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Instalación de aplicaciones
Download the program from the manufacturer web site and run it to install it in Windows. The installation wizard will pop upaparecera and will guide you through the installation process. Usually there are few problems.
In Lliurex it is also possible to download software straight from a web site. However the installation procedure that follows, is, to say the least, hazardous and uncertain. Installation wizards are rare in Linux, and the installation, usually entails the automatic download of packets and libraries needed by the program, which often are not compatible with the current system set up. A lot of things might fail:
Programs expect to find package and libraries in specific folders but some Linux distributions use different folders.
There can be dependencies problems. The program expect to find specific libraries in specific versions or superior. But these libraries have their own dependencies, and sometime the system doesn't allow them to be installed or updated because that might affect the consistency of the system dependencies tree. This is what will happen later in the activity 4 when you try to install Kleopatra
For all these reasons Lliurex maintains an applications repository
An applications repository is an Internet site where the user can download programs approved by the company who released the distribution. In this context, approved means that if the user has an updated Linux system, the repository programs will be able to be be installed and no problem is supposed to come up (aparecer)
This very concept is also used in Android Play Store and Apple App Store. Both are repositories where there's only software tested and considered harmlessinofensivo by Google and Apple.
Each Linux distribution has its own official repository maintained by a company or entity. This ensuresasegura that, as long as the system is correctly updated, there will be no problem installing programs from the official repository. In addition, we will be warned about any new updates for the software already installed.
In Android and Apple there is only a repository (the official one). In Linux by default, there will be an official repository in every distribution. But it will be possible to add or delete other repositories. For example, to install Spotify, it's necessary to add the Spotify maintained (repository.spotify.com) .
Ubuntu has an Official repository maintained by Canonical Ltd.(this company is the producer of Ubuntu)
LLiurex has two official repositories
The one maintained by the Conselleria de educación . This is the by default repository
The Canonical Ubuntu repository, already mentioned.
In this activity you are going to list the active repositories in your virtual machine
Select aplicaciones ->Accesorios-> Terminal
Write sudo nautilus, to open the file browser with super user privileges
Open the folder /etc/apt
Edit using gedit the file /etc/apt/sources.list, which contains the list of active repositories. Answer the first question in the quiz
In LLiurex the applications are made out of packets. To install a program is to install the packets it is made out of . There are several commands to install/uninstall packets from a terminal, but to make it in the windows environment we should use the program SYNAPTIC.
Select Aplicaciones→ Herramientas del sistema-> Synaptic gestor de paquestes
On the right upper panel in the Synatic main window, there is the list of packets in the current repository. On the left panel there is a list of categories. We are only interested in Main, multiverse, restricted, y universe.
Main – Packets supported by the official Ubuntu repository (the Canonical repository) which warrants that the software is freeware and compatible with an updated Ubuntu system
Restricted – Packets containing supported device controllers. These controllers can be used without technical problems but are only partially freeware. That means the programmer has established some boundslimites for the free use of the packet. For instance in Linux the drivers for HP printers are Restricted, they can be used for free, but the user must install a plug-in provided by HP
Universe -Freeware software supported by the Ubuntu community but not by Canonical
Multiverse - Software with copyright issues
Let's install a web pages editor called Bluegriffon. First to locate the Bluegriffon packets write "Bluegrif " in the text box filtro rápido
What kind of packet is Bluegriffon? To figure it out open a terminal and write the command shown below. You'll find somewhere in the answer some of these word: main, universe,restricted, multiverse showing the type of the packet. Answer the questions 2 and 3 in the Moodle Quiz
apt-cache policy bluegriffon
To install Blugriffon, double click in the Bluegriffon checkbox (the little square on the left of the Bluegriffon packet). This dialog opens
Synaptic is showing you the tree of packets which must be installed or updated before getting Bluegriffon working. Click in Marcar
To start the installation procedure click in the button aplicar (in the upper buttons bar).
This message pops up. It is a disclaimer, stating that Bluegriffon, is supported by the community and not by Canonical.
So installing this program may entail conllevar some problems. Given the fact we are working in a virtual machine, we can take that risk. Click in the button aplicar. The packets are installed and Bluegriffon will appear in the menu aplicaciones->Programación next time you restart LLiurex. You can check if it is installed out selecting aplicaciones->accesorios-> terminal and writing bluegriffon
Check out if SPOTIFY is available in the Lliurex official repository. Just write spotify in the text box filtro rápido. We learn there's nothing with that name in the respositories
MAKE A SCREEN CAPTURE OF YOUR COMPUTER DESKTOP SHOWING BLUEGRIFFON RUNNING IN THE VIRTUAL MACHINE, AND UPLOAD IT TO MOODLE
in Windows, the repository concept doesn't exist. You can download and install any program just running it. In Android there is an official repository (Play Store) constraining the app's you can install in your Android device. However you can install programs from other sources changing the default set up. Apple holds the more restrictive politic, only allowing in their products applications downloaded from their official repository (App store)
Linux/Ubuntu/LLiurex, uses an intermediate solution.
Every distribution has an official repository
You can add additional repositories to your repository list. Major companies maintain their own repositories for their applications. For example Spotify, Google and Skype have their own repositories for Spotify player, Google Chrome and Skype.
You can install packets independent from any repositor. This is also the case of Google chrome and Skype, which can be installed downloading a .deb package
In this activity we are going to install Spotify, using the Spotify repository. The first step is to install the Spotify public key. Spotify uses its private key to sign the files downloaded from its repository. Installing spotify public key in your computer, allows your to check the signing and verify that the files you have downloaded really come from the Spotify repository. Open a terminal and execute the following instruction (copy it from this document and then paste it in the terminal window)
sudo apt-key adv --keyserver hkp://keyserver.ubuntu.com:80 --recv-keys BBEBDCB318AD50EC6865090613B00F1FD2C19886 0DF731E45CE24F27EEEB1450EFDC8610341D9410
Now you must add the Spotify respository to your repository list. To add, delete or update the list of repositories, Lliurex uses the tool origenes de software.
Select Aplicaciones→Herramientas del sistema-> configuración del sistema
Click in Origenes de software
The default repository is the Lliurex repository in Conselleria de educación (Servidor principal). Click in Avanzadas. Remember that in the repository there are four software categories(Main, universe, restricted y multiverse) In this window you can enable or disabledeshabilitar downloading software from any of them.
Select the tab Otro software. This window shows the URL of the oficial LLliurex repository in the Conselleria d'Educació. As you can see, it also shows the enabledhabilitadas categories (main, universe, restricted and multiverse).
Let's add the Ubuntu official Repository. Click in afig and write the line shown below to add
deb http://repository.spotify.com stable non-free
http://repository.spotify.com stable non-free is the Ubuntu official repository maintained by Spotify, that is, the only place where you can download Spotify for Linux
Open Synaptic and look for the spotify packet. Now it is there. Install the packet spotify-client
Run Spotify. Take into account that the Spotify icon won't appear in the Aplicaciones->Sonido y video menu until you restart the virtual machine. Open a terminal window and execute spotify
UPLOAD TO MOODLE A SCREEN CAPTURE OF YOUR WHOLE DESKTOP SHOWING SPOTIFY RUNNING. Your username must be visible in the right down corner
Centro de software is a Lliurex tool which allows to install applications in a very easier and friendlier way than using SINAPTYC. C.S. only can be used for programs in the repository, and has some restrictions leading to more failures in the installation processes.
We are going to install Bos wars, game. This is going to be an example of failed installation. It won't work because of dependency breaks.
Select Aplicaciones-> añadir o quitar programas
Write bos war in the text box Buscar
Two results are shown. Select Bos war and sclick on the button instalar.
Make an screen capture showing the abiword window running in your desktop and upload it to Moodle. Remember that your user name must be visible in the right bottom corner
When installing a program using Sinaptic or the Software control center fails, the best alternative is to open a terminal and to install it using apt-get. This method provides better feedback about what went wrong in the installation process. Let's install kdenlive, a video editor
Open a terminal window selecting aplicaciones→accesorios→terminal or typing ctrl+alt+t
Write sudo apt-get install kdenlive You'll see the following error. Remember, to install a program the command must be executed in superuser mode. So, you must write sudo before the apt-get install kompozer command. Sudo means Superuser do. So run in the terminal sudo apt-get install kdenlive, then insert the admin password. The program will be installed
The Kdenliveicon will appear in the menu applications next time you reboot the virtual machine
Make an screen capture showing the Kdenlive running on your desktop and upload it to Moodle. Remember that your user name must be visible in the right bottom corner
Now we are going to uninstall a program called avogadro using the commands. sudo apt-get remove avogadro
Make an screen capture showing this window on your desktop and upload it to Moodle. Remember that your user name must be visiblo in the right bottom corner
An independent packet is a packet that doesn't belong to any repository. Google chrome is an example, you won't find it in the Lliurex official repository. However it's possible to download it straight from Google and install it using the tool Gdebi-gtk. (Notice that it might be alos installed adding the Google repository to the repository list as seen before). Gdebi is a terminal program to install .deb independent packets and it's graphic interface is gdebi-gtk
Visit in your browser the URL shown in the image and download the Google Chrome packet
Select the 64 bits version for debian-ubuntu and click on download
Save the packet in the descargas folder
Run sudo gdebi-gtk to start the Gdebi graphical application
Select the path /home/tu usuario/descargas. And inside it the packet google chrome You have just downloaded
Click in aceptar
Click in instalar el paquete
To start running Google chrome, select aplicaciones->internet->google chrome
Make an screen capture showing the GOOGLE CHROME and GDEBI-GTK running on your desktop and upload it to Moodle. Remember that your user name must be visiblo in the right bottom corner
Short url: http://multidict.net/cs/5988