much more stuff in Breton on the radio and television, for the language to have a chance of being saved. And unfortunately, those who were in charge of the Breton programmes at the time, whether radio or television, were not activists; they did not do what they could have done to force the French State to allow more programmes in Breton.
Red viche bed deomp kaoud ur jadenn radio penn-da-benn e brezhoneg, red viche bed deomp kaoud ur jadenn tele e brezhoneg penn-da-benn, ewid kaoud ur jañss da jikour ar yezh e gwirionez. Bremañ eo re z̧iweżad; bremañ toud an traoù a basse dre internet. Ha dreist-oll, bremañ, ar re hag a gaose brezhoneg, al lodenn vrassañ diouto, a so ouzhpenn 60 vloaz, ssetu eo re z̧iweżad. ’Skoaz, tregont vloaz so e oa c’hẘazh abred a-walac’h ewid saveteĩ an traoù, ewid ober un dra bennâg, yantaw. Med n-eus ked bed a-walac’h a stourm, n-omp ked bed kreñv a-walac’h ewid chachã traoù digant ar stad gall e-gis m’o deus gwraed ar C”hembreis.We should have had an all-Breton radio programme, we should have had an all-Breton television programme in order to have any chance of saving the language in reality. Now it is too late; now everything takes place on the Internet. And especially, now, those who speak Breton are for the most part over 60 years old, so it is too late. Whereas, thirty years ago it was still early enough to save things, to do something at least. But there wasn’t enough of a fight, we weren’t strong enough to get things from the French State in the way the Welsh did.
Ya, farssus eo, n-eo ked nemetken gant brezhoneg, gant galleg, gant saosneg, gant kembraeg… da skouer meus studîed c’hẘariva amañ e New York e saosneg. Me soñj on gouest da c’hẘari e saosneg kals gwelloc’h eged e galleg. Din-me e oa un tamm mat aessoc’h c’hẘari e saosneg eged e galleg. Skrivã ran un tammig. Din-me eo aes skrivã barzhonîezh e brezhoneg, kals aessoc’h eged e galleg. Med skrivã pros a ran e galleg kals aessoc’h eged e brezhoneg. Ssetu, c’houezan ked perag, med ar spered a so organised en un doare ma vez gwraed certen traoù en ur certen yezh, ha traoù all en ur yezh all. Ya, ouezan ked penaos e vez… penaos displegã an dra-he, med me joñj eo gwir ’wid ul lodenn vat deus an dud. Ha matrehe eo îe peogwir on soupl kenañ gant ar yezhoù. Pa vewan, lakomp, pa vezan amañ, e vewan e saosneg, ssetu e huñvrean e saosneg. Pa vezan e Breizh, ma vewan va derwezh e brezhoneg, e huñvrean e brezhoneg. Ma vewan va derwezh e galleg, e huñvrean e galleg. Ssetu on soupl kenañ gant an dra-he.Yes, it’s funny, it isn’t only with Breton, with French, with English, with Welsh… for instance, I studied theatre here in New York in English. I think I can act in English much better than in French. For me it was a lot easier to act in English than in French. I write some. For me it is easy to write poetry in Breton, much easier than in French. But I write prose in French much more easily than in Breton. So I don’t know why, but my mind is organized in such a way that certain things are done in a certain language, and other things in another language. Yes, I don’t know how… how to explain it, but I think that is true for many, many people. And maybe because I am very flexible with languages. When I live here, I live in English, and I dream in English. When I’m in Brittany, if I have a day in Breton, I dream in Breton. If my day is in French, I dream in French. So I am very flexible that way.

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