R   S   Ta-, Te-   Th   Ti-Ty   U, V (vowel)   V U (consonant)   Wa-We   Wh   Wi-Wy   X   Y   Ȝ

The subdivision of T, U/V, and W, and the format of their headers, is as in the original. Note that Th includes Þ.

Introduction (separate file)

A-F (separate file)

G-Q (separate file)


Ra, sb. roe, deer, CM; see Roo.

Rabete, sb. a war-horse; rabett, HD; rabyghte, HD; rabetis, pl., WA.—Icel. rábítr, an Arabian steed; cp. Icel. rábitar, Arabs, see CV; cp. OF. arrabi (BH).

Rac, sb. driven vapour, S2; see Wrak.

Rachenteges, pl. chains, S; see Raken-teie.

Racke, v. to stretch rent to its full value, S3. Cp. ODu. racken, to rack, recken, to stretch, reach out.

Rad, adj. afraid, S2, SD, H, JD, B; redd, WA; rade, S2, H; radde, S2.—Icel. hræddr.

Rad, pt. s. rode, S2; see Riden.

Rad, adj. quick, S; rade, ready, S; see Raðe.

Radde, pt. s. advised, S2; see Reden.

Raddour, sb. violence, WA; see Reddour.

Rade, sb. road, S2; see Rode.

Radnesse, sb. terror, SD; radnes, B.

Radyous, adj. radiant, shining, S3; radious, S3; radius, S3.—Lat. radiosus; cp. F. radieux. See Ray.

Ræd, sb. advice, counsel, S; see Rede.

Ræh, adj. fierce, cruel, SD, S; reh, SD.—AS. hréoh.

Ræueden, pt. pl. spoiled, S; see Reuen.

Ræueres, sb. pl. robbers, S; see Reuere.

Rafte, pt. s. reft, robbed, C2; see Reuen.


Rage, sb. madness, S2.—AF. rage; Lat. rabiem.

Rage, v. to toy wantonly, C; ragid, pp., been wanton, WA.

Ragerie, sb. wantonness, CM.

Raght, pp. reached, S2; see Rechen.

Ragman, sb. a craven, the devil; rageman, PP; raggeman, PP.—Icel. ragr (for argr), craven, cowardly.

Ragman-roll, sb. the craven’s roll, a term in Scottish history, JD, ND; a game, HD; ragman’s rewe, a long jest, DG; ragmanrew, series, Manip. Hence ragman, a deed sealed, a papal bull, PP; ragemon, S2; rageman, a list, S3; ragman, a tedious story, JD; ragment, JD.—Cp. E. rigmarole.

Rair, v. to roar, S3; see Roren.

Raiss, pt. s. rose, S2; see Rysen.

Rake, sb. only in compounds, as in erend-rake, messenger, SD.—AS. ǽrend-raca; cp. Icel. eyrend-reki, so land-reki, a king, see CV (s.v. reki). See Ærnd-race.

Rake, v. to run, wander, go, S, S3, HD, PP, JD, B; rayke, H, S2; raik, WA, JD; reyke, JD; reke, HD; raykande, pr. p., S2.—Icel. reika, to wander, cp. Swed. raka, to run hastily (Rietz).

Rake, sb. course, way, WA; rakke, WA.

Rakel, adj. hasty, rash, CM, SkD (s.v. rake); rakle, CM; racle, CM; rackel, JD; rakyl, Manip.; rakehell, a bad fellow, Manip., ND.—Icel. reikull, wandering, unsettled. See above.

Raken, v. to scrape, diminish, to rake, S, Prompt.; raked, pp., C2.—Icel. raka, to scrape, to rake away.

Raken-teie, sb. chain; raketeie, S; raketeye, S; rachenteges, pl., S; rakenteis, HD.—AS. racentéah (Voc.); racente, a chain + téah, a tye. With racente, cp. Icel. rekendr, OHG. rahhinza. See Rekenthis.

Ram, sb. a ram, Prompt.—AS. ram (Voc.).

Ramage, adj. wild, CM, HD.—OF. ramage, wild (of a hawk), living in the branches (Cotg.); Late Lat. *ramaticum, from ramus, a branch.

Rammish, adj. strong-scented, C3, CM.

Ramne, sb. bramble, W2; ramyn, H; rammyn, H.—Lat. rhamnus (Vulg.); Gr. ῥάμνος (LXX).

Rampe, sb. an ill-conditioned woman, C2 (n), HD.

Rampen, v. to ramp, to seize or scratch with the paws, to rage, C2; raumpe, S2; rawmpide, pt. s., HD.—AF. raumper, OF. ramper, to clamber.

Rande, sb. a strip or slice of meat, S3, HD; rand, Cotg. (s.v. giste), ND.—AS. rand, a rim, edge; cp. Swed. rand, a strip, stripe, Icel. rönd (pl. randir).

Randoun, sb. force, impetuosity, SkD. Phr.: in a randoun, in a furious course, B; at randon, left to one’s own force, SkD.—OF. randon, ‘the swiftness and force of a strong and violent stream’ (Cotg.); from OTeut. *randa, a rim; cp. AS. rand. See above.

Ranke, adj. strong, luxuriant, rebellious, WA, Prompt.; rank, S3; ronk, S2; rang, HD.—AS. ranc; cp. Icel. rakkr (for rankr), straight, upright, bold.

Ransaken, v. to search, S, PP, C, H.—Icel. rannsaka, to search a house; Icel. rann: Goth. razn; cp. AS. ræsn a plank, a beam, see Sievers, 179.

Rap, sb. rope, S; see Rope.

Rap, pt. s. reaped, W; see Repen.

Rape, sb. haste, S, PP, Prompt.; rap, S2.—Icel. hrap, a falling down.

Rape, adj. hasty, G; rapest, superl., PP.

Rapeliche, adv. hastily, PP; rapely, G; rapelike, S; rapli, S2, G; rapelier, comp., PP.

Rapen, v. to hasten, S, PP, Prompt.; rappe, PP; rappe adoune, to hurry along, PP. Phr.: rape and renne, to seize and plunder, C3; rapen and rinen, C3 (n); rap and rend, HD; rap or rende, Palsg.; rap and run, HD; rap and ran, C3 (n); rap and reeve, C3 (n); rap and ree, C3 (n).—Icel. hrapa, to fall, rush headlong, hurry.

Rascall, sb. scrapings, refuse; rascaile, PP; rascayle, an animal not a beast of the chase, a hart not six years old, Prompt. (n); the common people, Prompt.; raskaille, the common herd, SkD; rascall, refuse beast, Palsg., ND; rascalles, pl., common sort of men, low fellows, villains, S3.—AF. rascaille (raskaylle, raskayle), a rabble; cp. F. racaille; from OF. rasquer, to scrape (Ducange); cp. OIt. rascare (Florio).

Rascall, adj. common, low, HD; 183 Comb.: rascall wine, tortivum vinum, Prompt. (n).

Rase, v. to run, to race, SD, S2; rese, S2; reysed, pp. ridden, C.—AS. rǽsan.

Rase, sb. a race, rush, SkD; ras, SkD, S2; rese, S2; res, SD, G (n); rees, attack, fit of passion, G.—AS. rǽs.

Rasen, v. to scrape, Prompt.—OF. raser; Late Lat. rasare, freq. of Lat. radere.

Rasour, sb. razor, C2, C, W2; rasure, H (Ps. 51. 2).—OF. rasoir; Late Lat. rasorium.

Raspen, v. to rasp, scrape, SkD; rospen, S.—OF. rasper; OHG. raspón, see Weigand.

Rasse, sb. a raised mound or eminence, a cairn of stones, S2; raise, HD. See Reysen.

Rat, pr. s. reads, PP; see Reden.

Raþ, sb. advice, S, SD.—Icel. ráð.

Rathe, v. to advise, HD. See above.

Raðe, adj. quick, swift, SD; rad, quick, S; rade, pl., S; raddere, comp. pl., S.—AS. hræð, hreð, also hræd, hred, quick, also rad. Cp. Chron. ann. 755 (Parker) with the Laud MS.

Rathe, adv. early, PP, S2, S3; quickly, S, S2; reaðe, S; rath, B; raðer, comp., sooner, rather, PP, S, S2, C2; redþer, S; raðest, superl., PP; raðeste, S.

Rathly, adv. quickly, S2; reaðliche, S; readliche, S; radeliche, HD; radely, S2; redliche, S.—AS. hræðlice.

Raton, sb. rat, PP, Cath.; ratoun, PP; ratones, pl., PP.

Ratoner, sb. rat-catcher, PP, Voc.; ratonere, PP.

Ratte, sb. rat, PP; rotte, Voc.; rattis, pl., PP.—AS. ræt (Voc.).

Ratten, v. to tear, SD.—Cp. MHG. ratzen, see Weigand (s.v. ratsche).

Rattes, sb. pl. rags, S; rats, pieces, shreds, HD.

Raughte, pt. s. reached, C2; see Rechen.

Raunson, v. to ransom, redeem, PP.

Raunsoun, sb. ransom, S2, C; raunson, S2; raunsun, S2; raunceoun, PP; ransoune, B.—AF. raunson, ranson, OF. raënson, reänçon; Lat. redemptionem.

Raueyn, sb. rapine, prey, W, PP; ravyne, S3; ravyn, Cath.; raueyns, pl., W2.—AF. ravine; Lat. rapina see BH, § 150.

Raueynour, sb. robber; raueinour, W; rauynour, W2.

Ravin, adj. ravenous, S3, Sh.

Ravin, v. to seize and devour greedily, Sh., WW.

Ravined, adj. ravenous, Sh.

Rauischen, v. to seize with violence, PP; ravish, WW; raueische, imp. pl., W2; rauyschiden, pt. pl., W2.—AF. ravir (pr. p. ravissant); Late Lat. *rapīre; Lat. rapere.

Rawe, sb. row, Cath.; raw, B, JD, SkD, S3, S2; rowe, SkD; rewe, C, G, W; rewis, pl., S3.—AS. ráwe, rǽwe.

Ray, sb. striped cloth, rella, pannus, Voc.; stragulum, Voc., Cath., HD; raye, S3; rayes, pl., S2, PP. Comb.: ray-cloth, striped cloth, W2, Prompt.—AF. drap de raye, cloth of ray, pl. reies, OF. rai, raid; Lat. radium (acc.).

Rayeres, sb. pl. sellers of ray, PP.

Rayid, adj. striped, Prompt.

Raykez, pr. s. roams, S2; raykande, pr. pt., advancing, S2. See Rake.

Rayl, sb. rail, Prompt.; raylle, Cath.—Cp. Low G. regel, G. riegel, a bolt; see Kluge.

Rayle, v. to rail, arrange in a row, S2; railed, pp., S2.

Rayle, sb. a kerchief, Palsg.; see Reȝel.

Raylle, v. to flow, S3; raile, ND; reilen, SD.

Raymen, v. to roam about, S2; see Romen.

Raynes, sb. fine linen of Rheims, WA.—So named from Rheims; see SkD (p. 815); cp. It. renso, fine flax (Diez, p. 393).

Read, sb. advice, S; see Rede.

Reade, adj. red, S; see Reed.

Readen, v. to advise, care for, S; see Reden.

Readi, adj. ready, S; see Redi.

Real, adj. real, a term in medieval philosophy; reall, S3.—OF. real; Schol. Lat. realem, from res.

Real, adj. royal, CM; riall, S3, PP, CM; ryall, S3, CM; ryell, S3; roial, CM; roialler, comp., S2, C3.—OF. real, AF. roial, reial; Lat. regalem.

Realte, sb. royalty, royal state, PP; reaulte, PP; reaute, PP; roialtee, C3.—AF. realte; Late Lat. regalitatem.

Realyche, adv. royally, S2; realy, S2; rially, CM.


Reame, sb. kingdom, S2; see Rewme.

Rearde, sb. voice, cry, S2; see Rerd.

Reaðe, adv. quickly, S; see Rathe.

Reaðliche, adv. quickly, S; see Rathly.

Reaume, sb. realm, kingdom, C2, S2; see Rewme.

Rebekke, sb. a kind of fiddle, SkD; see Rybybe.

Rebounden, v. to re-echo; rebownden, to sound again, reboare, Prompt.; rebounde, pt. s., S2.—AF. rebundir, to re-echo, cp. OF. bundir, to resound (Roland, 3119); inchoative verb, from Late Lat. bombitare.

Receyt, sb. receipt, recipe, retreat, Prompt., Manip.; receit, C3, WW, Manip., S3; receite, WW; reset, place of refuge, B.—AF. receite; Late Lat. recepta (Ducange).

Reche, sb. smoke, S3; see Reke.

Recheles, adj. careless, S, PP; reccheles, PP; retcheles, S3; rekkeles, S3; recchelees, S2, C2; rechlesse, S3.—AS. réceléas, also recceléas.

Rechelesnesse, sb. carelessness, PP; recchelesnes, PP.

Rechen, v. to care, reck, S, HD; reke, H; recche, S, HD, S2, C2; rekke, HD, C2; rekþ, pr. s., S; reches, S2; roȝte, pt. s., S; roughte, C2; roght, H; rohten, pl., S; roucht, pt. s., subj., S2.—AS. récan: OS. rókian; also, AS. *reccan.

Rechen, v. to explain, S; ræcchen, to relate, S; rechede, pt. s., S.—AS. reccan: OS. rekkian: OHG. rachjan, in Otfrid rachón.

Rechen, v. to reach, attain, SkD, PP; rauhte, pt. s., PP, S2; rauȝte, PP; raghte, PP; raughte, C2; raught, S3; raght, pp., S2.—AS. rǽcan (BT), also rǽcean, to get into one’s power, pt. s. rǽhte, see Sievers, 407.

Reclayme, v. to bring a hawk to the wrist by a call, C3; recleymyn, to make tame, Prompt.; recleymyd, pp. redomitus (used of hawks), Prompt.—OF. reclaimer, recleimer, reclamer; cp. AF. reclame, pp., reclaimed (as a falcon).

Recles, sb. incense, S; see Rekels.

Recluse, sb. a female anchorite, SkD; ‘ankyr, anachorita’ Prompt.—AF. reclus; recluse, a f. pp. from OF. reclure, to shut up; Late Lat. recludere.

Recluse, sb. convent, monastery, S3.—OF. recluse

Reclused, pp. shut up, withdrawn from the world, PP.

Recognisance, sb. an obligation binding one over to do some particular act, S3, SkD.—AF. reconisance, OF. recoignisance.

Recomand, v. to commend, S2, C3; recomaundiþ, PP.—OF. recommander, recumander.

Reconforte, v. to comfort, C; reconforted, pp., P.—OF. reconforter; cp. AF. recunforter.

Reconsyle, v. to recover, regain the possession of; reconsyled, pp., S2; recounselid, W.—AF. reconciler; Lat. reconciliare, to reconcile, re-establish, restore.

Record, sb. witness, S3, WW; recorde, PP.—AF. record, OF. recort, mention (Bartsch).

Recorde, v. to call to mind, C, PP; recorded, pt. pl. declared, PP.—OF. recorder; Late Lat. recordare; Lat. recordari.

Recoure, v. to recover, PP; recour, HD; recure, HD; recured, pp., S3.—AF. recoverer; OF. recourer, recouvrer; Lat. recuperare.

Recours, sb. recourse, C2.—AF. recours, soleill recours, sunset.

Recouerer, sb. restorer, saviour, S2.

Recrayed, pp. defeated, PP. See below.

Recreaunt, adj. recreant, defeated, CM, PP; recreant, PP.—AF. recreaunt, OF. recreänt, giving up the contest; Late Lat. recredentem.

Recueil, sb. a collection, compilation, DG; recuyell, S3; recule, HD.—OF. recueil (Cotg.).

Recule, v. to recoil, S3, Palsg., SkD, ND.—OF. reculer.

Reculyng, sb. recoiling, S3.

Recure, sb. recovery, S3.

Recure, v. to recover, HD; see Recoure.

Reddour, sb. violence, rigour, HD, Trevisa (3. 313); raddour, WA.—OF. rador, later roideur (Cotg.); from rade, roide; Lat. rigidum.

Rede, adj. red, C2; see Reed.

Rede, adj. ready, WA; redeliche, adv., PP; redeli, S2.—AS. (ge)rǽde: Goth. (ga)raids.

Rede, sb. advice, S, S2, S3, B; read, S; red, S, S2, B; reed, C2; reid, B; ræde, S; reade, S; rade, S; reades, pl. S.—AS. rǽd.


Redels, sb. riddle, SkD; redeles, PP; rydels, Cath.; rydel, Prompt.; riddle, Manip.

Reden, v. to give advice, to take counsel, S, S2, S3, C2, B; readen, S; raden, to succour, S; raddest, 2 pt. s., S; radde, pt. s., HD, S2, P; redden, pl., S; rad, pp., S2.—AS. (ge)rǽdan, pt. rǽdde, pp. gerǽd.

Reden, v. to read, S, C2, C3; raden, S; rat, pr. s., PP; reed, pt. s., PP; radden, pl., W; redden, W; radde, S2; rad, pp., S, S3, C3; red, S3, W. Der.: redunge, passage read, S.—AS. (ge)rǽdan.

-reden, suffix (used to form abstracts).—AS. -rǽden. See hat-reden, SkD; cun-reden, kindred, SkD; fer-reden, S; ȝe-fered, S; uelaȝ-rede, S2.

Redgownd, sb. a sickness of young children, scrophulus, Prompt.; reed gounde, Palsg.; radegoundes, pl., sores, PP.—ME. rede, red + gownde, a sore; AS. gund. Cp. E. red-gum.

Redi, adj. ready, S, W, PP; redy, C2; reddy, B; readi, S; rædiȝ, SD; rediliche, adv., PP, S2; redily, C3.

Redliche, adv. quickly, S; see Rathly.

Redoutable, adj. to be feared, redoubtable, SkD.

Redouten, v. to fear; redoubt, Cotg.—AF. reduter, OF. redouter; Lat. re + dubitare.

Redoutyng, sb. reverence, C.

Reduce, v. to bring back, S3, ND.—Lat. reducere.

Redymyte, pp. wreathed, crowned, S3.—Lat. redimitus, pp. of redimire.

Reed, sb. advice, C2; see Rede.

Reed, sb. reed, PP, Prompt.; reod, PP; rehed, W, W2; reheed, W2; reodes, pl., PP; redes, PP. Comb.: red-ȝerde, a reed-sceptre, S.—AS. hréod.

Reed, adj. red, C2, C3, S2, W2, PP; rede, C2, C3, S2, PP, B; reid, S3; reade, S.—AS. réad.

Reednesse, sb. redness, C3.

Rees, sb. fit of passion, G; see Rase.

Reest, adj. rancid (as flesh), Prompt.; reste, Cath.

Reestyn, v. to be rancid, Prompt.

Reeuell, sb. joy, revelry, PP; reuel, C, C2; rule, SPD; reueles, pl., revels, C2.—OF. revel, joy (Bartsch).

Refen, v. to roof in, S.—AS. (ge)hréfan. See Roof.

Reflac, sb. robbery, S; see Reuen.

Refreissche, v. to refresh, C; refreschyn, Prompt.—AF. refreschir.

Refreyne, sb. the burden of a song, literally, a repetition, CM; refraine, SkD.—OF. refrain, from refraindre, to repeat, to sing a song (see Constans); Lat. re + frangere.

Refreynen, v. to bridle, refrenare, W, Prompt.; refrayne, Manip.; refrain, WW.—OF. refrener, to bridle; Lat. refrenare (Vulg.).

Refute, sb. refuge, Prompt., W2; refuit, W2; refuyt, CM, HD, W2; refut, S2, C3; refutt, W2.—AF. refute; OF. refuite, re + fuite; Lat. fugita, pp. f. of fugere.

Regal, adj. as sb. kingly (power), S2.—AF. regal Lat. regalem. Cf. Real.

Regne, sb. rule, a kingdom, S2, C2, C3; rengne, S; ryngis, pl., S3.—AF. regne; Lat. regnum.

Regnen, v. to reign, C2, PP; ring, S3; ryngis, pr. pl., S3; reygned, pp., S2; rengned, S2.—AF. regner; Lat. regnare.

Regrate, v. to retail wares, HD.—OF. regrater, to mend, scour, trick up an old thing for sale (F. regratter, to bargain): It. rigattáre, to strive for the victory, to regrate, to sell by retail (Florio); Sp. regateár, ‘to huck in buying or selling’ (Minsheu). Cp. E. regatta; It. rigátta, a struggling for the mastery (Florio).

Regratere, sb. retail dealer, PP.—OF. regratier; cp. Low Lat. regratarium (Ducange).

Regratorie, sb. selling by retail, PP, S2; regraterye, PP.—OF. regraterie.

Regratour, sb. retail dealer, S2, PP.—AF. regratour.

Reguerdon, sb. reward, ND; reguerdoun, S2.—Cp. OF. reguerdonner, to guerdon abundantly (Cotg.).

Reguerdonment, sb. requital, DG.

Rehed, sb. reed, W, W2; see Reed.

Rehersaille, sb. rehearsal, C3.

Rehersen, v. to rehearse, enumerate, C2, S2, PP; rehercen, PP, C2; rehearse, WW, Sh.—AF. reherser, rehercer. See Herce.

Rehersyng, sb. rehearsal, C.

Reheten, v. to refresh, to cheer, H, CM, WA, HD, JD; reheyit, H; rehetid, pp., H.—OF. rehaitier (Bartsch), cp. OF. haitier, to make joyful, see BH, Diez, p. 609.


Rehetynge, sb. comfort, refreshing, H.

Reioysen, v. to rejoice, PP, C2; reioisshen, PP; reiosyng, pr. p., S3.—OF. resjoïss-, stem of resjoïssant, pr. p. of resjoïr, from re + esjoïr; Lat. ex + gaudēre (Late Lat. *gaudīre); see Constans, glossaire (prefix res-).

Reke, sb. vapour, smoke, S2, H (Ps. 67. 2), Cath.; reyk, B; reik, B; reche, S2.—AS. réc; cp. Icel. reykr: OTeut. *rauki-; see Kluge (s.v. rauch).

Rekels, sb. incense, Cath.; recles, S, S2. Comb.: recle-fat, incense-vessel, censer, S, SD.—AS. récels.

Reken, v. to smoke, Cath.—AS. récan.

Rekenen, v. to reckon up, to give account, C2, W, PP; rekne, S2, PP; rikenen, S, PP; rikynyd, pp., W2; y-rekened, C2. Cp. Du. rekenen.

Rekeninge, sb. reckoning, C3.

Rekenthis, sb. pl. chains, WA; rekanthes, WA.—AS. racente; cp. Icel. rekendr. Cf. Rakenteie.

Rekkeles, adj. careless, S3; see Recheles.

Rekken, v. to reck, care, C2; see Rechen.

Relenten, v. to melt, C3, Palsg., Prompt., SkD.—OF. ralentir (Cotg.).

Reles, sb. relaxation, forgiveness, also taste, odour, Prompt.; relees, Prompt. (n); relece, Prompt. Phr.: out of relees, without ceasing, C3.—AF. reles, relees, relais. See below.

Releschen, v. to relax, release; relecen, Prompt.; relesse, C3; releschand, pr. p., S3; relessed, pt. s., forgave, C2; relesed, pp., forgiven, PP; relessed, PP.—AF. relascher, relesser, releisser Lat. relaxare.

Releuen, v. to raise up again, to rise, PP, C3; relyue, S3; relieve, imp., take up again, S3.—AF. relever; Lat. releuare.

Relif, sb. what remains, a fragment taken up from the table; releef, Prompt.; relefe, Cath., SkD; reliefe, Cath. (n); relifs, pl., W, W2; relifes, W; relifis, W2; relyues, S2.—OF. relief, remainder (Bartsch), from reliev-, accented stem of relever, to raise up; Lat. releuāre.

Relikes, sb. pl. remains, H; relikis, W2.—AF. relikes; Lat. reliquias.

Relyen, v. to rally, call back, re-assemble, to take courage again, PP; rely, B; releyt, pt. s., B, S2; releit, pp., S2, B.—AF. relier, to rally (OF. ralier, in Bartsch); Lat. re + ligare, to bind.

Relyue, v. to rise, S3; relyued, pt. s., raised, S3; see Releuen.

Rem, sb. a kingdom, S2; reme, C; see Rewme.

Rem, sb. a cry, S; reames, pl., S.—AS. hréam, OS. hróm, Icel. rómr.

Reme, v. to cry, roar, S, PP; raum, HD; romy, H; romiand, pr. p., S2; rumyand, H; romyd, pt. s., H; remden, pl., S.—AS. hréman: OS. hrómian.

Remedie, sb. remedy, C2; remede, S3.—OF. remede, AF. remedie; Lat. remedium.

Remen, v. to give place, to quit, S, SD; roume, PP; rumen, SD; rimen, SD.—AS. rýman: OS. rúmian; cp. OFris. rêma, G. räumen, see Weigand. See Rowm.

Remenant, sb. remnant, C2, C3, S3; remenaunt, C, Prompt.; remanand, B; remelawnt, Prompt.; remlawnt, HD; remlin, Prompt. (n).—AF. remenant, OF. remanant, pr. p. of remanoir (Bartsch); Lat. remanēre.

Remlet, sb. remnant, HD, Prompt. (n). See above.

Remouyn, v. to remove, Prompt.; remeuen, S3, C3, Palsg., SkD.—AF. remoever (with change of conjugation) from OF. removoir; Lat. re + mouēre.

Remuen, v. to remove, CM, ND, SkD; remown, Prompt.; remwe, to depart, S3; remewed, pp., C2.—OF. remuër; Lat. re + mutare.

Renable, adj. eloquent, PP; see Resunable.

Renably, adv. reasonably, CM; runnably, HD. See above.

Rend, v. to make to run into a shape, to cast metal, melt, H; rind, rynde, to melt, as lard, &c., JD.—Icel. renna, to make to run, to pour (of a melted substance), causal of renna (rinna), to run. See Rennen.

Renden, v. to tear, PP; reendyn, Prompt.; rente, pt. s., S; rended, pp., S2; y-rent, C3.—ONorth. rendan, to cut or tear down (BT).

Renegat, sb. renegade, C3; runagate, WW.—OF. renegat; Late Lat. renegatum.

Renewlen, v. to renew, W; renule, W2; renewlid, pp., W; renulid, W2.—AF. renoveler; Late Lat. renovellare.

Reneye, v. to deny, reject, abandon, S2, PP, C2, CM.—OF. reneier; Late Lat. renegare.


Reng, sb. rank, SD; renges, pl., C; rengis, HD.—OF. reng, renc; cp. AF. renc, ring of people, rencs, ranks; OHG. hring, ring. See Ring.

Renk, sb. a man, PP; renke, PP; renkes, pl., men, creatures, PP, HD; renkkes, S2; reynkes, PP.—Icel. rekkr (for renkr), a man, used in poetry, also in law. Cp. AS. rinc, a warrior, a man (Grein). See Ranke.

Renne, v. See under Rapen.

Rennen, v. to run, SD, S, S2, S3, C2, W, PP; rin, S3; rynne, S3; ryn, S2; eornen, S, S2; ernen, S; urnen, S; ȝerne, S; ærneð, pr. pl., S; rynnys, S3; ron, pt. s., S2, PP; urnen, pl., S; eorn, S; iorne, pp., S; ronnen, PP; ronne, PP, C2; y-ronne, C2; y-ronnen, C; arnde, pt. s. (weak), S, SD; ernde, SD; ærnden, pl., SD.—AS. rinnan, pt. s. ran, pp. gerunnen, also irnan, yrnan, pt. s. arn, pl. urnon, pp. urnen.

Rennyng, sb. running, S3; rennyngis, pl., currents, streams, W2.

Renome, sb. renown, WW, S3; renoume, WW; renowme, WW. See below.

Renomee, sb. renown, WW; renoume, B.—OF. renomee; Late Lat. *renominatam.

Renoumed, adj. renowned, WW; renowmed, WW.—Cp. OF. renommé; see Constans.

Renoun, sb. renown, SkD; renowne, B.—AF. renoun, renun, OF. renon, renom; Lat. re + nomen; cp. Sp. renombre, renown (Minsheu).

Rente, sb. revenue, pay, reward, S, C2; rent, Prompt.; rentes, pl., S, PP, S2; rentis, PP.—AF. rente; Late Lat. *rendita; Lat. reddita; from OF. rendre; Lat. reddere.

Renten, v. to endow, PP.

Renule, v. to renew, W2; see Renewlen.

Reod, sb. a reed, PP; see Reed.

Reousien, v. to grieve, SD.—AS. hréowsian, see Sievers, 411. See Rewen.

Reowen, v. to grieve, vex, S; see Rewen.

Reowsunge, sb. repentance, SD.—AS. hréowsung.

Reowðe, sb. ruth, pity, S; see Rewðe.

Repair, sb. a place of resort, ND; repeir, return, S3.—OF. repaire.

Repairen, v. to go to, C2, C3; repeiring, pr. p., C2; raparyt, pt. pl., S3; reparit, pp., S2.—AF. repeirer, OF. repairier; Lat. repatriare, to return to one’s country.

Reparailen, v. to repair; reparaild, pp., H.—OF. repareiller; cp. apareillier, to prepare; from pareil, like; Late Lat. pariculum (Ducange).

Reparaylynge, sb. restoration, H.

Repe, sb. sheaf, manipulus, Voc., SD; reepe, SD; repis, pl., H.

Repen, v. to cut grain, PP, W, W2; ripen, S; rap, pt. s., W; repen, pl., S; ropen, PP; ropun, W; rope, W2.—OMerc. répan (rýpan, rípan) Goth. raupjan, to pluck; see Sievers, 159.

Repples, sb. pl. staves, cudgels (?), S.

Repreuable, adj. reprehensible, C3, W.

Repreue, v. to reprove, PP, Prompt., C3; repreued, pp., S2.—OF. repruever, reprover; Lat. reprŏbare.

Repreue, sb. reproof, C3; repreef, W.

Repreuynges, sb. pl. reproofs, S2.

Repromyssioun, sb. promise, W.—Lat. repromissionem (Vulg.).

Repugnen, v. to fight against, W2; to deny, PP.—Lat. repugnare.

Repylle-stok, sb. an implement for cleaning flax, Voc. See Ripple.

Rerage, sb. arrears, PP, HD; rerages, pl., PP. Cf. Arerage.

Rerd, sb. voice, sound, SD; rerid, WA; reorde, S; rorde, SD: rearde, S2; rurd, S2; rerde, dat., SD, HD.—AS. reord for reard, cp. OHG. rarta: Goth. razda; cp. Icel. rödd (gen. raddar).

Rerden, v. to speak, to sound; reordien, SD; rerdit, pt. pl., S3.—AS. reordian.

Reren, v. to make to rise, to rear, S2, B; rerde, pt. s., S, S2; rerid, pp., S2; rered, S2.—AS. rǽran: Goth. raisjan. See Rysen.

Resalgar, sb. realgar, red orpiment, C3, HD.—Sp. rejalgar, arsenic (Minsheu).

Rescouen, v. to rescue, SkD; rescowe, CM; reskew, B.—OF. rescou-, stem of rescouant, rescoant, pr. p. of rescorre. See below.

Rescous, sb. rescue, S3, C, SkD, CM.—OF. rescous (rescos) pp. of rescorre, to help, repair a damage, also resqueure (BH); Lat. re + excutere, to shake off.

Rese, sb. and v.; see Rase.


Resen, v. to shake, C; see Rusien.

Reset, sb. place of refuge, B; see Receyt.

Resownen, v. to resound; resowne, C; resouned, pt. s., C2.—OF. resoner; Lat. resonare.

Respyt, sb. respite, delay, leisure, C3, C; respyte, Prompt., Cath.; respit, B.—AF. respit; Late Lat. respectum (acc.), respite, prorogation (Ducange); a technical sense of Lat. respectus, consideration.

Rest, sb. rest; reste, S.—AS. rest; cp. OHG. resti (Tatian).

Resten, v. to rest, S.—AS. restan; cp. OHG. resten (Tatian).

Resun, sb. reason, talk, S2, PP, Prompt.; resoun, C2, S2, PP; reson, C2, PP, HD; reison, PP.—AF. resoun (reison, reasoun), also raisoun, reason, language; Lat. rationem.

Resunable, adj. reasonable, talkative, eloquent, Prompt.; resonable, PP; resnabyl, HD; renable, PP; runnable, PP. Notes (p. 23).—AF. resonable, OF. resnable, raisnable; Lat. rationabilem.

Retenaunce, sb. retinue, company, PP, HD.—AF. retenaunce; Late Lat. retinentia (Ducange).

Retenue, sb. retinue, suite, C2.—OF. retenuë, a retinue (Cotg.); Late Lat. retenuta (Ducange). In F. retenue means ‘reserve, modesty’, and has become obsolete in the English sense of a ‘suite’, a body of attendants.

Rethor, sb. orator, C, C2, Manip.—Late Lat. rhethor; Lat. rhetor; Gr. ῥήτωρ.

Rethoryke, sb. rhetoric, C2; retoryke, PP; retoryk, PP.—Lat. rhetorica.

Retten, v. to account, impute, C, H, Prompt., W; rectyn, Prompt.—AF. retter, reter, to accuse (pp. rette, rete); Lat. reputare see BH, § 153; by popular etymology Low Lat. rectare, ‘in jus vocare,’ rectatus, accused (Schmid). Cf. A-retten.

Reuful, adj. compassionate, S2; see Rewful.

Reule, sb. rule, PP, C; rewle, PP, S3; riwle, S; reuel, S2; reul, S2; riulen, pl., S.—AF. reule; Lat. regula; also OF. riule, rigle; Late Lat. rigula (for regula).

Reulen, v. to rule, PP, C; rewled, pt. s., S2.—AF. reuler; Lat. regulare.

Reuliche, adv. ruefully, S2; see Rewliche.

Reume, sb. kingdom; see Rewme.

Reue, sb. reeve, prefect, minister of state, steward, S, PP, Prompt.; reeve, C; reuen, pl., S. Comb., ref-schipe, reeveship, prefecture, S.—AS. (ge)réfa.

Reue, sb. clothing, spoil, plunder, SD; ræf, SD. Comb.: ref-lac, robbery, S, SD.—AS. réaf clothing, spoil; cp. Icel. rauf, spoil. Cf. Robe.

Reuel, sb. revel, C; see Reeuel.

Reuen, v. to rob, plunder, S, S2, S3; reaue, S2; rieue, S3; refand, pr. p., H; reuede, pt. s., S; rafte, C2; ræueden, pl., S: y-raft, pp., C.—AS. réafian, to despoil.

Reuere, sb. robber, SD; reuer, S3; ræueres, pl., S.—AS. réafere.

Reuing, sb. robbery, S; rauing, S.

Rewe, sb. row, C; rewis, pl., S3; see Rawe.

Rewel (?). Comb.; rewel boon, C2; rowel boon, CM; reuylle bone, C2 (n); ruelle bones, pl., HD, C2 (n); rewle stone, HD (p. 698).

Rewen, v. to rue, grieve, S, PP, S2, S3, C2; reowen, S; ruwyn, Prompt.; rewing, pr. p., S3; reouð, pr. s., S; rwez, S2; rewede, pt. s., S.—AS. hréowan; cp. OS. hrewan.

Rewere, sb. one who pities; reewere, S2.

Rewful, adj. piteous, S, S2, C3; reuful, S2; reowfule, pl., S.

Rewle, sb. rule, S2; see Reule.

Rewliche, adj. pitiable, PP; rewli, piteous, S; reweli, S; ruly, HD.—AS. hréowlic.

Rewliche, adv. piteously, S; reowliche, S; reuliche, S2; rewli, S; rwly, S2.—AS. hréowlice.

Rewlyngis, sb. pl. rough shoes, S3; see Riveling.

Rewme, sb. kingdom, S2, W, H, PP; realme, CM; reaume, C2, S2; reume, PP, S2; reame, S2, PP; reme, C, PP, Cath.; rem, S2; reum, H.—OF. reaume, AF. realme; Late Lat. *regalimen.

Rewðe, sb. ruth, pity, S, C2, C3, G; reowðe, S; rouðe, S2, G; reoðe, S; routh, S3; ruþe, S, S3; rawðe, S2; rewþes, pl., S2. See Rewen.

Rewðelese, adj. ruthless, C3; rewðles, PP.

Reyn, sb. rain, W2, PP, C2; rien, S; 189 rein, S; reyne, PP; reane, S3; ran, S3.—AS. regn (rén).

Reynen, v. to rain, PP; reinen, S; ranyt, pt. s., B.—AS. regnian (also rignan, rínan), see Sievers, 92.

Reysed, pp. ridden, C; see Rase.

Reysen, v. to raise, G, CM; reisen, W2, S; reas, S3.—Icel. reisa; cp. Goth. raisjan. See Risen, Reren.

Reȝel, sb. a garment, rail, SkD; rail, JD; raile, HD; rayle, a kerchief, Palsg., Voc.; rayles, pl., ND.—AS. hrægl (Voc.). Cf. Y-rayled.

Riall, adj. royal, CM, S3, PP; see Real.

Rially, adv. royally, CM; see Realyche.

Ribaud, sb. villain, worthless creature, ribald, PP; rybaud, PP; ribaude, the Evil One, PP; ribalde, PP; ribaut, S3; ribaudes, pl., sinners, PP; ribauz, S.—AF. ribald (pl. ribaus, ribaldes), OF. ribaud.

Ribaudie, sb. sin, S2, PP; ribald jesting, C3.—OF. ribaudie.

Ribaudour, sb. profligate fellow, PP; rybaudour, PP.

Ribaudrie, sb. ribaldry, PP; rybaudrie, PP, S3.

Riche, adj. powerful, rich, S; ryche, PP; ryke, PP; rice, S.—OF. riche.

Riche, sb. kingdom, S, S2; ryche, PP; rice, S; rike, H, S2.—AS. ríce.

Richelike, adv. richly, S; richeliche, S2.

Richen, v. to grow rich, PP; recheð, pr. pl., PP.

Richesse, sb. wealth, PP, S2, S3, C2; ritchesse, W; richeise, S; riches, WW; richesses, pl., costly articles, S2; ricchessis, WW; riȝtchessis, W.—OF. richese, AF. richesce.

Rict, adj. right, S; see Ryght.

Riden, v. to ride, S, S2; ridend, pr. p., S; rydinge, C3; ryd, imp., S; rit, pr. s., PP, C3; ritt, PP; ryt, PP, C; rad, pt. s., S2, B; rod, S, S2; rood, C2; riden, pl., S, C3, C; rade, S2; raid, B; riden, pp., C2; rad, B. Comb.: redyng-kyng, a kind of feudal retainer, PP; redyng-kynges, pl., PP.—AS. rídan, pt. s. rád, pl. ridon.

Ridere, sb. rider, S; rideres, pl., S; rideren, S.

Ridil, sb. a sieve, Prompt.; rydelle, Cath.; ryddel, ruddle, Cath. (n). Cf. Rydder.

Ridilen, v. to sift; rydelyn, Prompt.; ridile, W; ridlande, pr. p., S2. Phr.: riddlide watris = Lat. cribrans aquas (Vulg.), Cath. (n).

Rif, v. to rive, S2; see Ryuen.

Rift, sb. veil, curtain; rifft, S.—AS. rift; cp. Icel. ript, ripti.

Riften, v. eructare, H (Ps. 18. 2); rift, to belch, Manip.—Icel. rypta.

Riht, adj. and sb. right, S; see Ryght.

Rihten, v. to direct, correct, S; rigten, to set straight, S; riȝti, S2; rightid, pt. s., S2.—AS. rihtan.

Rihtlecen, v. to direct, set right, S; riȝtleche, S2, HD; ryȝtlokede, pp., S3.—AS. rihtlǽcan.

Rihtwis, adj. righteous, S; see Ryght.

Rike, sb. kingdom, S2; see Riche.

Rikenare, sb. reckoner, S.

Rikenen, v. to reckon, S, PP; see Rekenen.

Rin, v. to run, S3; see Rennen.

Ring, v. to reign, S3; see Regnen.

Riot, v. to revel, live dissolutely, gluttonously, WW; ryot, B; riotte, to be dissolute, luxuriare, Manip.

Riote, sb. uproar, SkD; riot, dissolute, luxurious living, WW; riotte, Manip.; ryot, depredation, B.—AF. riote (ryot), confusion, OF. rïote, quarrelling (Bartsch), also feasting (Ducange); cp. ODu. revot, ‘caterva nebulonum, luxuria’; see SkD.

Riotour, sb. rioter; rioter, glutton, WW; ryotoures, pl., C3.—AF. riotour, OF. riotheir (Ps. 36. 1).

Riotour, adj. luxurious, dissolute, WW.—Cp. Low Lat. riotosus (Ducange).

Ripe, adj. fit for reaping, mature, S; rype, C2.

Ripen, v. to become ripe, Prompt.; ripede, pt. s., S.—AS. rípian.

Ripen, v. to divide by tearing open, to rip, to search diligently, examine, HD, JD, SkD (s.v. rip); rype, Palsg.; riped, pt. s., S2.—Cp. Swed. repa, to scratch.

Ripple, sb. an instrument for ripping off the flax-seeds, JD. Comb.: repylle-stok, an implement for cleaning flax, Voc.

Ripplen, v. to ripple flax, JD; rypelen, SkD, Prompt.

Rishe, sb. rush, S3; see Rusche.

Rist, pr. s. riseth, rises, C3; see Rysen.

Rit, pr. s. rides, C3; see Riden.

Riuelic, adv. frequently, S2. See Ryfe.


Riveling, sb. a kind of shoe, SD, HD; rullion, JD; rewlyngis, pl., S3; rowlyngis, JD.—AS. rifelingas, ‘obstrigelli’ (Voc.); cp. AF. rivelinges, rivelins.

Rixan, v. to reign, S.—AS. rícsian (ríxian); cp. OHG. rîhhisôn (Tatian), see Sievers, 411. See Riche.

Rixlien, v. to reign, S. See above.

Riȝt, sb. right, justice, S2; see Ryght.

Ro, sb. quiet, S2; see Roo.

Robben, v. to plunder, spoil, rob, SkD, PP; robby, S2.—AF. robber; cp. It. robbare, to rob (Florio).

Robbeour, sb. robber, PP; robbour, PP.—AF. robeöur, OF. robeör; Low Lat. robatorem; cp. It. robbatore, robber (Florio).

Robe, sb. robe, PP; robes, pl., clothes, PP; robis, PP.—AF. robe; cp. It. róbba, gown, robe, goods (Florio).

Roberie, sb. robbery, S.—AF. roberie.

Roche, sb. rock, S, S3, C2, H; rooch, S2, W2. Comb.: roche-wall, rock-wall, S.—AF. roche.

Rod, pt. s. rode, S, S2; see Riden.

Rode, sb. a road, a riding, SkD, WW, Sh.; rade, S2, JD; roade, WW; roode, place where vessels ride at anchor, bitalassum, Prompt.—AS. rád.

Rode, sb. red complexion, C2, S2; see Rude.

Rody, adj. ruddy, S2, C2, PP; rodi, W.

Roggen, v. to shake, PP, HD, S2, Prompt.; rug, JD.—Icel. rugga, to rock a cradle.

Rohten, pt. pl. recked, S; see Rechen.

Roial, adj. royal, CM; see Real.

Roialtee, sb. royalty, C3; see Realte.

Rokke, sb. a distaff, Prompt., Cath., HD; rok, S3; roche, Manip.; rocks, pl., S3, HD.—Icel. rokkr.

Rokken, v. to rock, Prompt.; y-rokked, pp., S2.

Romblen, v. to ramble; romblynge, pr. p., PP.

Romen, v. to rove about, to ramble, wander, roam, C2, C3, PP, SkD; rame, HD; raymen, PP, S2; rowme, PP; rombe, PP. Cp. OS. rómón, OHG. râmên, to strive after (Otfrid).

Romere, sb. roamer, wanderer, PP; rowmer, PP; romares, pl., PP; romberis, PP.

Rome-renneres, sb. pl. agents at the court of Rome, PP.

Ron, pt. s. ran, S2; see Rennen.

Rong, pt. s. rang, C3; see Ryngen.

Roo, sb. roe, deer, S2, Prompt.; ro, S2; ra, JD; rays, pl., S3.—AS. ráh (Voc.), also ráha (Voc.), see Sievers, 117.

Roo, sb. rest, quiet, S2, HD; ro, HD, S2.—Icel. AS. rów: OHG. ruowa (G. ruhe).

Rood, pt. s. rode, C2; see Riden.

Roode, sb. the rood, cross, gallows, PP, G, Prompt.; rode, PP, S, S2, S3; rude, B; roid, B; rod, a rod, SkD. Phr.: rule the rod, to bear sway, NQ (6. 3. 169); Comb.: rode-tre, the cross, S2; rude evyn, eve of the Rood (Sept. 13), B.—AS. ród: OS. róda; cp. OHG. ruoda (G. rute).

Roof, sb. roof, W, Prompt.; rhof, SkD; roff, PP; roue, S3; rofe, PP; roouys, pl., W2.—AS. hróf.

Roomth, sb. room, space, ND. See Rowm.

Roomthie, adj. spacious, Cotg. (s.v. large).

Roomthsome, adj. spacious, DG.

Rop, sb. a rope, PP; rapes, pl., S.—AS. ráp; cp. Icel. reip.

Rope, pt. pl. reaped, W2; see Repen.

Ropere, sb. rope-maker or rope-seller, PP.

Roploch, adj. coarse, applied to woollen stuffs, JD; sb. coarse woollen cloth, S3 raplach, raplock, reploch, JD.

Roren, v. to roar, C, PP; roorin, Prompt.; rarin, H (Ps. 76. i); rar, B; rair, S3, B.—AS. rárian, to lament loudly, to bellow.

Ros, pt. s. rose, S, C2; see Rysen.

Rose, sb. rose, Prompt.; roose, W2; rois, S3; ross, S3 (11 a. 6); rosen, pl., SkD; roosis, W2. Comb.: rose-reed, red as a rose, C3.—OProv. rose; Lat. rosa; cp. AS. róse.

Rosen, v. to praise, reflex. to boast, H; roose, JD; ruse, JD; roysen, H; rees, JD.—Icel. hrósa, to praise, reflex. to boast, from hróðr, praise, fame.

Rospen, v. to scrape, S; see Raspen.

Rost, sb. roast (meat), PP; roste, PP. Phr.: rules the rost, takes the lead, domineers, S3, ND, NQ (6. 3. 170), HD (s.v. rule-stone, SPD (s.v. roast).—AF. rost, roste.

Roste, v. to roast, C; y-rosted, pp., S3.—OF. rostir.

Rote, sb. root, W2, PP, S2, C2; rot, S2; 191 roote, a term in astrology, S2, C3; foot, C2; rutis, pl., S3; rotes, PP.—Icel. rót; the same word as AS. wrót, snout, ‘bruncus;’ see Voc. (cp. wrótan, to grub up).

Rote, sb. a musical instrument, C, HD, ND, SkD; roote, HD.—AF. rote; OHG. hrota; cp. Low Lat. chrotta, OIr. crot (Windisch). Cf. Crowde.

Rote, v. to rot, H (Ps. 15. 10). Der.: rotyng, rotting, S2.—AS. rotian.

Rote, in phr. by rote; see Route.

Roten, adj. rotten, C3; rotyn, HD; rotun, W2; rottyn, B.—Cp. Icel. rotinn, perhaps a pp. form.

Roðer, sb. a paddle for rowing, used also as a rudder, S, S2; rothyr, Prompt.; rodyr, Voc., Prompt.; rudyr, oar, Cath.; rither, rudder, DG. See Rowen.

Roðer, sb. an ox, SD, HD; reðer, SD; reoðer, SD; reoðeren, pl., SD; reðeren, SD; roðeren, S3; roðeron, S2; riðeren, SD; ruðeren, SD. Phr.: rule the rother, ND. Comb.: rother-soyl, manure, HD, ND; retherne-tounge, the herb bugloss, HD.—AS. hreoðer: hríðer, OFris. hríðer: OHG. hrind (pl. hrindir); cp. G. rind.

Roþun, sb. a driving storm, S2.—Cp. Icel. róði, the wind, tempest.

Rouken, v. to lie close, cower down, CM, C, HD, JD.

Rouncle, v. to wrinkle, S2; see Runkylle.

Rouncy, sb. a horse, C, CM; rounsy, HD; rownsy, HD.—AF. runcin (Roland); cp. OF. roucin (F. roussin), Sp. rocin, whence rocinante, see Diez, p. 277.

Rounde, adj. round, PP.—AF. rounde, OF. reont, roont; Lat. rotundum (acc.).

Roundel, sb. a kind of ballad, C.—OF. rondel.

Roune, sb. a secret, a mystery, S2; rune, a secret, S; roun, song, S2; runen, pl., secret discourses, S; runes, S; rounes, S2.—AS. rún: OS. and Goth. rúna, a secret, counsel.

Rounen, v. to talk secretly, whisper, PP, C2; runien, S; rownen, H, PP, Cath., S3, C2, C3; rounden, PP, ND, Sh., SPD.—AS. rúnian, to whisper.

Rouning, sb. secret conference, S; rowning, B; runinge, S; rouninges, pl., S; ronenen, whisperings, S.

Roussat, sb. russet, S3; see Russet.

Route, sb. a rout, overthrow, troop, throng, company, S2, PP, S3, C2, C3; rout, S2; rowtes, pl., S2; rute, a route, rut, way, path, SkD. Phr.: by rote, C2, C3, SkD; by roote, C.—AF. route, rute, a band of men, a way, OF. rote; Late Lat. rupta, a broken mass of flying men, a defeat, a company in broken ranks, a disorderly array, a way broken through a country.

Route, v. to put to flight, Manip.; to assemble in a company, S2, C3.

Rouþe, sb. pity, S; see Rewðe.

Rouȝte, pt. s. recked, C2; see Rechen.

Roue, sb. roof, S3; see Roof.

Row, adj. rough, C3, SkD; rogh, SkD; roȝe, S2; rouch, S3, JD; ruh, SD.—AS. rúh (gen. rúwes); cp. G. rauh.

Rowen, v. to row, S, PP.—AS. rówan.

Rowle, v. to roll, S3; rele, S3; rollyn, Prompt.; rueled, pt. s., S2.—AF. rouler, roler; Late Lat. rotulare. Cf. Royle.

Rowm, sb. space, Prompt., B; rowme, cell, room, Prompt., S3, SkD; rome, S3.—AS. rúm, space, Goth. rums.

Rowme, adj. spacious, roomy, H; roume, S2.

Rowste, sb. voice, WA.—Icel. raust.

Rowt, sb. a stunning blow, S2, B; rout, B.

Rowte, sb. noise, snoring, CM.

Rowten, v. to make a great noise, to bellow, to snore, H, S2, S3, Prompt.; routen, B, CM, JD, SD; rowtande, pr. p., roaring, noisy, S2; routte, pt. s., PP; rutte, PP; routit, S2.—AS. hrútan, to snore.

Royle, v. to rove about, Manip.; roile, HD, PP; roule, PP. Notes (p. 94), CM.—OF. roiller, roller (Ducange), AF. rouler; Late Lat. rotulare. See Rowle.

Royle, sb. a stumbling horse, S3, PP. Notes (p. 94); oblongula mulier, Manip.

Royn, sb. scurf; as adj., rough, scurfy, S3.—OF. roigne (Cotg.); Lat. robiginem, rust, scab.

Roynish, adj. scabby, ND, Sh.; roinish, HD.

Royster, sb. a bully, swaggerer, saucy fellow, S3; roister, ND. Comb.: roister-doister, S3 (p. 262).—OF. rustre, royster, swaggerer (Cotg.), also roiste (Ducange), ruiste (BH), ruste; Lat. rusticum, a countryman.

Roȝe, adj. rough, S2; see Row.

Roȝte, pt. s. cared, S; see Rechen.

Ruddocke, sb. the robin redbreast, Manip.; ruddok, CM.


Rude, sb. redness, S; ruddes, pl., S3.—AS. rudu (Voc.).

Rude, adj. rough, undressed (of cloth) (= Lat. rudis = ἀγνάφος) S2; ruyd, B; roid, B.—OF. rude; Lat. rudem.

Rudelyche, adv. rudely, C; ruydly, B; roydly, B; rudly, B.

Ruffle, v. to bluster, to be noisy and turbulent, S3, Sh., ND; ruffelynge, pr. p., S3.—ODu. roffelen, to pander.

Ruffler, sb. a cheating bully, ND, HD.

Rug, sb. back, S; rugge, S, S2; see Rygge.

Ruggy, adj. rough, C, CM.—Cp. Swed. ruggig, rough, hairy. See Row.

Ruke, sb. a heap, S; ruck, JD; ruken, pl., S. Cp. OSwed. rúka, ‘acervus’.

Rukelen, v. to heap up, SD, S.

Rummeis, v. to bellow, S3; rummes, JD; rowmyss, JD; reimis, JD.—See SkD (s.v. rumble). The word rummeis is no doubt of Romance origin, an inchoative in -sco from Lat. *rumare, found in ad-rumare, to make a lowing noise; cp. OF. roumant, a murmur (Ducange).

Rummiss, sb. a loud, rattling, or rumbling noise, JD; reimis, JD; reemish, JD; rummage, an obstreperous din, JD.

Runagate, sb. renegade, WW; see Renegat.

Rune, sb. a secret, S; runen, pl. secret discourses, S; see Roune.

Runien, v. to discourse, S; see Rounen.

Runge, pt. pl. rang; see Ryngen.

Runkylle, sb. a wrinkle, Cath.; runkill, JD.—Cp. Dan. rynke.

Runkylle, v. to wrinkle, Cath.; runkle, JD; rouncle, S2; rouncled, pp., Cath(n); roncled, HD.—Cp. Swed. rynka.

Rurd, sb. cry, noise, S2; see Rerd.

Rusche, sb. rush, PP; rische, PP; resshe, PP; rishe, S3; rish, Manip.; ryshes, pl., S3.—AS. risce, resce (Voc.).

Rusien, v. to shake, SD, C (n); rese, C; resye, C (n); rused, pt. s., PP.—AS. hrysian, Goth. hrisjan.

Russet, adj. russet, PP, Prompt.; roussat, S3; russets, sb. pl., clothes of a russet colour, ND.—AF. russet, OF. rousset; cp. Low Lat. roussetum (Ducange).

Russetting, sb. coarse cloth of russet colour, HD; a kind of apple, ND.

Ruþe, sb. ruth, pity, S; see Rewthe.

Rutis, sb. pl. roots, S3; see Rote.

Rwly, adv. ruefully, S2; see Rewliche.

Rybybe, sb. a kind of fiddle, uetella, vitula, Voc., Prompt.; [ribibe, an old woman, CM, ND]; rebeke, Manip.; rebekke, rebeck, SkD; rebecke, ND.—It. ribebba (also ribecca); Arab. rabâba, a fiddle with one or two strings, Steingass, p. 397.

Rybybour, sb. a player on the ribibe, PP. See above.

Rydder, sb. a sieve, cribrum, Voc.—AS. hrider (Voc.). Cf. Ridil.

Rydel, sb. riddle, Prompt.; see Redels.

Ryfe, adj. abundant, numerous, frequent, openly known, S3; ryyf, Prompt.; ryff, PP; ryue, G.—Icel. rífr, munificent.

Ryfelen, v. to rob, plunder, Prompt. y-rifled, pp., PP.—OF. rifler (Cotg.).

Ryflowre, sb. robber, plunderer, Prompt.

Ryflynge, sb. plunder, PP.

Ryge, sb. stormy rain, S2; rig, HD.—Icel. hregg, storm and rain.

Rygge, sb. back, ridge, HD, PP; ryg, B, PP; rugge, S, PP, S2; rug, S; rugges, pl., HD; rigge, S, HD, G; rig, S2. Comb.: rygge-bon, spondile, Voc.; ryg-bone, spina, Voc., PP; rygboon, HD; riggebon, PP, G.—AS. hrycg; cp. OHG. ruggi (Otfrid).

Ryght, adv. exactly, very, PP; riht, right, close, S, S2; rihht, S; rihte, S; rict, S; rigt, S; riȝt, S, S2. Phr.: ryȝt now late, only lately, S2.

Ryght, adj. right, Prompt.; ryht, S2; riȝt, S2, W; rihte, S; rigte, S; riȝte, S; rict, S. Comb.: riȝt-ful, straight (= Lat. rectus), S2, W; ryȝtfol, S2; ryȝtuolle, S2; riȝtfulnesse, righteousness, W; riht-half, right side, S; riȝthalf, W2; riȝtnesse, justice, S2; riht-wis, righteous; S; richtwise, S; ryȝtwys, S2; rightwis, v. to justify, H; rihtwisnesse, righteousness, S; ryȝttwisnesse, S2; riȝtwisnesse, W; rightwisenes, S2; ryghtwisnesse, C3.—AS. riht.

Ryghte, sb. right, law, equity, Cath.; riȝt, S2; riȝte, S, S2; riȝtes, pl., S2; ryȝtez, gen. as adv., rightly, immediately, S2; riȝttes, S2. Phr.: to þe riȝttes, exactly, S2; at alle rightes, C; mid rihte, rightly, S; mid rihten, S; wiþþ rihhte, S.

Ryme, sb. hoar-frost, H, Prompt. Comb.: ryme-frost, hoar-frost, HD.—AS. hrím.

Ryme, sb. rime, verse, poetry, Prompt., 193 S, PP; rym, C2, C3; rime, S; rymes, pl., rimes, ballads, PP, C2. Phr.: on his rime, in his turn, S.—OF. rime, rym; OHG. rím, number; cp. AS. rím.

Rymen, v. to rime. Prompt., S3, C2, C3.—AF. rimer (rymer).

Ryming, sb. the art of riming, C2.

Rymthe, sb. room, leisure, Prompt. See Rowm.

Rynen, v. to touch, H. Der.: riner, the quoit that touches the mark, HD.—AS. hrínan, OS. hrínan; cp. OHG. rînan (Otfrid).

Rynge, sb. a circle, annulus, Prompt.; rynges, pl., PP; ringes, C3. Comb.: ring-leader, praesultor, Manip.; the person who opens a ball, HD, NQ (5. 1. 146); ryng-sangis, songs adapted for circular dances, S3.—AS. hring, Icel. hringr.

Ryngen, v. to ring, Prompt.; ringes, pr. pl., S; rong, pt. s., C3; runge, pl., S (19. 1273); i-runge, pp., S.—AS. ringan, pt. s. rang (pl. rungon), pp. rungen.

Ryngis, sb. pl. reigns, S3; see Regne.

Ryngis, pr. pl. reigns, S3; see Regnen.

Rys, sb. twig, branch, branches, S2, G (s.v. woode), CM; ris, S, CM; ryss, S3; ryse, Cath., S3. Comb.: rise-bushes, sticks cut for burning, DG.—AS. hrís; cp. Icel. hrís, G. reis.

Rysen, v. to rise, PP, C2; riss, B; risand, pr. p., S2; riseand, S2; ris, imp., S; rist, pr. s., C3; ros, pt. s., S, C2; roos, C2, W; raiss, S2, B; rass, B; risen, pl., W; rysen, W; rise, C2; rysed, pt. s. (weak), S2.—AS. rísan, pt. s. rás (pl. rison), pp. risen.

Ryshe, sb. rush, S3; see Rusche.

Rysp, sb. coarse grass, S3; risp, JD. Cp. G. rispe, see Weigand.

Ryue, sb. shore, S.—OF. rive; Lat. ripa.

Ryue, adj. abundant, G; see Ryfe.

Ryuel, sb. a wrinkle, SD.

Ryuelen, v. to wrinkle, HD, PP; ryueleden, pt. pl., PP; riueld, pp., S3.—Cp. AS. rifelede (Lat. rugosus), Eng. Studien, xi. 66; and Du. ruifelen.

Ryueling, sb. a wrinkling, W; ryuelynges, pl., wrinkles, W2.

Ryuen, v. to tear, rive, S2, C2, C3; rif, S2; ryfe, H.—Icel. rífa.

Ryuer, sb. river, PP; ryuere, Prompt., CM; riuere, S.—AF. rivere; Late Lat. riparia, seashore, bank, river. See Ryue.


Sa, so, as, S, S2; see Swa.

Saaf, adj. healed, S2; see Sauf.

Sabat, sb. sabbath, W; sabot, W; sabote, S2; sabothis, pl., S2.—Lat. sabbatum (Vulg.); Gr. σάββατον; Heb. shabbâth, rest, sabbath.

Sabeline, sb. the sable, also the fur of the sable, S; sablyne, S.—OF. sabeline, from sable; Russ. sobole; cp. G. zobel.

Sac, sb. crime, S2; see Sak.

Saccles, adj. guiltless, S2; see Sakles.

Sachel, sb. wallet, satchel, W, H (p. 144).—OF. sachel; Lat. saccellum (acc.), dimin. of saccus. See Sak.

Sacren, v. to consecrate, hallow, S, Prompt.; y-sacred, pp., S3.—OF. sacrer; Lat. sacrare.

Sacristane, sb. sacristan, Cath.; secristoun, Voc.; sexteyne, Prompt.; sexteyn, C2.—AF. secrestein, OF. sacristain, sexton (Cotg.); from Church Lat. sacrista (Voc.).

Sad, adj. sated, over full, weary, satisfied, serious, firm, sober, discreet, grave, PP, S2, S3, C, C2, C3, W; sead, S; sæd, S; sadde, adv., S3; sadder, comp., more soundly (of sleep), PP.—AS. sæd: OS. sad, sated; cp. OHG. sat (Tatian): Goth. saths; cp. Lat. satis; see Brugmann, § 109.

Sadel, sb. saddle, C3; sadyl, Prompt. Comb.: sadel-bowe, saddle-bow, S.—AS. sadol.

Sadelien, v. to saddle; sadelede, pt. s., S; sadeled, pp., G.—AS. sadelian.

Sadly, adv. seriously, S3, C, C2, C3; sadlier, comp., more heavily, PP; sadloker, more soundly, S2, PP.

Sadnes, sb. stedfastness, soberness, discreetness, S3, WA; sadnesse, C2, P, W, W2.

, sb. sea, S; see See.

Sæclian, v. to sicken; sæclede, pt. s., S. See Sek.

Sæd, adj. sated, S; see Sad.


Sæht, sæhte; see Saht, Sahte.

Sæhtleden, pt. pl. reconciled, S; see Sahtlien.

Særes, pl. shears, S; see Schere.

Særi, adj. sorry, S; see Sory.

Sætte, pt. s. set, S; see Setten.

Sæw, sb. juice, S; see Sewe.

Safferes, Safiris; see Saphir.

Saffron, v. to tinge with saffron, C3.

Saffroun, sb. saffron, C2; safrun, Prompt.; saffran, SkD; safforne, S3.—AF. saffran.

Safte, sb. pl. creatures, S; see Schaft.

Sag, Sagh, saw; see Seon.

Saghe, sb. saw, saying, H; see Sawe.

Saghtel, 1 p. pr. pl. become reconciled, S2; see Sahtlien.

Saht, adj. at peace, reconciled; sæht, S; sehte, S; saut, HD; sahhte, pl., S.—AS. sæht; cp. Icel. sáttr.

Sahte, sb. peace, reconciliation, S; sæhte, concord, S; saughte, HD.—Cp. Icel. sátt, concord.

Sahtlien, v. to reconcile, to be reconciled, S, SkD (s.v. settle); saȝtlen, SkD; sauȝtlen, SkD; saghtel, S2; sæhtlien, S; saȝtill, WA; saghetylle, HD.—AS. sahtlian.

Sahtling, sb. reconciliation; saȝtlyng, S2; sauȝtelyng, HD; saughtelynge, HD. See above.

Sahtnen, v. to reconcile, to be reconciled, S; sauhtne, PP; sauȝtne, P.

Sahtnesse, sb. peace, reconciliation, S; sehtnesse, S; seihtnesse, S.—AS. sahtnis.

Saiȝ, saw; see Seon.

Sak, sb. sack, sackcloth, PP, W2; sek, S2; seck, S; seckes, pl., S; sakkes, PP.—AS. sacc; Lat. saccus (Vulg.); Gr. σάκκος (LXX); Heb. saq, probably of Egyptian origin.

Sak, sb. guilt, crime, cause, sake, S2, B; sake, S; sac, S2; sakess, pl., crimes, S2.—Icel. sök (stem saka-), a cause, charge, guilt, crime: Goth. sakjo (= μάχη); cp. AS. sacu, OHG. sahha, ‘causa’ (Tatian).

Sakeð, pr. s. shakes, S; see Schaken.

Sakles, adj. guiltless, S2; sakless, B; saccles, S2; sacclesli, adv., guiltlessly, S2.—AS. sacléas; cp. Icel. saklauss.

Sal, sb. salt. Comb.: sal-armoniak, sal ammoniac, C3; sal-peter, saltpetre, C3; sal-preparat, prepared salt, C3; sal-tartre, salt of tartar, C3.—Lat. sal.

Salad, sb. helmet, CM; sallet, ND, Sh.; salettes, pl., RD (p. 1663).—OF. salade (Cotg.); cp. Low Lat. salada (Ducange), Sp. celada (Minsheu).

Sald, pt. s. sold, S2; see Sellen.

Sale, sb. hall, WA, S, HD.—Icel. salr; cp. AS. sæl (gen. sales).

Sale, sb. basket of willow-twigs for catching eels, etc., S3. See Salwe.

Salewis, sb. pl. willows, W2; see Salwe.

Salm, sb. psalm, S2, W2; psalme, H; psalmes, pl., PP; zalmes, S2.—Church Lat. psalmus (Vulg.); Gr. ψαλμός (LXX).

Salme, v. to sing psalms, S2.

Salt, sb. salt, Voc., S; sealte, dat., S2. Comb.: salt-cote, a salt-pit, salina, Voc.; salte-cote, Cath., Voc.—AS. sealt.

Salt, adj. salted, salt, salsus, SD; sealte, S2; salte, pl., C2.

Salue, v. to salute, C2, C3.—OF. saluer; Lat. salutare.

Saluyng, sb. salutation, C.

Salue, sb. salve, ointment, C2, PP; sallfe, H (p. 184).—AS. sealf; cp. G. salbe.

Salwe, sb. a kind of willow, a sallow, SkD, Voc.; salwhe, Prompt.; salghe, HD; salewis, pl., W2.—AS. sealh (Voc.): OHG. salahá; cp. Lat. salic-em, Ir. sail, Gr. ἑλίκη, W. helyg.

Sam . . . . sam, conj. whether . . . . or, S.

Same, adj. same, SkD; samyn, S3, B; sammyn, dat., S2, B.—Icel. samr.

Same, sb. shame, S; see Schame.

Samed, adv. together, SD; somed, S; somet, S.—AS. samod.

Samen, adv. together, PP, S, S2, H; samenn, S; samyn, H, B; sammyn, B.—Icel. saman; cp. OHG. saman (Tatian).

Samet, sb. a rich silk stuff, CM; samyte, SkD; samite, ND.—OF. samit; Late Lat. examitum; Late Gr. ἑξάμιτον; cp. G. samt, velvet, It. sciamito (Florio).

Samie, v. to be ashamed, S; see Schamien.

Samm-tale, adj. pl. in harmony, S.

Samnien, v. to unite; somnen, S; sammnesst, 2 pr. s., S; i-somned, pp., S; samned, S2; samened, S2; samynd, H.—AS. samnian.

Samon, sb. salmon, S2; see Saumon.

Sand, sb. sand, PP; see Sond.

Sand, sb. a gift, S2; see Sond.


Sanderbodes, sb. pl. messengers, S; see Sonder.

Sang, sb. song, S, S3; see Songe.

Sang, sb. blood. Comb.: sank royall, blood royal, S3 (14. 490).—OF. sanc, sang; Lat. sanguinem.

Sangwine, adj. blood-red, S3; sangwin, C; sangwane, blood colour (in heraldry), S3.—AF. sanguine; Lat. sanguineum.

Sans, prep. without, C3; sanz, S2, PP; saun, HD. Comb.: saun fail, without fail, HD.—OF. sans, senz; Lat. sine, see BH, § 50.

Sant, adj. and sb. holy, saint, S2; sante, S; sanct, B.—Lat. sanctus. Cf. Seint.

Sanyt, pt. s. crossed himself, S2; see Seynen.

Sape, sb. soap, S; see Soope.

Saphir, sb. sapphire; safiris, W (Apoc. 21. 19); saphires, pl., C2, PP; safferes, P.—AF. safir, saphire; Lat. sapphirum (acc.); Gr. σάπφειρος; Heb. sappîr.

Sapience, sb. Wisdom, i.e. the book so called, C2, P; wisdom, C3; sapiences, pl., kinds of intelligence, C3.—OF. sapience; Lat. sapientia.

Sar, Sare, Sair; see Sore.

Sarce, sb. sieve, Cath., Palsg.; searce, Cotg. (s.v. tamis); sarse, Cath. (n); sars, Cath. (n).—OF. sas, a searce (Cotg.), saas: Sp. cedázo (Minsheu); Lat. setaceum, from seta, hair on an animal. See Say.

Sarce, v. to sift, Palsg.; searse, Cath. (n).—OF. sasser.

Sari, adj. sorry, S; see Sory.

Sark, sb. shirt, S3; see Serk.

Sarmoun, sb. sermon, P; see Sermoun.

Satern, sb. Saturnus, SD. Comb.: Sateres-dai, Saturday, S; Saterdei, S; seterday, PP; sætterdæi, S; saterday, PP; seturday, PP.

Sattel, v. to subside, S2, S3; see Setlen.

Sauf, adj. safe, healed, made whole, S2, C3, P; sauff, S2; saf, S2; saaf, S2, W; sauf, prep., save, except, C; saue, C2, C3; saulfe, S3; saufliche, adv., safely, S2; saufly, C, C2, PP; sauely, H. Comb.: saulfe-garde, safe-keeping, S3; salfgard, S3.—AF. sauf, OF. salf; Lat. saluum.

Saugh, saw; see Seon.

Saughte, v. to be reconciled, G. See Saht.

Saule, sb. soul, S; sawl, S; saull, S3; saulen, pl., S; see Soule.

Saumon, sb. salmon, Voc.; salmond, B; samon, S2; samowne, Prompt.—OF. saumun, salmon; Lat. salmonem.

Saumplarie, sb. example, instructor, PP.

Saumple, sb. example, PP, W2, HD.

Saumpler, sb. exemplar, pattern, W.

Saundyuer, sb. the fatty substance floating on glass when it is red-hot in the furnace, S2; sawndevere, HD; sandiver, Cotg.—OF. suin de verre, the sweating of glass (Cotg.); suin or suint, from suinter, to sweat, as stones in moist weather; nasalised from OTeut. base SWIT, whence G. schwitzen, to sweat.

Sausefleme, sb. the scab, salsum flegma, C (p. 140). Der.: sauseflemed, adj., having pimples on the face, HD; sawceflem, pimpled, C, CM.—Late Lat. salsum flegma.

Saut, sb. assault, H, PP; saute, H; sawt, B.—OF. saut, a leap; Lat. saltum.

Saute, v. to leap, PP.—OF. sauter, saulter; Lat. saltare.

Sauter, sb. a musical instrument, psalter, psalms, S2; sawter, Voc.; sawtre, Voc.; sautre, W2; psauter, PP; psautere, H (p. 3). Comb.: sawtere-boke, Voc.—OF. sautier (Bartsch), psaultier; Church Lat. psalterium; Gr. ψαλτήριον.

Sauvacioun, sb. salvation, S2, S3, C3, P.—AF. salvacioun; Lat. salvationem.

Sauȝtne, v. become reconciled, P; see Sahtnen.

Saue, prep. save, C2; see Sauf.

Saueine, sb. savin, sabine, SkD; sewane, S3.—AS. safine; Lat. sabina; cp. OF. sabine, savinier, the savine-tree (Cotg.).

Sauetè, sb. safety, PP; sauyte, S2; safte, P.—AF. sauvete; Late Lat. salvitatem.

Save, sb. the herb sage, C; see Sawge.

Savour, sb. savour, smell, pleasantness, pleasure, P, C2, C3, WW.—OF. saveur; Lat. saporem.

Savouren, v. to have a pleasant taste, to give an appetite to, S2, P; sauere (= Lat. sapere), to have a taste, perception, W; sauer, S2, WW, CM.—AF. savourer.

Sawe, sb. a saw, saying, S2, C, C3; saghe, H; saghes, pl., H; saghs, S2; sawes, S2, P.—AS. sagu.

Sawe, v. to sow, S; see Sowen.

Sawge, sb. the herb sage, Prompt.; salge, Cath.; save, C, HD.—OF. sauge; Lat. saluia; cp. Low Lat. salgia (Cath.).


Say, pt. s. saw; see Seon.

Say, sb. silk, WA.—OF. seie; Sp. seda; Lat. sēta, bristle. Cf. Sarce.

Sayne, sb. a net, WA.—OF. seine; Lat. sagēna; Gr. σαγήνη; cp. OIr. sén.

Sayntuaryes, sb. pl. relics, S3; see Seintuarie.

Saȝ, pt. s. saw; see Seon.

Saȝtled, pt. s. settled, S2; see Setlen.

Saȝtlyng, sb. reconciliation, S2; see Sahtling.

Sc-. For many words beginning with sc-, see Sch-.

Scæ, she, S; see Sheo.

Scærp, adj. sharp, S; see Scharp.

Scandlic, adj. disgraceful, S. See Schonde.

Scaplorye, sb. a kind of scarf, Prompt.; scaplory, scapelory, Cath., S; scaplorey, Voc.; scapelary, Prompt.; chapolory, S3; scaplery, Cath. (n); scapularye, Cath. (n); scopelarie, Cath. (n).—Church Lat. scapulare, from scapula, shoulder (Vulg.).

Scarl, sb. scare-crow, bugbear, HD; scarle, Cath.

Scarren, v. to scare, SD; see Skerren.

Scars, adj. scarce, SD; scarce, Prompt.; scarsliche, adv., scarcely, SD; scarslych, sparingly, S2; scarsly, parsimoniously, C, Prompt.; scarseli, W.—AF. escars; Late Lat. excarpsum.

Scarsetè, sb. scarcity, C3; scarste, S2.—OF. scharseté (Ducange).

Scarsnesse, sb. scarceness, Prompt.

Scarth, sb. sherd, H; skarth, JD.—Icel. skarð. Cf. Scherde.

Scat, sb. treasure, S.—AS. sceat: OS. skat; cp. OHG. scaz (Tatian).

Scaðe, sb. harm, S, C2; schathe, S2; skaith, S3; skathe, C, G; scath, WA; skath, H.—Icel. skaði; cp. OHG. scado (Otfrid).

Scean, pt. s. shone, S; see Schynen.

Sceappend, sb. creator, S; see Scheppende.

Scel, shall, S; see Schal.

Sceolde, should, S; see Scholde.

Scewie, imp. pl. let us see, S; see Schewen.

Schade, sb. shade, shadow, WA; schadowe, Prompt.; schadewe, S; shadwe, C2, C3. Phr.: in ssede, darkly, S2.—AS. sceadu (stem sceadwa): OS. skado; cp. OHG. scato (Tatian).

Schaft, sb. shape, make, form, creature, S, S2; schafte, PP; shafte, PP; scepþe, S2; schafte, pl., S; safte, S; ssepþes, S2.—AS. (ge)sceaft.

Schakaris, sb. pl. drops of dew hanging down, S3.

Schaken, v. to shake, Prompt.; ssake, S2; sakeð, pr. s., S; schok, pt. s., S, S2; schake, pp., C.—AS. sceacan, pt. scóc, pp. scacen.

Schal, 1, 3 pt. pr. s. shall, S; sceal, S; scal, S; sceol, S; scel, S; schel, S2; ssel, S2; shal, S, S2, C2, C3; sal, S, S2; sall, H; sale, S2; salt, 2 pr. s., S2; ssalt, S2; schulen, pl., S; schullen, S. S2; schulle, S; schulleþ, S; schule, S; sculen, S; schuln, C; scullen, S; scule, S; shulen, S; shullen, C3; shulle, S; shul, S2, C3; shule, S2; sulen, S; sule, S; sullen, S; sulle, S; scholle, S2; sholen, S; shole, S; ssolle, S2; solle, S; salle, S2; schaltow, saltou, shalt thou, S2. Cf. Scholde.

Schalk, sb. servant, man, WA; schalke, S2.—AS. scealc (Grein): Goth. skalks; cp. OHG. scalc (Tatian).

Schame, sb. shame, S, PP; schome, S; shome, S2; scheome, S; scome, S; ssame, S2; same, S.—AS. sceamu.

Schamefast, adj. modest, C.

Schamefastnesse, sb. modesty, C, W.

Schamelich, adj. shameful; schomelich, S, S2; shameliche, adv., S; shamlic, S2.

Schamien, v. to shame, to be ashamed, S, W; shame, S2; ssame, S2; samie, S.

Schamylle, sb. stool, Cath.; shamel (= Lat. scabellum), H; schamel, Cath. (n); schambylle, macellum, Cath.; shambles, pl., Sh.—AS. scamel (Mt. 5. 35), scamol, sceamul (Voc.); Lat. scamellum; cp. OF. scamel (Ps. 109. 1), also Lat. scabellum, from stem scam- in scamnum. See NQ (5. 5. 261).

Schap, sb. shape, PP, C, W2; shap, S, C2; schapp, S2; schappe, PP; scheape, S; shappe, PP.—AS. (ge)sceap.

Schapen, v. to form, create, ordain, refl. to dispose oneself, endeavour, S, C, PP, S3; shape, PP; schop, pt. s., S, S2; shop, S; shoop, C2; scop, S; sop, S; schope, S2; shope, S2, H; schapen, pp., C; shapen, S, S2, C2; shape, C2; y-schape, S2; yshapen, C2; yshape, C3.—AS. sceapan, pt. scóp (scéop), pp. sceapen.

Schapien, v. to create, form; schepien, 197 S; schapide, pt. s., W; shaped, pp., S. Cf. Scheppen.

Schaply, adj. fit, C.

Schaplynesse, sb. beauty, W2.

Scharp, adj. sharp; scharpe, S; scherpe, S; scærp, S; scharpe, adv., S; sharpe, C2.—AS. scearp.

Scharpin, v. to make sharp; scherpit, pt. s., S3.

Schaven, v. to shave, scrape, PP; schauyde, pt. s., W2; shauen, pp., S; schave, C; y-schaue, S2; y-shaue, C2; ischaven, S. Der.: shauing, a thin slice, C3.—AS. sceafan, pt. scóf, pp. scafen.

Schawe, sb. a shaw, wood, grove, S2, G, S3, HD, Cath.; schaw, WA, B; schowe, HD; shawes, pl., PP.—AS. scaga; cp. Icel. skógr.

Schawen, v. to shew, S, S2, S3; see Schewen.

Schawere, sb. a veil, S; scawere, mirror, S; sseawere, S2; schewere, WA.

Schawles, sb. scare-crow, an appearance, S; schewelles, ND; sewell, HD.—From the same root as G. scheuche. See Schey.

Sche, she, C; see Sheo.

Scheawen, v. to appear, S2; see Schewen.

Schede, sb. the parting of a man’s hair, Cath.; see Schode.

Scheden, v. to separate, to part the hair, to shed, pour, S, PP, W2; shædenn, S; sheden, PP; shode, HD; schedde, pt. s., PP; shedde, C2; shadde, C2; ssedde, S2; i-sched, pp., S; shad, S.—AS. scéadan, pt. scéod, pp. scéaden; cp. OHG. skeidan (Tatian), G. scheiten.

Scheef, sb. sheaf, Prompt.; shef, C; schof, Prompt.; scheffe, Prompt.; shæfess, pl., S.—AS. scéaf.

Scheep, sb. sheep, Prompt.; shep, S; schepe, Cath.; pl., S2; shep, S; sep, S.—AS. scéap.

Scheep, sb. shepherd, S2, PP; shepe, P; shep, PP; chep, PP, Notes (p. 458).—AS. *scéapa (scépa).

Scheld, sb. shield, S, C, W2; sheld, S; sseld, S2; scheeld, C; shel, S; scheelde, Prompt.—AS. scield, scyld.

Schelden, v. to shield, PP; schilden, S, G; shilden, C2; silden, S.

Schelder, sb. shielder, S2.

Scheltroun, sb. shelter, defence, a strong shield, also a body of troops, battalion, PP; scheltron, Prompt.; scheltrone, acies, Voc.; scheltrom, PP, S2; scheltrun, W2; shultrom, PP; schiltrum, B; childrome, B; jeltron, shield, shelter, SkD (s.v. shelter).—AS. scild-truma, a shield-troop (Leo); cp. AF. chiltron.

Schench, sb. draught of beer or wine, SD; senche, S; schenche, dat., S.—Icel. skenkr, the serving of drink.

Schenchen, v. to pour out beer or wine, to offer a good thing, S, CM; shenchen, S2; schenkyn, Prompt.—AS. scencan, to pour out drink (Grein); cp. OHG. scenken (Otfrid), Icel. skenkja; from AS. sceanc, shank, a hollow bone used for drawing off liquor. See SkD (s.v. nunchion).

Schenden, v. to harm, ruin, disgrace, PP, S, S2, W2, S3; shenden, PP, C2, H; scenden, S; ssende, S2; sende, S; shende, pt. s., S; schente, S; schent, pp., S, S2, C, W2, G; shent, PP, C2.—AS. scendan. See Schonde.

Schendful, adj. disgraceful, SD; schendfulliche, adv., PP; shendfulliche, PP.

Schendlac, sb. disgrace, S.

Schendschip, sb. disgrace, hurt, ruin; schenschip, W, W2; schenship, H; schenshepe, PP.

Schene, adj. bright, S, S2, S3, C; scene, S2; scheyn, S3; shene, C2, S3; sheene, S2, S3, C3; schenre, comp., S.—AS. scéne: OS. skóni; cp. OHG. scóni (Otfrid).

Scheome, sb. shame, S; see Schame.

Scheot, pr. s. shoots, S; see Scheten.

Schepieð, imp. pl. shape, S; see Schapien.

Schepne, sb. shed, stall, stable, C; schepyn, bostar, Voc.; shippen, HD; schyppune, Voc.; shepnes, pl., CM.—AS. scypen, ‘bovile’ (Voc.). Cf. Schoppe.

Scheppen, v. to create, form, SD; schupte, pt. s., S.—AS. sceppan, scyppan.

Scheppende, sb. creator; sceppende, S; sceppend, S; sceappend, S; sheppendes, pl., S.

Scheppere, sb. creator; schuppere, S; shepper, PP.—Cp. OHG. sceppheri (Otfrid), G. schöpfer.

Scherald, adj. cut by the plough-share, S3.


Scherde, sb. sherd, Prompt.

Schere, sb. shears, C; shere, C2, PP; særes, pl., S.

Schere, v. to shear, S3, S2; schæren, S; sheren, to reap, cut, S, C2; scorn, pp., S2; soren, S; y-schore, S2.—AS. sceran (scieran), pt. scear (pl. scéaron), pp. scoren.

Schere, adj. pure, bright, clear, SD; skere, adv., SD; sker, clean, entirely, S. Comb.: Shere Þursdai, the Thursday in Holy Week, S.—Icel. skærr; cp. skíri-þórsdagr, skír-dagr, names for Maundy Thursday. See Schyre.

Scherpit, pt. s. sharpened, S3; see Scharpin.

Scherreue, sb. sheriff, G; see under Schyre.

Scherte, sb. shirt, C, C2, PP, Voc.; sherte, PP; shurte, SkD; schyrt, Voc.; shirte, SkD.—Icel. skyrta.

Schete, sb. sheet, Prompt., P; shete, C3.—AS. scéte, for scýte, see SkD.

Scheten, v. to shoot, rush, S, W2, Prompt.; scheete, G; ssete, S2; schut, S2; schute, B; scheot, pr. s., S; schot, pt. s., S2, B; sscet, S2; shote, pp., S2; ishote, S; iscote, S; issote, S2.—AS. scéotan, pt. scéat (pl. scuton), pp. scoten.

Scheter, sb. shooter, SD; schetare, Prompt.; ssetar, S2.

Schethe, sb. sheath, W (Jo. 15. 11), Cath.; shethe, C2.—AS. scéað; cp. OHG. skeidâ (Tatian).

Schetten, v. to shut, C3, Prompt.; schitte, G, W2; schitte, pt. s., W; shette, G, P; pl., C2, C3; schet, pp., C, W; shet, C3; schit, W; ischet, G; y-schette, S2, C3.—AS. scyttan.

Schewen, v. to show, appear, S, PP, S3; scheawen, S2; scheauwen, S; schewi, S, S2; schaw, S2, S3, S; sceawen, S; sceu, S2; scawen, S; shewe, PP; shæwenn, S; sseawy, S2; seawen, S.—AS. scéawian, to see, also to make to see, shew: OS. skáwon, to look, see.

Schey, adj. timid, shy, Prompt.; sceouh, SkD.—AS. scéoh. Cf. Eschewen, Schawles.

Schide, sb. a splinter, WA.—AS. scíde; cp. G. scheit, see Kluge.

Schift, sb. shift, change; shift, Sh. Phr.: at a schift, on a sudden, in a moment, S2.

Schiften, v. to change, shift, to part asunder, to divide, to discern, SkD; schyftyn, Prompt.; shifte, C3; scyft, pr. s., S; shifte him, pt. s., removed himself, PP.—AS. sciftan (scyftan), to divide.

Schilden, v. to shield, S; see Schelden.

Schip, sb. ship, S; schup, S; scipen, dat., S; schupe, S; sipe, S; schupes, gen., S; schipes, pl., S; schippes, S; scipen, S; sipes, S; ssipes, S2. Comb.: schip-bord; phr.: on schipbord, on board a ship, S2; ship-breche, shipwreck, W; schip-man, shipman, C; shipman, C2; scipenmonnen, pl. dat., S; ssip-uol, shipful, S2; schupeward, shipward, S; ship-wracke, shipwreck, S3.—AS. scip.

Schirchen, v. to shriek, S; see Schrychen.

Schirmen, v. to skirmish, fence, S; skirmen, S; skyrmez, pr. s., glides swiftly on flapping wings, S2.—Cp. Du. schermen, to fence, from scherm, screen, protection, OHG. scirm, protection (Otfrid).

Schitte, v. to shut, G; see Schetten.

Scho, sb. shoe, W2; schoo, C, Prompt.; schon, pl., S2, S3; schone, S, W; schoon, S2, W, G; shoon, C2, W; shon, PP.—AS. scéoh, pl. scéos, gen. pl. scéona.

Scho, she, S3; see Sheo.

Schod, pp. shod, W, Prompt.; shodde, P.

Schode, sb. the parting of a man’s hair, the temple or top of the head, C; schood, CM.—AS. scáde, ‘vertex capilli’ (Grein); cp. G. scheitel. See Scheden.

Schoggyn, v. to shake, toss, Prompt.; schogs, pr. s., WA; schoggid, pp., W.

Scholde, pt. s. should, S, S2; scolde, S; sceolde, S; sholde, S, C2, C3; sculde, S; schulde, S; shulde, S, C2, C3; sulde, S; suld, S2; shuld, S2; solde, S; scholte, S; soul, H; soule, H; scholden, pl., S; scolden, S; ssolde, S2; suld, S2.—AS. scolde. See Schal.

Scholle, shall, S2; see Schal.

Schome, sb. shame, S; see Schame.

Schomelich, adj. shameful, S; see Schamelich.

Schon, pl. of Scho, q.v.

Schon, pt. s. shone, C, G; see Schynen.

Schonde, sb. disgrace, S; shonde, C2.—AS. scand (sceand), scond (OET).

Schonye, v. shun, P; see Schunien.

Schop, pt. s. created, S; see Schapen.

Schoppe, sb. shop, S2, Prompt., SkD. Cf. Schepne.


Schore, sb. a notch or line cut, a number, score, twenty, S2, PP; score, G, Prompt., PP.—AS. scor; cp. Icel. skor, an incision. See Scheren.

Schort, adj. short, Prompt.; schorte, S2; scort, S, S2.—AS. sceort; cp. OHG. scurz.

Schorteliche, adv. briefly, C.

Schorten, v. to make short, C, Prompt.

Schot, pt. s. rushed, S2; see Scheten.

Schouel, sb. shovel, Prompt.; showell, S3.—AS. scofl (Voc.).

Schowpe, sb. a hip, cornum, Cath. Comb.: schowpe-tre, the briar, Cath.; scope-tre, Cath. (n).

Schowre, sb. shower, Prompt.; schur, SD; shoures, pl., PP, C2; sures, S.—AS. scúr: Goth. skura.

Schowwyn, v. to shove, Prompt.; schowued, pp., S2.—AS. scofian.

Schowynge, sb. pushing, Prompt.; showuing, C3.

Schraf, pt. s. shrove, S3; see Schriuen.

Schrapen, v. to scrape, PP.—Icel. skrapa.

Schreden, v. to clothe, S; see Schrouden.

Schreden, v. to cut, Prompt.; shredde, pt. s., C2.—AS. scréadian.

Schredynge, sb. a cutting of herbs, Prompt.; schridyng, W2.

Schrenchen, v. to make to fall, to deceive, S; screnche, S; scrennkenn, S.—AS. (ge)screncan, ‘supplantare,’ Ps. 17. 40 (VP); cp. OHG. screnken (Otfrid).

Schrewe, adj. and sb. wicked, bad, a wicked one, sinner, peevish woman, the devil, G, W2, S2, P, S, CM; shrewe, C2, P; shrew, S3, H, S2, C3; screwe, PP. Cp. AS. scréawa, a shrew-mouse (Voc.).

Schrewen, v. to curse, CM, C.

Schrewid, adj. cursed, bad, W, W2.

Schrewidnesse, sb. wickedness, W2; shrewednesse, P.

Schrift, sb. shrift, confession, S2; scrift, S; schrifte, dat., S2; shrifte, S.—AS. scrift.

Schrifte, sb. confessor, S; shrifte, S; scrifte, S.

Schrippe, sb. scrip, bag, S2, PP; shrippe, PP; scrippe, S, S2, W; scryppe, Prompt.

Schriuen, v. to prescribe penance, to confess, S; schryue, S2; shriue, S; shrife, S2; schraf, pt. s., S2; schrof, PP; ssriue, pl., S2; shriuen, pp., S; shryuen, P; scriuen, S2; y-shryue, PP.—AS. scrífan, to prescribe penance, to receive confessions; Lat. scribere.

Schroud, sb. dress, garment, PP; scrud, S; shrud, S; srud, S; schroude, WA, S2; shroudes, pl., rough outer clothes, P.—AS. scrúd (Voc.).

Schrouden, v. to clothe; scruden, S; schruden, S; schreden, S; shrut, pr. s., S; scred, S; schrowdis, S3; schredde, pt. s.; S, CM; srid, S; schred, 2 pt. s., S2; schrudde, pl., S; y-schrowdyt, pp., S3; ischrud, S; iscrud, S.—AS. scrýdan, also scrédan.

Schrychen, v. to shriek, screech, Prompt.; schriken, SkD; scriken, SkD; shriken, SkD; schirchen, S; shryghte, pt. s., C2; schrighte, C; shryght, S3; shryched, pl., S3; schrykede, C.—Cp. Swed. skrika.

Schulde, should; see Scholde.

Schuldere, sb. shoulder, Voc., W, S, C; shulder, Voc.; ssoldren, pl., S2.—AS. sculdor.

Schulen, shall; see Schal.

Schulen, v. to squint, S; skoul, SkD (s.v. scowl).—Cp. Dan. skule, to scowl.

Schulle, adv. shrilly, S; see Schylle.

Schunchen, v. to cause to shun, to frighten, S.

Schunien, v. to shun, S; schonye, S; shonye, P; sunen, S.—AS. scúnian.

Schup, sb. ship, S; see Schip.

Schuppere, sb. creator, S; see Scheppere.

Schupte, pt. s. created, S; see Scheppen.

Schur, sb. shower; see Schowre.

Schurge, sb. scourge, S; see Scorge.

Schurten, v. reflex. to amuse (oneself), S.

Schut, v. to shoot, S2; see Scheten.

Schylle, adj. sonorous, shrill, Prompt., Cath.; schille, S, S2; schill, S3; schille, adv., S, S2; schulle, S; shulle, PP.

Schylly, adv. sharply, Prompt.

Schyllynge, sb. shilling, Prompt.; schilling, pl., S2; solidus, Cath.—AS. scilling.

Schyne, sb. shin, C; schynne, Prompt. Comb.: schyn-bone, Voc.—AS. scina (Voc.).

Schynen, v. to shine, Prompt.; sinen, S; schinen, S; ssynen, S2; scean, pt. s., S; schon, C, G; shoon, C2 schane, pl., 200 S3, H; sinen, pp., S.—AS. scínan, pt. scán (pl. scinon), pp. scinen.

Schynyng, sb. lightning, W2.

Schynyngli, adv. splendidly, W.

Schyre, sb. a shire, PP; ssire, S2. Comb.: schir-reue, shire-reeve, sheriff, S, C; scherreue, G; schyreue, P; syrreue, S; schirreues, pl., S2, PP; shriues, S3; shireues, P.—AS. scír.

Schyre, adj. bright, clear, Prompt.; schire, S2; shire, H; shir, S; shyrest, superl., H. Der.: shyrnes, clearness, purity, H.—AS. scír; cp. Goth. skeirs. Cf. Schere.

Schytel, sb. shuttle, used for shooting the thread of the woof between the threads of the warp, SkD; schutylle, Cath.; schetyl, Prompt. (p. 470). Comb.: shyttel-cocke, shuttle-cock, S3. See Scheten.

Schyue, sb. a slice, small piece, Prompt.; shive, Sh., ND; sheeve, ND, JD; schyfes, bits of tow, Cath.—Cp. Icel. skífa.

Schyuere, sb. a shiver, piece of wood, slice, Prompt.; shiuer, SkD; scifren, pl., SkD; sciuren, SkD. See above.

Schyueren, v. to break into shivers, splinters, C.

Scipen, pl. ships, S; see Schip.

Scite, sb. city, S; see Citee.

Sclate, sb. slate, Prompt.; sklat, Prompt.; sclattis, pl., tegulae, W.—OF. esclat, a shiver, splinter, something broken off with violence (Cotg.), F. éclat.

Sclaundre, sb. scandal, slander, C2, PP; sclaunder, Prompt.; sklaundre, PP; slaunder, Prompt.—AF. esclaundre, OF. escandle; Lat. scandalum (Vulg.); Gr. σκάνδαλον.

Sclaundre, v. to scandalize, to slander, W, C3; slaunderyd, pp., Prompt.

Sclauyne, sb. pilgrim’s cloak, S, Cath. (n); slaveyne, a garment, Prompt., HD; slavyn, Cath.; sklavyn, HD; sclauayn, Voc.; sclavene, Voc.; slaueyn, PP.—Low Lat. sclavina, a long garment like that worn in Slavonic countries (Ducange); cp. AF. esclavine; from the people called Slav, a name said to be connected with Russ. slovo, a word, and to mean ‘the speaking, the intelligible.’ See SkD (p. 828).

Sclender, adj. slender, C, SkD; sklendre, C, C2; slendyr, Prompt.—OF. esclendre (Palsg.); of Teutonic origin; cp. ODu. slinder; see BH, § 50.

Scleyre, sb. veil, PP; see Sklayre.

Sco, she, S; see Sheo.

Scolden, should; see Scholde.

Scole, sb. the bowl of a balance, a bowl, Prompt.; scoale, S; scale, Cath.—Icel. skál, a bowl.

Scole, sb. school, S, C, C2, Prompt. Comb.: scol-meistre, schoolmistress, S (meistre; OF. meistre; Lat. magistra, see BH).—Lat. schola; Gr. σχολή, leisure.

Scoler, sb. scholar, C.

Scoleye, v. to attend school, to study, C.

Scop, pt. s. made, S; see Schapen.

Scorclen, v. to scorch, SkD (p. 826); scorkelyn, Prompt.; scorklyd, pp., Prompt.

Scorcnen, v. to scorch, S.

Scorge, sb. scourge, Prompt.; scourge, W (Jo. 2. 15); schurge, S.—AF. escorge, OF. escurge; cp. It. scoreggia (Florio); Lat. ex + corrigia, a thong, rein, girdle (Ducange), see Diez, p. 109. Derived from this Lat. corrigia is AF. escurgie, OF. escourgee (Cotg.): It. scoreggiáta (Florio); Late Lat. excorrigiata, see Diez, p. 289, and Brachet.

Scorn, pp. shorn, S2; see Schere.

Scoute, sb. scout, spy, SkD.—OF. escoute (Cotg.).

Scouten, v. to scout, pry; skowtez, pr. s., S2.—AF. escouter, to listen; OF. ascouter, escolter; Lat. auscultare.

Scowkyng, sb. sculking, ambush, S2, B.—Cp. Dan. skulke, to slink.

Scred, pr. s. clothes, S; see Schrouden.

Scrippe, sb. scrip, bag, S, S2, W; see Schrippe.

Scriptour, sb. pencase, S3.—OF. escriptoire, a penner (Cotg.); Late Lat. scriptorium, pencase (Ducange).

Scrit, sb. writing, document, S2; scrip, Sh.; script, SkD.—OF. escrit, escript; Lat. scriptum.

Scrud, sb. dress, S; see Schroud.

Scruden, v. to clothe, S; see Schrouden.

Sculde, should; see Scholde.

Sculptilis, sb. pl. idols, W2.—Lat. sculptile, a carved image (Vulg.).

Se, pron. dem. m. and def. art. m. that, the, S. Comb.: se þe, that man that, he who, S; se þet, he that, S.—AS. se. Cf. Seo.

Se, so, as, S; see Swa.

Se, sb. sea; see See.

Se, sb. see; see See.

Sead, adj. satiated, S; see Sad.


Sealte, sb. dat. salt, S2; see Salt.

Sealte, adj. salt, S2; see Salt.

Searce, Searse; see Sarce, sb. and v.

Seare, adj. sere, S3; see Seere.

Seawede, pt. s. showed, S; see Schewen.

Sechen, v. to seek, S, S2, C, PP; sekyn, Prompt.; seke, PP, S, S2; schechen, S; sohte, pt. s., S, S2; soȝte, S; soȝt, S2; soght, pl., S2; socht, S3; y-soht, pp., S2. Phr.: to seke, at a loss, S3.—AS. sécan (pt. sóhte, pp. gesóht): OS. sókian.

Seck, sb. sack, S; see Sak.

Secre, adj. secret, S2, C, C3; secree, C2. Comb.: Secre of Secrees, Secreta Secretorum (name of a book), C3.—OF. secre; Lat. secretum.

Secrely, adv. secretly, C2.

Secrenesse, sb. secrecy, C3.

Secte, sb. a suite, following, sect, religion, suit, apparel, PP, C2.—OF. secte (Cotg.); Late Lat. secta, a set of people, a following, a suit of clothes, a suit in law; Lat. secta, a faction, from sec- base of sequi, to follow.

Sectour, sb. executor of a will, PP, S3, Cath.; secatour, HD; secture, HD; seketowre, Prompt.; secutour, PP.—AF. executour; Lat. executorem, executor of a will.

Sed, sb. seed, PP, S, S2; seed, PP; seod, PP; seð, S. Comb.: seed-leep, seed-basket, PP.—AS. sǽd: Goth. sēps; cp. OHG. sát (Tatian); see Brugmann, § 75.

Sede, pt. s. said; see Seggen.

See, sb. see, seat, S3, C2, PP; se, S3, PP.—OF. se, sed; Lat. sedem.

See, sb. sea, Prompt., S, C2; se, S, S2; sey, S3; , S; sa, S; sees, pl., S2. Comb.: se-bare, sea-wave, surge, S2; se-calues, sea-calves, seals, S2; se-halues, sea-coasts, S2.—AS. : Goth. saiws.

Seek, adj. sick, C; see Sek.

Seel, sb. seal, C3, P, Prompt.; sehel, PP.—OF. sëel; Lat. sigillum.

Seeled, pp. cieled, WW (s.v. cieled); see Ceelen.

Seelen, v. to seal, PP; selen, P; seled, pp., C3.

Seeling, sb. a sealing, W2.

Seere, adj. sere, dry, withered, SkD, Prompt.; seare, S3.—AS. *séar; cp. Low G. soor, dry.

Seeryn, v. to become dry, Prompt.—AS. séarian. Cf. Soyr.

Seet, pt. s. sat, C, G; see Sitten.

Seet, sb. seat, G; see Sete.

Seeth, pt. s. boiled, C2; see Sethen.

Seg, sb. a man, lad, nuncius, vir, S2, PP; segge, P, WA, HD; sege, HD.—AS. secg: OTeut. *sagjoz, see Sievers, 130.

Sege, sb. seat, siege, S3, W, C, C2, Prompt.; segys, pl., H.—AF. sege; Late Lat. *sedicum, from Lat. sedes; see BH, § 133. See See.

Segen on, v. to make to sink, to cast down, S.—AS. on-sǽgan, ‘prosternere’ (Grein).

Segge, sb. sedge, S, Prompt., Voc.—AS. secg, sedge, also sword, see Sievers, 258.

Seggen, v. to say, S, S2, S3, P; segen, S; sægen, S; seigen, S; siggen, S, S2; sygge, S2, S3; sayn, S2, C; zigge, S2; seien, S; seie, S3, C; sei, P; sæin, S; seyen, S; seyn, S2, C2; seȝen, S; seiȝ, S2; zay, S2; sehð, pr. s., S; seiþ, S2; seyþ, S2; zayþ, S2; seistow, sayest thou, C3; seien, pr. pl., S2; sæde, pt. s., S; sade, S; sede, S, S2; sæide, S; sayde, C2; seyde, C2; seide, S2, C; seidestow, saidst thou, S2; sugge, 2 pr. s. subj., S; ȝe-sed, pp., S; i-said, S; i-segd, S; i-seid, S; ised, S, S2; seyd, C2; yzed, S2; iset, S; iseit, S (3 b. 14); seyne, gerund., C2.—AS. secgan, pt. sǽde, pp. gesǽd.

Sehte, adj. reconciled, S; see Saht.

Sehtnesse, sb. peace, reconciliation, S; see Sahtnesse.

Sei, Seih, saw; see Seon.

Seily, adj. simple, humble, S3; see Sely.

Sein, pp. seen; see Seon.

Seint, adj. and sb. holy, saint, S, S2, C2; seynt, PP; sein, S, S2; seintes, pl., C2; seyntis, W2.—OF. seint, saint; Lat. sanctum. Cf. Sant.

Seintuarie, sb. sanctuary, SD; seyntewarie, PP; sayntuaryes, pl., holy things, relics of saints, S3.—AF. saintuarie, also seintuarye, holy relics; Lat. sanctuarium.

Seir, adj. separate, S3; see Ser.

Seirse, v. to search; seirsand, pr. p., S3. See Cerchen.

Seise, v. to seize, possess, SkD; sese, PP, B; seised, pp., possessed of, S2.—OF. seisir, sesir, sazir, to put in possession; Low Lat. sacire (Ducange); OHG. sazjan, to set, sezzan (Tatian); see Brachet (s.v. saisir).

Seisine, sb. possession, S2; seysyne, SkD.—AF. seisine.

Sek, sb. sack, S2; see Sak.


Sek, adj. sick, S, S2; seek, PP, C; sik, S, G; syk, G; sic, S; seke, S; sike, S, C; zyke, S2; sijke, W; sikly, adv., with ill-will, C2.—AS. séoc: Goth. siuks.

Seke, v. to seek, S, S2; see Sechen.

Sekir, adj. sure, WA; see Siker.

Seknesse, sb. sickness, S2, C; secnesse, S; siknesse, C2; sykenesse, P; sekenesse, S2.—AS. séocnes.

Sel, sb. happiness, occasion, time, S; seel, Prompt.; sele, S2.—AS. sǽl.

Sel, adj. timely, good, S.—AS. sél (Grein): Goth. sels.

Selde, adj. pl. few, C2; adv., seldom, S, S2, C, C2, G, PP; selden, S2, P; seldene, S2; seldum, S. Comb.: seld-hwonne, seldom, S; seld-sene, rarely seen, SD; seld-speche, taciturnity, SD.—AS. seld; see Sweet.

Self, pron. self, ipse, S; seolf, S; silf, W; selue, S; sulf, S, S2; sulve, S, S2; zelue, S2; seolue, acc., S; seoluen, pl., S; sielfe, S; sulf, S.—AS. self.

Selke, sb. silk, P; silke, P; seolke, S.—AS. seolc (Voc.); Russ. sholk; Lat. sericum; cp. Icel. silki; see SkD (p. 828).

Selkouth, adj. and sb. wonderful, a wonder, S2, H, PP; selcouth, S2, S3, PP; selcuth, S, S2, WA; selkow, Prompt.—AS. seld-cúð.

Selkouth, v. to make wonderful, H.

Selle, sb. cell, C, P; see Celle.

Sellen, v. to give, sell, Prompt., C; sullen, S, S2; sylle, S2; selde, pt. s., W; seelde, W; sald, S2; seeld, pp., W, W2; seld, W; sald, S2.—AS. sellan (syllan): OS. sellian: Goth. saljan.

Seller, sb. seller, dealer, PP; suller, S2; siller, W2.

Seller, sb. cellar, G; seler, W2; see Celer.

Sellich, adj. wonderful, illustrious, S; sellic, S; seollich, S; sulliche, adv., S; selli, S2.—AS. sellic: OS. seldlik; cp. Goth. sildalciks.

Selðe, sb. happiness, advantage, HD; selhðe, S.—AS. (ge)sǽlð. See Sel.

Selure, sb. canopy, ceiling, S3; seloure, HD; selour, EETS (78); celure, EETS (78); silour, EETS (78); sylure, celatura, Prompt.; silloure, WA; syllure, MD.—OF. *celeüre; Late Lat. caelatura (Ducange).

Seluer, sb. silver, S, S2; see Siluer.

Sely, adj. happy, blessed, simple, humble, S2, S3, C, C2, C3; seely, S3; seilye, S3; seli, S.—AS. sǽlig: OHG. sálig (Tatian).

Selyn, v. to line the inner roof of a room, Prompt. See Ceelen.

Semblable, adj. like, S3, PP.—OF. semblable.

Semblably, adv. similarly, S3.

Semblance, sb. appearance, S2.—AF. semblance.

Sembland, adj. like, PP.

Semblant, sb. appearance, countenance, S, S2, C2; semblaunt, S, W, PP; sembland, S2.—AF. semblant.

Semble, v. to seem; sembeles, pr. s., S2.—OF. sembler; Lat. simulare.

Semble, v. to assemble, PP; sembled, pt. s., S2; semblyt, S3; semblyde, pl., S3.—OF. asembler; Late Lat. assimulare.

Semble, sb. assembly, S2, PP; semblee, S2.—AF. assemble, assemblee.

Seme, sb. load, S, P; seem, Prompt., P.—AS. séam: Low Lat. sauma (salma), sagma; Gr. σάγμα, a pack-saddle; see ZRP (2. 537), cp. Kluge (s.v. saum).

Semen, v. to load, to be a weight, S.—AS. séman, from séam; see above.

Semen, v. to make two parties the same, to conciliate, hence to suit, to appear suitable or seemly, later, to seem, S; seme, S2; seme, to reconcile, S; semet, pr. s., seems fitting, S. Phr.: to my seminge, as it appears to me, C2.—AS. séman, ge-séman. See Some.

Semi-, adj. half. Comb.: semy-cope, a short cope, C.

Semliche, adj. seemly, S2; semeliche, PP; semely, C, C2, WA; semlike, S; semly, S2; semeli, W2; semlokest, superl., S2.—AS. *sémelic; cp. Icel. sæmiligr.

Sen, afterwards, since, H, S2, S3, WA; see Siððen.

Sen, seven, H; see Seuen.

Sen, pp. seen; see Seon.

Sence, sb. incense; see Sens.

Senche, sb. draught, S; see Schench.

Senchen, v. to cause to sink; senchtest, 2 pt. s., S.—AS. sencan, causal of sincan. See Sinken.

Cross-reference could not be located.

Sendal, sb. a fine stuff, C; sendel, H; see Cendal.

Senden, v. to send, S; sende, S2; send, pr. s., S; sent, S, S2, C2; zent, S2; sendes, S; sent, imp. s., S2; sende, pt. s., S, S2; send, S3; pl., S2; senten, S2; 203 send, pp., S; y-sent, S2, C3; i-sent, S; i-send, S; i-sende, S.—AS. sendan: OS. sendian: Goth. sandjan.

Senden, are; see Sinden.

Senden, v. to reproach, S; see Schenden.

Sene, adj. evident, S, S2, C2.—AS. (ge)sýne.

Sene, pp. provided. Phr.: well sene, well furnished, S3, HD. See Seon.

Seneuey, sb. mustard, W; seneueye, W; seneuei, W.—OF. senevé, mustard (Cotg.); an adjectival form from senve; Lat. sinapi (Vulg.); Gr. σίναπι; see Brachet (s.v. sanve).

Seneȝen, v. to sin; see Sunegen.

Senged, pp. sun-burnt, S3 (p. 364, l. 29); see Sengin.

Sengin, v. to singe, burn on the surface; seengyn, Prompt.; seynd, pp., C; seynkt, Prompt.; sengt, Prompt.—AS. sengan (in be-sengan), causal of singan, to sing.

Senne, sb. sin, S; see Sunne.

Sens, since, S3; see Siððen.

Sens, sb. incense, S3; sence, Prompt., Cath.; sense, PP.—AF. ensens, encens; Lat. incensum, lit. what is burned (Vulg.).

Sensing, sb. use of incense, S3; sencynge, Prompt.

Sentence, sb. sense, meaning, opinion, matter of a story, verdict, C, C2, C3; sentens, PP.—AF. sentence; Lat. sententia.

Seofe, seven, S; see Seuen.

Seolf, self, S; see Self.

Seolke, sb. silk, S; see Selke.

Seollich, adj. wonderful, S; see Sellich.

Seoluer, sb. silver, S; see Siluer.

Seon, v. to see, S, PP; seo, S, S2; seen, S; sen, S; se, S2, W2; imp. s., S; pl., W; see, may (God) see, S2; sest, 2 pr. s., S; sist, S, S2; sixt, S2; seð, pr. s., S; seoþ, pl., S2; seð, S2, P; sei, 2 pt. s., S2; sæh, pt. s., S; seh, S, S2; sih, S2; siȝ, S2, W; syȝ, S2; sye, S3; sy, C3; seȝ, S, S2; sey, S2, C2, G; seiȝ, S2, S3; seigh, C; seih, G; seyh, G; sag, S; sagh, S2; saugh, S3, C, G; saȝ, S; sauȝ, S; sawh, S2; say, S2, S3, C, W, G; sayȝ, S2; saye, W; saie, W; saiȝ, W; sawȝ, W; sihen, pl., S2; syȝen, S2; seien, W; seiȝen, W; seen, W; siȝen, W; sien, W; syen, W; saien, W; sayn, W; saye, W; seye, S2; seand, pr. p., S3; seynge, W2; seyn, pp., S2, C, W; seȝen, S2; sein, S2; sen, S; seie, S2; sien, W2; siȝ, W; say, W; y-seiȝen, PP; y-sein, PP; seen, ger., S3; zyenne, S2.—AS. séon, pt. seah (pl. sáwon, sǽgon), pp. sewen (sawen), also ge-segen. AS. séon (for *sehwon): Goth. saihwan; cp. Lat. sequ-or, I follow; see Brugmann, § 419.

Seoð, are, S; see Sinden.

Seouen, seven, S; see Seuen.

Seowen, v. to sew, S; see Sewen.

Sep, pl. sheep, S; see Scheep.

Septemtrioun, sb. the North, C2.—OF. septentrion; Late Lat. septentrionem (Voc.); from Lat. septemtriones, a name for the constellation of the Great Bear.

Sepulture, sb. tomb, S3, C3; sepultures, pl., burials, S3.—AF. sepulture; Lat. sepultura.

Ser, adj. separate, several, different, various, S2, B; sere, S2, H, WA; seir, S3, B. Der.: sernes, variety, H; sernessis, pl., H; sernesis, H; serelepy, separate, WA; serelepes, separately, PP.—Cp. usages of Icel. sér, to himself, used in many compounds, as sér-liga, apart, particularly.

Sercle, sb. circle, W2; see Cercle.

Serewe, sb. sorrow, S; see Sorwe.

Serge, sb. a taper, Cath.; see Cerge.

Sergeant, sb. servant, serjeant, C, C2, C3; seriaunt, P; serganȝ, pl., S; seriauntes, S2; seriauntz, P; seriauns, S2, PP.—AF. serjant; Lat. seruientem; see BH, § 162.

Serk, sb. sark, shirt, PP, S, S3, G; sark, S3; serke, P.—Icel. serkr.

Sermone, v. to preach, speak, C3.

Sermonyng, sb. preaching, C.

Sermoun, sb. sermon, writing, C2; sarmoun, P.—AF. sermoun; Lat. sermonem.

Sertes, adv. certainly, S2; see Certes.

Seruage, sb. servitude, thraldrom, S2, C, C2, C3, W, Prompt.—OF. servage.

Seruin, v. to serve, to deserve, S, S2; sarui, S; serue, H, PP; serwis, 2 pr. s., S3; serwit, pt. s., S3; y-served, pp., C, P; i-serued, S.—AF. servir; Lat. seruire.

Seruisable, adj. serviceable, C3.

Seruise, sb. service, S; seruyse, C2.—OF. servise; Lat. seruitium; see BH, § 129.

Seruitute, sb. servitude, C2.—OF. servitute; Lat. seruitutem; see Constans.

Serwe, sb. sorrow, S; see Sorwe.

Serwish, adj. imperiosus, Manip.

Serye, sb. series, C, CM.—Lat. seriem.

Seryows, adj. ‘sad and feythefulle,’ Prompt.; seriouse, seriosus, Manip.; 204 seryouse, earnest, Palsg.—Late Lat. seriosus; from Lat. serius, grave, earnest.

Seryowsly, adv. seriously; ceriously, minutely, with full details, S2, C3.—Late Lat. seriose, ‘fuse, minutatim’ (Ducange).

Sese, v. to seize; see Seise.

Sesoun, sb. season, C3; cesoun, W2.—AF. seson, OF. saison; Lat. sationem, a sowing.

Set, pt. s. sat, S; see Sitten.

Sete, sb. seat, Cath., S, C2, PP; seet, G.—AS. seto, seotu (OET).

Sete, adj. suitable, H (p. xxv).—Icel. sætt, endurable, from sitja, to sit.

Setel, sb. seat, SD; seotel, S; settle, S. Comb.: setel-gang, sunset, S2.—AS. setl; cp. Goth. sitls.

Seterday, Saturday, P; see Satern.

Seð, sb. seed, S; see Sed.

Sethen, v. to seethe, Prompt.; seeth, pt. s., seethed, boiled, C2; y-sode, pp., S2.—AS. séoðan, pt. s., séað, pp. soden. Cf. Swiðen.

Seððen, afterwards, since, S, S2, G; seðen, S, S2; seþþe, S2; see Siððen.

Setlen, v. to cause to rest, also to sink to rest, subside, settle, SkD; sattel, S2, S3, SkD; satelyn, Prompt.; saȝtled, pt. s., S2 [see SkD s.v. settle].—AS. setlan, to fix, settle (Grein).

Setnesse, sb. an appointed order, institute, SD.—AS. (ge)setnis. Cf. Asetnesse.

Sette, sb. a young plant, a shoot; settys, pl., S3.

Setten, v. to set, place, appoint, S; sett, to set, watch game, S2; setis, pr. s., S; settes, 2 pr. s., S2; sette, pt. s., S, S2, S3; zette, S2; sætte, S; set, 2 pt. s., S2; settide, pt. s., W; settiden, pl., W; sette, G; settand, pr. p., S2; set, pp., S; i-set, S, S2; i-sett, S; i-sette, S; y-set, S2, S3, C2, C3.—AS. settan: Goth. satjan, to cause to sit; see Douse, p. 113. See Sitten.

Seurte, sb. surety, C; see Surety.

Seuen, num. seven, PP; seue, PP, S; seouen, S; seove, S; seofe, S; seuene, PP; seouene, S; sen, H; zeue, S2; seofen, S.—AS. seofon; cp. Goth. sibun, Lat. septem, Gr. ἑπτά. For the Goth. termination -un, see Brugmann, §§ 223, 224.

Seuend, num. ord. seventh, S2.

Seue-niht, sb. sennight, week, S; souenyht, S.

Seuen-tene, num. seventeen, Prompt.; sewintine, S3.

Seueþe, num. ord. seventh, S2, PP; seoueðe, S; soueþe, S; seofeþe, S.

Sew, pt. s. sowed, H; see Sowen.

Sewane, sb. savin (a herb), S3. See Saueine.

Sewe, sb. juice, broth, gravy, delicacy, C2, Cath., HD; sew, HD; sæw, S.—AS. séaw.

Sewen, v. to sew, suere, W2; seowen, S; sewide, pt. s., W2; y-sewed, pp., S3.—AS. siwian: Goth. siujan; see Brugmann, § 120.

Sewen, v. to follow, PP, C, S2. Der.: sewyngly, in order, S2. See Suen.

Sewen, v. Phr.: to sewe at ye mete, deponere, apponere, to set upon the table, Cath., Prompt. See below.

Sewer, sb. bearer of dishes, dapifer, S2, Voc.; seware, Prompt.; asseour, NED; assewer, NED.—AF. assëour, he who sets the table (Ducange); from OF. assëoir, to set, to place; Late Lat. adsedēre.

Sewintene, seventeen, S3; see Seuen-tene.

Sexe, six, S; see Sixe.

Sexte, sixth; see Sixte.

Sexteyn, sb. sacristan, sexton, C2; see Sacristane.

Seych, sb. sigh, S3; see Syke.

Seyed, pp. passed, lit. swayed, S2; see Sweyen.

Seyen, v. to say; see Seggen.

Seyl, sb. sail, Prompt., S, C; seil, S; seiies, pl., S2; seales, S3.—AS. segl.

Seylen, v. to sail, Prompt.; sayle, C2; saland, pr. p., S3.—AS. (ge)seglian.

Seyn, pp. seen; see Seon.

Seynen, v. to make a sign, esp. the sign of the cross, PP; saine, to bless, HD; seyned, pt. s., P; sanyt, S2.—OF. seigner (Bartsch); Lat. signare.

Seynd, pp. singed, C; see Sengin.

Seynt, sb. girdle, C; see Ceinte.

Seȝen, v. to say, S; see Seggen.

Sh-. For many words beginning with these letters, see Sch-.

Shadde, pt. s. shed, poured, C2; see Scheden.

Shæd, sb. discretion, S.—AS. (ge)scéad. See Scheden.

Shæfess, pl. sheaves, S; see Scheef.

Shæwen, v. to shew, S; see Schewen.


Sheeuering, pr. p. shivering, S3; see Chiueren.

Sheo, pron. dem., def. art., pron. pers. f., illa, that, the, she, PP; scheo, SD; scho, S3, PP; sho, S, H; sco, S2; seo, S; sche, C, PP; che, S2; si, S; scæ, S. Comb.: zi þet, she that, SD (s.v. se).—AS. séo; cp. OHG. siu (Tatian).

Sherch, v. to search, S3; see Cerchen.

Sho, she, S; see Sheo.

Shode; see under Scheden.

Shriues, pl. sheriffs, S2; see under Schyre.

Si, she, S; see Sheo.

Si, let there be, S; see Sinden.

Sibbe, sb. and adj. peace, relationship, affinis, related, SD, S, P; sybbe, Prompt.; sib, S; syb, P. Comb.: sib-man, ‘affinis,’ HD; sib-nesse, affinity, SD; sib-reden, relationship, SD; sibrede, HD; sybrede, banns of matrimony, Prompt.; cybrede, Prompt.; sib-sum, peaceable, SD; sib-sumnesse, friendship, SD.—AS. sib(b), peace, relationship: Goth. sibja; cp. OHG. sibba, peace (Tatian), relationship (Otfrid). See Sievers, 257.

Sic, adj. sick, S; see Sek.

Sicer, sb. strong drink, C2; siser, C2 (n); ciser, C2 (n), MD.—Low Lat. sicera (Vulg.); Gr. σίκερα (LXX); Heb. shēkar (Deut. 29. 6). Cf. Sidir.

Siche, adj. such, W; see Swyche.

Sicht, pt. s. sighed, S3; see Syken.

Siclatoun, sb. a costly silk texture, CM; sicladoun, CM; see Ciclatun.

Sidir, sb. strong drink, cider, S3, W, MD; sidur, W2; sider, MD; sydyr, Prompt.; sedyr, Prompt.; cyder, C2 (n); cedyr, Prompt.; syther, Cath., S2; sythir, C2 (n).—OF. sidre (cidre), sisdre; Low Lat. sicera (Voc.); Gr. σίκερα (Luke 1. 15); cp. Sp. sidra (Deut. 29. 6). See Sicer.

Sigaldren, sb. pl. sorceries, S.—Icel. seið-galdr, enchantment by spells. See Grimm, Teut. M. pp. 1035-1043.

Sigaldrie, sb. enchantment, SD; sigaldry, HD.

Sigaldrien, v. to bewitch; sygaldryd, pt. s., HD.

Siggen, v. to say; see Seggen.

Sighte, sb. sight, providence, appearance, PP, C; sihðe, S; syhte, S; syȝt, S2; zygþe, S2; zyȝþe, S2; sihte, S; siȝte, S.—AS. (ge)sihð (gesiht).

Signe, sb. sign, portent, PP; see Syng.

Signefiance, sb. meaning, S.—OF. signefiance.

Signefien, v. to signify, mean, S.—AF. signefier.

Sihen, pt. pl. saw, S2; see Seon.

Sik, adj. sick, S; see Sek.

Sike, adj. such, S3; see Swyche.

Siker, adj. secure, sure, trusty, S, S2, C3, P; sikir, W; sekir, B; zykere, S2; zikere, S2; syker, S3, P; adv., truly, S3; sikerer, comp., S3, C; sikerere, P; sikerest, superl., S2. Comb.: sikerhede, security, SD; sikerlec, surety, pledge, SD; sikerliche, surely, certainly, S; sykerlych, S2; sikerlike, S; sikerly, S3, C, C2, P; sykerly, H; sekirly, B; sikernesse, security, S, S2, C2, C3; sicernesse, S; sykernes, S2; sikirnesse, W; sykirnes, H; sekirnes, B.—OS. sikor; Late Lat. sĕcurus (with accent on the first syllable); cp. OHG. sichor (Otfrid). Cf. Sure.

Siknesse, sb. sickness, C2; see Seknesse.

Sikul, sb. sickle, P; sykel, PP; sykyl, Prompt.—AS. sicel (Voc.); Lat. secula.

Silc, adj. such, S2; see Swyche.

Silden, v. to shield, S; see Schelden.

Silke, sb. silk, P; see Selke.

Silour; see Selure.

Siluer, sb. silver, S, C3; seoluer, S; suluer, S2; seluer, S, S2; siluere, dat., S; selure, S.—OMerc. sylfur, AS. silfor (seolfor): OS. silubar, Goth. silubr; see Sievers, 107.

Simle, adv. ever, for ever, S.—AS. simle (symle) for simble: OS. simbla; cp. OHG. simbulum (Tatian).

Sinden, pr. pl. are; sinndenn, S; senden, S; seoð, S; si, pr. s. subj., let (there) be, S; seon, subj. pl., may be, S.—AS. syndun, pr. pl., , pr. s. subj., síen, pl., see Sievers, 427.

Sinegen, v. to sin, S; see Sunegen.

Sinen, pp. shone, S; see Schynen.

Sinne, sb. sin, S; see Sunne.

Siouns, sb. pl. branches, W2; see Syon.

Sipes, pl. ships, S; see Schip.

Si-quar; see under Sið.

Sire, sb. a prince, king, lord, father, master, a term used in addressing knights, kings, S, S2, P, G; syr, Prompt.—AF. sire (for *se’ior); Lat. senior, older; so F. pire; Lat. peior, worse.


Sis, six, C2; see Sixe.

Siser, sb. strong drink; see Sicer.

Sisour, sb. juror, PP; sysour, P; see Asisour.

Sisoure, sb. a person deputed to hold assizes, juryman, P, S2, G; sisour, PP; sysour, PP.—Low Lat. assisorem (Ducange), from OF. a(s)sise, a sitting down, also a settlement, pp. fem. of aseeir; Lat. assidēre, to sit at.

Sist, seest; see Seon.

Siste, sixth, S; see Sixte.

Sistren, pl. sisters, C; see Suster.

Site, sb. grief, S2; syte, WA, HD.—Icel. sút; AS. suht; cp. OHG. suht (Otfrid), Goth. sauhts, sickness.

Siten, v. to grieve, S2. See above.

Sið, sb. time, SD; siðe, dat., S; sith, pl., H; syth, H; siðe, C, S2, PP; sythe, H, C2, C3; sythes, S2, PP; sithis, W, S3; sithes, PP; zyþe, S2; ziþe, S2 (9. 72). Comb.: oft-sith (= Lat. sæpe), H; si-quar (for sið-quar), time when, S2.—AS. síð, journey, turn, time: Goth. sinths; cp. OHG. sind, ‘via’ (Otfrid), Icel. sinn.

Siððen, adv. and conj. afterwards, since, S, C, G; siþþe, S2, S3; siðen, S, S3, C; siðe, S, S3; sith, S2, S3, G; seoððan, S; seoððen, S; seoððe, S; seððen, S, S2, G; seðen, S, S2; seðe, S; syth, S3, C; seþþe, S2; suþþe, S, S2; syþþen, S2; sythen, S2, S3; sen, H, S2, S3; syn, S2, S3; syne, S2, S3; sens, S3.—AS. síððan.

Sitten, v. to sit, cost, befit, S, P; sytte, PP, S3; zitte, S2; sit, pr. s., C, S2, G, PP; sitt, PP; sits, S3; set, pt. s., S; seet, C, G; sæt, S; setten, pl., S; sete, S, G; seten, C2, W; seeten, C; saten, G; seten, pp., S, C; syttyn, S2.—AS. sittan, pt. sæt (pl. sǽton), pp. seten.

Sixe, num. six, S, PP; sexe, S; sax, S3; sis, C2; sys, C2.—AS. six.

Sixt, seest; see Seon.

Sixte, ord. sixth, S; syxte, PP; sexte, S, S2; sæxte, S; siste, S.—AS. sixta.

Siȝe, sb. victory, SD; si, SD; sy, S.—AS. sige: Goth. sigis; cp. OHG. sig (Tatian).

Siȝe-craft, sb. magic art, SD. See Sigaldren.

Siȝede, pt. s. sighed, S3; see Syken.

Siȝen, pt. pl. saw; see Seon.

Skaffaut, sb. an engine of war used by besiegers, CM; scafalde, procestrium, Cath.; scafold, stage, Prompt., SkD; scaffould, theatrum, scena, Manip.; schaffalde, stage, Cath. (n); skaffold, Cath. (n).—OF. escafaut (eschafaut); cp. OF. chafaut (chaffaut), Low Lat. chaafallum, chaufaudus, a wooden tower used against besiegers; cp. also It. catafalco. The origin of this word of various forms is absolutely unknown.

Skaith, sb. harm, S3; see Scaðe.

Skalk, sb. scalp, H; skalke, H; skalkys, pl., H.

Skalle, sb. scabbiness on the head, scall, SkD.

Skalled, adj. scabby, C.

Skalp, sb. scalp, H (Ps. 7. 17); scalp, SkD.

Skarrit, 1 pt. s. was scared, S3; see Skerren.

Skathe, sb. harm, C, G; skath, H; see Scaðe.

Skeet, adj. swift; adv. soon, quickly, G; skete, HD; sket, S, HD.—Icel. skjótr, swift; adv. skjótt.

Skele, sb. reason, S2; see Skyl.

Skenten, v. to amuse, SD.—Icel. skemta, to amuse, to shorten, from skamr, short.

Skentinge, sb. amusement, S, SD.

Sker, adv. clean, entirely, S; see Schere.

Skerren, v. to scare, frighten, to be frightened, SD; skeren, Prompt.; scarren, SD; skarrit, 1 pt. s., S3; skerrit, SD.—Icel. skirra, to prevent, reflex. to shrink from.

Skewe, sb. sky, S2; see Skye.

Skey, adj. shy (as a horse), Prompt.; see Schey.

Skeymowse, adj. disdainful, scornful, abhominativus, Prompt.; queymows, Prompt.; sweymows, Prompt.; squaymous, CM; squeamous, CM; squaymose, verecundus, Cath.; skoymus, disdainful, Cath. (n); squeamish, coy, precise (of a young girl), Cotg. (s.v. sucrée); fastidious, Baret.

Skil, sb. reason, H; see Skyl.

Skilwise, adj. reasonable, discreet, H; scilwis, H; skilwisly, adv., H.

Skinden, v. to hasten, S.—Icel. skynda, skunda; cp. AS. scyndan.

Sklayre, sb. a veil, P; scleyre, PP; skleire, PP; skleir, PP.—Cp. G. schleier, Du. sluijer.

Sklither, adj. slippery (= Lat. lubricus), H; cf. Slider.

Sklythirynge, sb. liability to fall, H.

Skowtez, pr. s. pries, looks, S2; see Scouten.

Skye, sb. cloud, sky, Prompt.; skewe, 207 S2; skwe, S2; schew, WA; skyes, pl., PP.—Icel. ský, cloud.

Skyl, sb. discernment, reason, skill, Prompt.; skil, H; skill, S; skyle, S2; skile, S, C2, W; skille, S2; skele, S2; skiles, pl., reasons, C2, H; skilles, S2, H.—Icel. skil, distinction, discernment.

Skylfulle, adj. reasonable, discerning, Prompt.; skilful, W2, C3.

Skylly, perhaps dispersing (?), S2.

Skyualde, perhaps scramble (?), S2.

Sla, v. to slay, S2; see Sleen.

Slade, sb. a valley, Manip., ND.—AS. slǽd.

Slagen, pp. slain, S; see Sleen.

Slaht, sb. slaughter, SD; slaȝt, S2.—AS. sleaht.

Slaine, Slawen; see Sleen.

Slak, sb. ravine, a hollow, depression, gap or pass between two hills, S3, B; slack, the low ground, HD; a common (in Yorkshire), NQ (1. 10. 400).

Slak, adj. slack, Prompt.; slac, S2; slake, dat., C.—AS. sleac: OS. slak.

Slakien, v. to be slack, to make loose, S, W; slake, to become less grievous, S2; to slacken, cease, C2; slakeþ, pr. s., burns low, S2; assuages, C2.—AS. slacian.

Slape, sb. sleep, S; see Slepe.

Slatten, v. to throw down, to slap; slat, HD; sleateð, pr. pl., S.

Slaunder; see Sclaundre.

Slaueren, v. to slaver, to let the saliva fall from the mouth, S2.

Slawe, adj. slow, S3; see Slowe.

Slaȝt, sb. slaughter, S2; see Slaht.

Sle, adj. sly, cunning, S3; see Sly.

Sleen, v. to slay, PP, C2; slee, PP, S3, W, G; sle, S, S3, PP; slen, PP; slean, S; slæn, S; slon, S; slo, S; sla, S2; sleað, pr. s., S; sleth, S3; sleeth, C; sleað, pl., S; slaȝeð, S; slage, S; sloh, pt. s., S; sloȝ, S; slou, S, S2; slow, S2, S3; slowe, W; slouh, S2; slouȝ, S2; slough, S3, C; sloghen, pl., S; sloȝen, S; slowe, S2; slowen, W; sloȝe, S; slogh, S2; sloughe, S3; slo, pr. subj., 2 p., S2; slen, pl., S; slagen, pp., S; slaine, S; slawen, C2; slayn, C2; sleie, S2; slawe, S3, C; slean, S3; y-slayn, C3; i-slawe, S2; y-slawe, C3; i-sleiene, pl., S.—AS. sléan (for slahan), pt. slóh (pl. slógon), pp. slægen, also slegen.

Sleet, sb. sleet, Prompt.; slet, SD.—Cp. G. schlosse.

Slegh, adj. cunning, S2; sleh, S; see Sly.

Sleght, sb. cunning, S2; sleht, S; see Sleythe.

Slendyr; see Sclender.

Slepe, sb. sleep, S, S2, Prompt.; slape, S; slep, S.—AS. slǽp: OS. sláp; cp. OFris. slép.

Slepen, v. to sleep, S; slep, pt. s., S, S3; slepte, (weak form), C2, PP; slepen, pl., PP.—AS. slǽpan, pt. slép; a reduplicating verb, see Douse, p. 48.

Slepyng, sb. sleep, S2.

Sleðrende, pr. p. falling like snow, S.

Sleuth, sb. track, trail, slot, S2, B; sluth, B; slewth, B; sloð, S, SkD. Comb.: sleuth-hund, a sleuth-hound, S2.—Icel. slóð.

Sleuþe, sb. sloth, S2, P; sleuth, H; see Slouthe.

Sleue, sb. sleeve, C3, Prompt.—AS. sléfe.

Sleueles, adj. sleeveless, useless, HD.

Sley, adj. sly, S2; see Sly.

Sleythe, sb. cunning, skill, falsehood, trick, Prompt., PP; sleithe, PP; sleȝþe, S2; slehþe, SD, PP; slithe, PP; slyþe, PP; sleighte, PP, C, C2, C3; sleht, S; sleght, S2.—Icel. slægð (for slœgð). See Sly.

Sliden, v. to slide, PP; slit, pr. s., C3; slod, pt. s., S2; slode, pl., PP; slide, pp., W2.—AS. slídan, pt. slád, pp. sliden.

Slider, adj. slippery, C; slidir, W2; slydyr, Prompt. See Sklither.

Slidernesse, sb. slipperyness; slydirnesse, W2; slydyrnesse, Prompt.

Slih, adj. cunning, experienced, S2; see Sly.

Slike, adj. such, H.—Icel. slíkr.

Slikien, v. to smoothe, to polish, SD; slyken, P; slicke, S3; isliked, S.

Sliper, adj. slippery, SD; slipper, S3, Sh.—AS. slipor (Leo).

Slitten, v. to slit, pierce, SD; slytyn, Prompt.; slyttyng, pr. p., piercing (of language), S2; islit, pp., S.—AS. slítan.

Slo, vb. to slay, S; slon, S; sloh, pt. s., S; see Sleen.

Slod, pt. s. slid, S2; see Sliden.

Slogardye, sb. sloth, C3; see Sluggardy.

Sloh, sb. slough, PP; slough, C2, C3.—AS. slóh.


Slokyn, v. to slake, quench, H, Cath.; slokin, S3; slokke, PP; slokynd, pp., H; slekynd, H.—Cp. Icel. slökva. Cf. Slakien.

Slomeren, v. to slumber, Cath., Prompt.; slumeren, SD; slombred, pt. s., P.

Slomering, sb. slumbering, S3.

Slong, pp. cast away, S3; see Slyngen.

Sloppar, adj. slippery, S3.

Sloterin, v. maculare, SD; sloterd, pp., bespattered, S2.

Sloð, sb. track, trail, S; see Sleuth.

Slough; see Sloh.

Slouthe, sb. sloth, S2, C3, PP; slouhðe, S; sleuȝþe, S2, PP; sleuþe, S2, P; slewthe, C3, PP; sleuth, H, PP.—AS. slǽwð. See below.

Slow, Sloȝe; see Sleen.

Slowe, adj. and sb. slow, sluggish, a lazy man, PP, S; slow, W2; slouh, S; slawe, S3; slaw, S2.—AS. sláw.

Sluggardy, sb. sloth, S3; slogardye, C3; sloggardye, C.

Slugge, adj. slothful, Prompt.

Sluggen, v. to slug, to be inactive, SkD.

Sluggy, adj. slothful, Prompt.

Sly, adj. sly, cunning, skilful, Prompt.; sliȝ, W; slih, S2; sley, S2; slegh, S2; sleh, S; sleȝ, S2; sle, S3.—Icel. slægr (for slœgr).

Slyly, adv. cunningly, Prompt.; sleighly, prudently, C.

Slynge, sb. sling, PP.

Slyngen, v. to sling, hurl, throw away, PP, Prompt.; slonge, pt. pl., S2; slong, pp., S3; slungin, S3.—AS. slingan, pl. slang, pp. slungen.

Smak, sb. taste, flavour, Prompt.; smacc, S; smach, S2.—AS. smæc, taste, flavour (Voc.).

Smaken, to have a savour, scent, S, Prompt.; smacky, to imagine, perceive, taste, relish, understand, S2; smachande, pr. p., S2; smauhte, pt. s., PP; smauȝte, pl., PP.—AS. smæcian, see Grein (s.v. smæc).

Smalle, adj. small, narrow, Prompt.; smal, S, S2; smaill, S3.—AS. smæl, narrow: Goth. smals.

Smart, adj. bitter, S2; see Smerte.

Smatte, pt. s. smote, S; see Smiten.

Smec, sb. smoke, S; smech, S; smeke, Prompt.—AS. sméc.

Smechunge, sb. taste, S. See Smak.

Smell, sb. smell, S; smul, S.

Smellen, v. to smell, S, PP; smylle, PP; smolte, pt. s., S2.—Cp. Low G. smelen, to smoulder.

Smeorten, v. to smart, S; see Smerten.

Smerien, v. to smear, anoint; smeren, S; smurieð, pr. pl., S; smered, pp., S.—AS. smerian, smyrian, from smeru, fat, smero (Voc.).

Smerl, sb. ointment, S2.

Smerld, pp. anointed, S2.

Smerte, adj. and adv. painful, sharp, sharply, quick, quickly, C, S, PP; smert, S2; smart, S2, C3; smertely, adv., G.—AS. smeart.

Smerte, sb. smart, pain, C2; smierte, S; smert, C3.

Smerten, v. to smart, to be pained, PP, S, S2, C2; smeorten, S; smerte, pt. s., C; smerted, S3.—AS. smeortan (EETS. 79, p. 36).

Smiten, v. to smite; smyten, PP; smit, pr. s., C2, PP; smot, pt. s., S, S2, PP; smette, S3; smatte, S; smiten, pl., S; smyten, W; smiten, pp., PP.—AS. smítan, pt. smát (pl. smiton), pp. smiten.

Smok, sb. smock, C2, PP, Prompt.

Smok-les, adj. without a smock, C2.

Smolder, sb. smoke from smouldering wood, PP.

Smolderen, v. to smoulder; smolderande, pr. p., S2.

Smorðer, sb. suffocating smoke, S; smorþre, PP.

Smorðren, v. to smother, suffocate, SD.

Smot, pt. s. of Smiten, q.v.

Smul, sb. smell, S; see Smell.

Smurieð, pr. pl. smear, S; see Smerien.

Smyðien, v. to forge; smythye, P; smytheth, pr. s., P.—AS. smiðian.

Smyþþe, sb. smithy, forge, S2; smythy, Prompt.—AS. smiððe (Voc.).

Snapere, v. to trip, to stumble, W2, SD; snapper, HD; snapirs, pr. s., WA.

Snað, pt. s. cut, S; see Sniðen.

Snaw, sb. snow, S; see Snow.

Snelle, adj. quick, sharp, S, S2; snell, S3; snel, S.—AS. snell: OHG. snel (Otfrid).

Snepe, adj. foolish, S.

Snesien, v. to strike, S.—AS. snǽsan (in á-snǽsan, BT), to put on a spit; from snás, a spit (Voc.); cp. Icel. sneisa from sneis.


Sniðen, v. to cut; snað, pt. s., S.—AS. sníðan, pt. snáð (pl. snidon); cp. OHG. snídan (Tatian).

Sniwen, v. to snow; snewen, SD; sniuþ, pr. s., S; sniweþ, SD; snew, pt. s., SD; snewede, C.—AS. sníwan.

Snorkil, sb. wrinkle, H.—Cp. North.E. snurkle, to run into knots, JD, snurl, to wrinkle, JD; cp. OHG. snuor, string, see Fick, 7. 351.

Snow, sb. snow, Prompt., PP; snouȝ, PP; snou, S; snaw, S.—AS. snáw: Goth. snaiws.

Snowte, sb. snout, Prompt.; snute, S.—Cp. G. schnauze.

Snybbyn, v. to rebuke, Prompt., C; snube, H; snybid, pt. pl., H; snyband, pr. p., H; snibbed, pp., C2.

Snybbynge, sb. rebuke, Prompt.; snybynge, H; snibbing, S2; snybyngis, pl., H.

Snytyn, v. to clear the nose, Prompt.; snytte, pt. s., S2; y-snyt, pp., S2.

Sobre, adj. sober, sedate, C2; sobur, Prompt.—OF. sobre; Lat. sobrium.

Sobreliche, adj. and adv. sedate, soberly, CM; soburly, CM; soberly, C.

Soburnesse, sb. soberness, Prompt.

Soche, adj. such, S; see Swyche.

Socht, pt. pl. sought, went, S3; see Sechen.

Socour, sb. succour, C2, C3; socowre, Prompt.—AF. sucur, soccour, OF. socors; Late Lat. succursus (Ducange).

Sodeyn, adj. sudden, C2, C3; sodeynly, adv. suddenly, S3, C2; sodeynliche, S2.—AF. sodeyne; Late Lat. subitanum, see BH, § 122.

Softe, adj. soft, warm, mild, gentle, S, S2, C3; adv. gently, luxuriously, S2, S, C3; softeliche, gently, S; softely, C3. Comb.: zoft-hede, sb. softness, S2.—AS. sófte.

Sohte, pt. s. sought, S, S2; see Sechen.

Soke, sb. the exercise of judicial power, PP, SkD. Der.: soken, the territory or precinct in which public privileges were exercised, SkD; sokne, PP; (Rotland)-sokene, (Rutland)shire, P.—AS. sóc, the exercise of judicial power; sócn, sócen, an enquiry; see Schmid.

Sokelynge, sb. suckling, Prompt.

Sokelynge, sb. a herb, locusta, Prompt.

Sokyl-blome, sb. locusta, Voc.—From a form *sokel, that which sucks. Cp. Hony-souke.

Solas, sb. rest, solace, pleasure, merriment, G, C2, PP, SkD.—AF. solas, OF. solaz, Lat. solatium; see BH, § 143.

Solde, should; see Scholde.

Solempne, adj. solemn, grand, festive, magnificent, C2, C3, Prompt.; solempnely, adv. with pomp, S2, C2, C3; solenliche, PP.—AF. solempne; Lat. solemnem.

Solempnite, sb. festivity, C, Prompt.—AF. sollempnitee; Lat. solemnitatem.

Solere, sb. an upper room, loft, Prompt., Voc., HD; throne, H; soler, W, Voc., HD; soller, Palsg.; stage of a house, ND; sollar, HD, Palsg.—AF. soler, solair, OF. solier; Late Lat. solarium (Voc.); cp. AS. solere (Grein), OS. soleri. OHG. soleri (Tatian), solári, the prætorium of Pilate, also a guest-chamber (Otfrid), Du. zolder.

Soleyne, adj. solitary, hating company, sullen, PP, Prompt.; soleyn, PP, W2; sollein, S3.—OF. solain, solitary, pertaining to one alone: Late Lat. *solanum, from Lat. solus.

Somdel; see under Sum.

Some, sb. concord, S.—AS. sóme.

Somed, adv. together, S; somet, S; see Samed.

Somer, sb. summer, C; sumer, S; someres, gen. s., C2, C3. Comb.: somer-game, summer-game, P.—AS. sumor: OS. sumar; cp. OHG. sumar (Tatian).

Somme, sb. sum, S3, C3; some, S3; summe, Prompt.—AF. summe (sume); Lat. summa.

Somnen, v. to join, S; see Samnen.

Sompne, v. to summon, PP, CM; someny, PP; somony, S2; somoni, S; somownyn, Prompt.; somondis, pr. s., H; sumundis, H; somened, pp., W.—AF. somoundre (pr. p. somonant), OF. semondre; Late Lat. submōnĕre; Lat. sub + mŏnēre.

Sompnour, sb. summoner, one who cites before an ecclesiastical court, C, PP; sumpnour, S2; somnour, PP; somner, PP; somenour, PP; sumnowre, Prompt.—AF. sumenour.

Somwat; see under Sum.

Sond, sb. sand, S, S2, C, PP; sand, PP; sonde, dat., S.—AS. sand.

Sond, sb. a dish or mess of food; sand, gift, S2; sonde, dat., S; sonden, pl., S; sandon, S.—AS. sand, ‘ferculum’ (Voc.).

Sonde, sb. a sending, message, gift sent, also mission, embassy, messenger, S, S2, 210 C3, P, G, H (p. 497); sonden, pl., S; sondes, S. Comb.: sondezmon, messenger, S2; sandesman, SD; sandismene, pl., HD.

Sonder. Comb.: sonderemen, messengers, S; sanderbodes, messengers, S.—AS. sander in sandermen (Chron. ann. 1123).

Sondry, separate, C2; see Sunder.

Sone, sb. son, S, S2, C2, G; sune, S; zone, S2; sun, S2. Comb.: sone in lawe, son-in-law, C2.—AS. sunu: Goth. sunus.

Sone, adv. forthwith, quickly, soon, S, G, S2, C2, PP; soune, S3; son, S2; soyn, S2; sonest, superl., C2; sonnest, P.—AS. sóna, see Sievers, 317.

Song, pt. s. sang, C2; see Syngen.

Songe, sb. song, Prompt.; sang, S, S3; zang, S2; songes, pl., S.—AS. sang.

Songe-warie, sb. the observation of dreams, P.—OF. songe; Lat. somnium, dream.

Sonne, sb. sun, S, S2, C2, P; sunne, S, S2, Prompt. Comb.: sunne-bem, sunbeam, S; Sunnen-dæi, Sunday, S; sunne-dei, S; sunedai, S; sunedei, S; sone-dæi, S; soneday, S, G; sonendayes, pl., S2; sunne-risindde, sun-rising, S.—AS. sunne: OS. sunna.

Soop, pt. t. of Sup.

Soope, sb. soap, Prompt.; sape, S.—AS. sápe; Lat. sāpo.

Soot, Soote, adj. sweet, S3; see Swete.

Sooth, Soothly; see Soth.

Sop, pt. s. created, S; see Schapen.

Sope, pp. of Sup.

Soper, sb. supper, C, C2, G; see Souper.

Sophyme, sb. a sophism, C2; sophimes, pl., subtleties, C2.—OF. sophisme (Cotg.); Gr. σόφισμα.

Soppe, sb. a sop, Cath., PP; sop, C; soppis, pl., S3.

Sopun, pp. of Sup.

Sore, v. to soar, mount aloft, C2, CM.—OF. essorer (Cotg.); Late Lat. *exaurare, to expose to the air (Lat. aura).

Sore, adj. and adv. sore, painful, S, C2, G; sare, S2, S; sar, S, S3, S2; soore, Prompt.; sair, B.—AS. sár.

Sore, sb. sore, misery, C2; sor, S; sar, S; soore, Prompt.—AS. sár.

Soren, pp. shorn, S; see Schere.

Sort, sb. destiny, chance, lot, C, W; sorte, turn (= Lat. vice), W.—AF. sort; Lat. sortem.

Sorwe, sb. sorrow, S, S2, CM, C2; sorȝe, S; zorȝe, S2; soriȝe, S; soreȝe, S; sareȝe, S; soreghe, S2; seorewe, S; serewe, S; seoruwe, S; serwe, S2; soru, S2; sorhe, S; sorewe, S, S2.—AS. sorh: OS. sorga.

Sorwe-ful, adj. sorrowful, C; sorful, S; sorwefully, adv. sorrowfully, C2.

Sorwen, v. to sorrow, CM; serrȝheþþ, pr. s., S.—AS. sorgian.

Sorwynge, sb. sorrowing, CM; sorewyngis, pl., W.

Sory, adj. sorry, wretched, painful, grievous, Prompt., S2, C, C2, PP, G; sori, S, S2, PP; sari, S; særi, S; sariliche, adv., S; soryly, Prompt. Comb.: sorymod, sad in mind, S.—AS. sárig.

Sorynesse, sb. sadness, Prompt.; sorinesse, S.—AS. sárignes.

Soster, sb. sister, S2; see Suster.

Sote, adj. sweet, C2, C3; see Swete.

Soth, adj. and sb. true, truth, sooth, soothsaying, S, S2, C3, P, H; sooth, C2; suth, S2; sothe, W, S2, S3, P; soothe, S3; zoþe, S2; sothely, adv., verily, PP, W; soothly, C2. Comb.: soðfast, true, S, S3, H; sothefast, W; soothfastnesse, truth, C2, C3, H; sothnes, truth, S2, H; sothnesse, S2, P; sothriht, truly, S.—AS. sóð (for *sonð, *sanð); cp. Icel. sannr (for *sanðr); cp. Dan. sand.

Sothe, adj. south, S3; see Sowthe.

Sothien, v. to verify, SD, SkD (s.v. soothe); i-soðet, pp., S.—AS. ge-sóðian.

Sothroun, adj. southern, S3; see Sowtherne.

Sotte, sb. fool, S, Prompt., PP; sot, S, S2; sottes, gen., S, S2. Der.: sotlice, foolishly, S; sotschipe, folly, S; sotted, besotted, C3.—OF. sot.

Sotyle, adj. subtle, fine-wrought, crafty, ingenious, Prompt.; sotyl, PP; sotil, PP, C; sotel, PP; sutelle, Cath.; sutaille, S3; sotely, adv., PP; suteli, W.—AF. sotil, sutil; Lat. subtīlem.

Sotyle, v. to reason subtly, to make use of cunning, PP; sotilen, PP; sutils, pr. s., makes subtle, H.

Sotylte, sb. skill, Prompt.; sotilte, C3.—AF. sotiltee; Lat. subtilitatem.

Souchen, v. to suspect, SD, HD; souches, pr. s., S2.—OF. suscher; Late Lat. *suspicare, for Lat. suspicari, see Diez, p. 681, and BH, § 152.

Souden, v. to pay, PP. See Sowde.

Soudly, adj. dirty, S3.—Cp. Northern 211 E. suddill, to dirty (JD), also G. sudeln, to do dirty work.

Souerty, sb. surety, S3; see Surety.

Soufre, sb. sulphur, S2; soulfre, CM.—OF. soufre, soulfre (Cotg.); Late Lat. sulfurem.

Souken, v. to suck, C2, S2, W2; sowken, S3. Comb.: soukynge-fere, foster-brother, W.—AS. súcan, pt. séac, pp. socen.

Soule, sb. soul, PP, S, S2; sowle, S, C; saule, S, S2, H; sawle, S; saull, S3; soulen, pl., S, S2; saulen, S; sawless, S; sowle, S; zaulen, S2. Comb.: soule hele, soul’s salvation, PP; sawel hel, S2.—AS. sáwol, sáwle: Goth. saiwala.

Soun, sb. sound, S2, S3, C2, W2, H: sown, H, W, W2; sowne, S2; son, S2; sownde, Prompt.—AF. soun, OF. son; Lat. sonum.

Sound, sb. a swoon, S3; see Swowne.

Sounen, v. to sound, C2, PP; sownen, C2, S2, W2, PP; sowndyn, Prompt.; sunen, S.—AF. suner, soner; Lat. sonare.

Sounyng, sb. sounding, S2.

Soupen, v. to sup, drink gradually, to eat supper, P, W, C2; sowpen, S3.—OF. souper. Of Teutonic origin. Cp. Sup.

Souper, sb. supper, C; soper, C, C2, G.—OF. souper, AF. soper.

Souple, adj. supple, pliant, C, C2.—OF. souple, beaten, defeated (Bartsch); Lat. supplicem, submissive.

Soure, adj. sour, acid, PP; sur, S; soure, adv. sourly, C2, P. Comb.: sourdouȝ, leaven, W; sourdow, W; sourdowȝ, W.—AS. súr; cp. Icel. súrr and súrdegi (Matt. 13. 33).

Souren, v. to sour; sowrid, pp., made sour, W.

Sours, sb. source, origin, C2; soaring, CM.—OF. sourse, a spring of water; Late Lat. sursa, a late pp. f. form from Lat. surgere (OF. sordre, pp. sors, sours).

Souse, v. to strike, dash, RD, SkD; souce, Spenser 1. See below.

Souse, sb. the downward plunge of a bird of prey, RD. (Originally the same as Sours, used of a hawk’s flight.—W. W. S.)

Soutere, sb. cobbler, S3; souter, PP; sowter, Cath., ND.—AS. sútere (Voc.); Lat. sutor.

Souteresse, sb. a woman shoe-seller, P.

Souenaunce, sb. remembrance, S3.—OF. sovenance, also souvenance (Cotg.), from sovenir; Lat. subuenire.

Souerentè, sb. sovereignty, Prompt.; souerayntee, C2.—AF. soverainte.

Souereyn, adj. and sb. supreme, sovereign, C, C2, C3; souereynes, pl., superiors, P, W; sufrayns, H; souereyneste, superl., W2; soueraignly, adv., C.—AF. soverein; Late Lat. *superanum.

Sowdan, sb. sultan, S2, C3.—OF. soudan, souldan; Arab. sultân.

Sowdanesse, sb. sultaness, S2, C3.

Sowde, v. to strengthen; sowdid, pp. (= Lat. consolidatae), W.—OF. souder (Cotg.): It. soldare; Lat. solidare, see SkD (s.v. solder).

Sowde, sb. stipend, pay, W; sowd, Prompt.; sowdis, pl., W.—OF. soude; Lat. soldum, a sum of money, from solidus.

Sowdyowre, sb. one that fights for pay, soldier, Prompt.; soudiour, S3.—Cp. OF. soudoier (Ducange).

Sowen, v. to sow, S, PP; sawe, S; souwen, PP; sewe, pt. s., W; sew, H; sewen, pl., S; seowe, pt. s. subj., S; sowun, pp., W; sowe, G; ȝe-sawen, S.—AS. sáwan.

Sowse, v. to immerse in brine, to plunge in water, to drench with rain, Palsg., S3; soused, pp., pickled, Sh.; soust, drenched, Spenser 1.—From OF. sause, sauce; Lat. salsa, salted.

Sowse, sb. a dish of pickled food, succidium, Voc.

Sowthe, adj. south, Prompt.; sothe, S3; suð, S. Comb.: Souþ-hamtessire, Hampshire, S2; Suð-sæxe, Sussex, SD.—AS. súð: OHG. sund-ana, from the south (Tatian).

Sowtherne, adj. southern, Prompt.; souþeron, S2; southren, C3; sothroun, S3; suthroun, S3.

Soyr, adj. brown (as of withered leaves), S3.—OF. sor (Roland); cp. F. saure. Of Teutonic origin. See Seere.

Spæc, pt. s. of Speken, q.v.

Spæche, sb. speech, S; see Speche.

Spak, adj. wise, prudent, quiet, gentle, SD; spake, HD; spakliche, adv., SD; spakli, S2.—Icel. spakr, quiet, gentle, wise.

Spale, sb. a chip of wood, splinter, S, SD; spalle, Prompt.; spolle, Prompt.; spole, Voc.—Icel. spölr (spala, gen. pl.).

Spang, sb. a metal fastening, brooch, clasp, buckle; spangs, pl., S3.—AS. spange (Grein).

Spangele, sb. a small plate of shining 212 metal used to ornament a bridle, lorale, Prompt.

Spanyn, v. to wean, Prompt.; spane, HD; spaned, H, Cath.—Cp. G. spänen, OHG. (bi)spenjan, Du. spenen, see Weigand; cp. also AS. spana, ‘ubera’ (Voc.).

Spanynge, sb. a weaning, ablactacio, Cath., Prompt.

Sparkle, sb. spark. Prompt. Comb.: deed-sparcle (= Lat. fauilla), W2.

Sparlire, sb. the calf of the leg, HD; sparlyuer, sura, Trevisa (5. 355); sperlyuer, musculus, Voc.—AS. spear-líra, ‘sura’ (Deut. 28. 35), speoru-líra (OET.).

Sparre, sb. a beam, bar, spar, C, S3, Prompt., Cath.—AS. speoru (Voc.); cp. Icel. sparri.

Sparthe, sb. axe, battle-axe, Prompt., Cath.; sparth, C, WA.—Icel. sparða.

Sparwe, sb. sparrow, C, S2; sparowe, Prompt. Comb.: spar-hauk, sparrow-hawk, C2; sperhauke, P.—AS. spearwa.

Spatel, sb. spittle, S; see Spotil.

Spateling, sb. spitting, S.

Spealie, v. to tell, S; see Spellien.

Spec, pt. s. of Speken, q.v.

Spece, sb. species, kind, S, Prompt.—Lat. speciem. Cf. Spice.

Speche, sb. speech, S, S2, PP; spæche, S; spek, S2.—AS. spǽc (Voc.). See Speken.

Sped, sb. success, speed, S; speed, Prompt.—AS. spéd.

Spede-ful, adj. profitable, W; speedful, C3; spedfullest, superl., S3.

Speden, v. to succeed, prosper, speed, S, S2, S3; spet, pr. s., speeds, goes on, G; spedith, profits, S3, W2; spedde, pt. s., S, C2; sped, pp., S3.—AS. spédan.

Speir, sb. sphere, S3; see Spere.

Speken, v. to speak, S, S2; spæken, S; spece, 1 pr. s., S; specð, pr. s., S; spæc, pt. s., S; spac, S, S2; spak, S, S2; spec, S, spek, S; spake, 2 pt. s., S, G; speke, S; spækenn, pl., S; speken, S; speke, S2; speeke, S2; spekene, ger., S; speokene, S; i-speken, pp., S; ispeke, S.—AS. specan (for sprecan), pt. spæc, pp. specen.

Spell, sb. a discourse, story, S; spelle, dat., S, S2, C2.—AS. spell.

Spellien, v. to relate, speak; spellen, S, PP; spealie, S; spilien, S.—AS. spellian.

Spellinge, sb. recital, Prompt., S2.

Spence, sb. provision-room, larder, G, Prompt.; spense, Voc.; expense, G, W.—OF. despense (Constans); Late Lat. dispensa (Voc.).

Spencer, sb. officer having charge of the provisions, G; spenser, G; sponcere, Prompt.—OF. despensier; Late Lat. dispensarium (acc.).

Spenden, v. to use, spend, Prompt., PP; spene, S, PP; spende, pt. pl., S2; i-spend, pp., S; spendid, W; sponded, G. Comb.: spending-siluer, money to spend, C3.—AS. spendan (in compounds); Lat. dispendere.

Spennen, v. to stretch, embrace, grasp, SD; spendyd, pt. s., grasped, S3; spend, pp., SD.—Icel. spenna; cp. AS. spannan, to bind, OHG. (gi)spannan (Otfrid); see Weigand.

Spercled, pp. scattered, flung abroad, S3 (24. 67).

Sperd, pt. s. of Spiren, q.v.

Spere, sb. sphere, Prompt., CM; speir, S3.—OF. espere; Late Lat. spera, sphera; Gr. σφαῖρα.

Spere, sb. spear, S, C, Prompt.—AS. spere; cp. OHG. sper (Tatian).

Speren, v. to fasten with a spar, to close, S, Cath.; sperre, Cath.; speride, pt. s., S2; sperd, pp., S, H; sperrid, H.—AS. sparrian. See Sparre.

Sperhauke, sb. sparrow-hawk, P; see under Sparwe.

Sperling, sb. a small fish, S2; sperlynge, Cath., Voc.; sparlynge, Cath. (n); spurling, Cath. (n).—OF. esperlan, smelt (Cotg.).

Spet, pr. s. of Speden, q.v.

Speten, v. to spit, S, W2, Voc., CM; spette, pt. s., W, SD; spete, W; speten, pl., W; spetide, pt. s., W.—AS. spǽtan, pt. spǽtte.

Spewen, v. to vomit, Cath.; spue, W2.—AS. spíwan, pt. spáw, pp. spiwen.

Spice, sb. species, kind, spice, W; spyce, Voc.; spices, pl., S, P. Comb.: spicelike, with spices, S; spices ware, spicery, S.—OF. espice; Late Lat. spĕcia (for Lat. spĕciem), see BH, § 32. See Spece.

Spicer, sb. dealer in spices, P, S2; spyserez, pl., S2.

Spicerye, sb. spicery, S2, C2, C3.—AF. spicerie.

Spie, sb. spy, PP; see Aspie.

Spien, v. to spy, to look after, to watch, S; see Espye.

Spilen, v. to play, S; spilede, pt. s., S.—Icel. spila; cp. G. spielen.


Spilien, v. to speak, S; see Spellien.

Spillen, v. to perish, also to destroy, S, S2, C2, C3, P; spyllen, S2; spill, S3; spilt, pp., killed, C3; y-spilte, PP.—AS. spillan, to destroy (Grein).

Spire, sb. shoot, scion, blade, tall grass, reed, PP, S, G, CM; spyre, Prompt., PP, Palsg.; spier, W2.

Spiren, v. to enquire, speer, PP; speren, PP; speoren, PP; spuren, PP; spirs, imp. pl., S2; spird, pt. pl., S2; sperd, pt. s., S3.—AS. spyrian, to make a track, from spor, track, see SkD (s.v. spur).

Splene, sb. the spleen, Prompt.; splen, SkD. Phr.: on the splene, suddenly, S3; fro the splene, with sudden fervour, rapidly, S3.—Lat. splen.

Spoile, sb. booty, SkD; spuylis, pl., W2. See below.

Spoilen, v. to plunder, W (Mk. 3. 27); spuyle, W; spuylid, pp., W2.—OF. spolier (Cotg.); Lat. spoliare; see BH, § 64.

Spone, sb. a chip, splinter of wood, spoon, C3, Prompt.; spoon, C2. Comb.: span-newe, span new, SkD; spon-neowe, SkD.—AS. spón; cp. Icel. spónn, also spánn; cp. G. spannen (Weigand).

Spore, sb. spur, PP, Prompt., C, G.—AS. spora.

Spotil, sb. spittle, W; spotele, W2; spatel, S.—AS. spátl.

Spousaille, sb. wedding, C2; spousail, C2; sposailis, pl., W.—OF. espousailles.

Spouse, sb. spouse, bridegroom, bride, W; spuse, S; spowse, Prompt. Comb.: spousbreche, adulterer, SD; spusbruche, adultery, SD; spousebrekere, adulterer, W; spoushod, marriage, S2.—AF. espouse (espuse); Lat. sponsam; also OF. espos, spous; Lat. sponsum; see BH, § 169.

Spousen, v. to espouse, W, S2, C2; spousi, S2; i-spoused, pp., S2; y-spoused, S2; i-spused, S.—OF. espouser; Lat. sponsare.

Sprangis, sb. pl. diffused rays of various colours, S3.

Spraulin, v. to sprawl, SD; sprawel, S2; sprauleden, pt. pl., S.—AS. spréawlian (cited by Zupitza from Bouloneser Glossen, see Studium der neueren Sprachen, July, 1886).

Sprayngis, sb. pl. sprinklings, S3. See Sprengen.

Spreden, v. to spread, PP, S, S2; spradde, pt. s., C2; spredd, pp., S; sprad, C; y-sprad, C2.—AS. sprǽdan.

Spreit, sb. spirit, S3; spyryte, Prompt.—Lat. spiritus.

Sprengen, v. to sprinkle, W, G; sprente, pt. s., S3; spreynten, pl., W2; spreynd, pp., S2, C2, C3, W; spreind, W; spreynt, W; y-spreynd, C.—AS. sprengan, causal of springan.

Sprengen, v. to spring, to be diffused; sprent, pt. s., S3.—AS. sprengan, to spring (Sweet).

Sprenkelin, v. to sprinkle, to dart, Prompt.; sprynkland, pr. p., darting in various directions (of fish in the water), S3.

Spring, sb. a rod, sprig, PP; sprynge, P; sprenges, pl., W2.

Springen, v. to spring, to arise, to dawn, PP, S, C2; sprynge, PP; sprenge, pr. s. subj., W; sprang, pt. s., S; sprong, S; sprungen, pp., S2; sprunge, S; sprongen, S3; spronge, C; i-sprunge, S. Der.: springing, beginning, source, C2.—AS. springan, pt. sprang (pl. sprungon), pp. sprungen.

Springen, v. to make to spring, rouse; sprange, pt. pl., S3. See below.

Springen, v. to sprinkle, C2; y-spronge, pp., S2. Der.: springyng, sprinkling, W. See Sprengen.

Sprutlyt, pp. speckled, S3. See SkD (s.v. sprout).

Sprynkland; see Sprenkelin.

Spurn, sb. a kick, S3.

Spurnen, v. to kick, Prompt., C2, SkD; spurnde, pt. s., S2.—AS. speornan.

Spuyle, v. to plunder, W; see Spoilen.

Spuylis, pl. spoils, W; see Spoile.

Spynke, sb. finch, rostellus, Voc.; spink, Cotg., JD, HD; spynk, S3 (s.v. gold). Cp. Gr. σπίγγος, and OF. pinçon (BH), F. pinson.

Spynnare, sb. spinner, spider, Prompt.; spinner, Sh., HD.

Spynnen, v. to spin, Prompt.

Spynstare, sb. a woman who spins, Prompt.; spynnester, PP; spinster, S2, PP, Sh.

Spyrakle, sb. the breath of life, S2.—Lat. spiraculum uitae, Gen. 7. 22 (Vulg.).

Squames, sb. pl. scales, C3.—Lat. squama.

Squaymous, adj. loth, fastidious, CM; see Skeymowse.

Squier, sb. squire, S, C2; squyer, C2, S2.—OF. esquïer, escuier; Late Lat. scutarium, from Lat. scutum, shield; cp. It. scudiére.


Squyler, sb. dish-washer, S2; sqwyllare, Prompt., SkD (s.v. scullery); swyllere, Voc.—OF. sculier (Ducange); Late Lat. scutelarium, one in charge of the dishes (Ducange); from Lat. scutella. (It seems to have been confused with swiller; see SkD, s.v. scullery.—W. W. S.)

Squylerey, sb. room for washing dishes in, a scullery, SkD.—Cp. OF. esculier; Late Lat. scutellarium, ‘locus ubi reponuntur scutellae’ (Ducange). See above.

Sqware, adj. square, Prompt.; sware, S2.—OF. esquarre; Lat. ex + quadram; cp. It. squadra.

Srid, pt. s. clothed, S; see Schrouden.

Srud, sb. dress, S; see Schroud.

Ss-; see Sch-.

Sseawere, sb. a mirror, S2; see Schawere.

Sseawy, v. to show, S2; see Schewen.

Ssedde; see under Scheden.

Ssede; see under Schade.

Ssolde, should; see Scholde.

Ssoldren, pl. shoulders, S2; see Schuldere.

Stable, adj. constant, firm, fixed, C2, W, PP; stabli, adv., W.—AF. estable; Lat. stabilem.

Stable, v. to establish, confirm, to cause to rest, S3, W, P, C; y-stabled, S3.—OF. establir.

Stablischen, v. to establish, W; stablisse, PP.—OF. establiss-, stem of establissant, pp. of establir.

Stac, pt. s. closed up, S2; see Steken.

Stad, pp. bestead, circumstanced, beset, WA, S2.—Icel. staddr, circumstanced, Swed. stadd.

Staf, sb. a staff, stick, a letter of the alphabet, PP, SD; staffe, Prompt.; staues, pl., S2, PP. Comb.: stef-creft, the art of grammar, S; staf-slinge, staff-sling, C2; staff-slynge, HD; staff-slyngere, staff-slinger, HD.—AS. stæf, staff, stick, twig, letter written on a twig, see Weigand (s.v. buchstab); cp. Icel. stafr, OHG. stab, buohstab (Tatian).

Staire, adj. steep, WA; stayre, WA (n).

Staire, sb. stair, ladder, WA.—AS. stǽger. See Stien.

Stal, Stall, pt. s. of Stelen.

Stale, sb. stealing, S.—AS. stalu.

Stalken, v. to step slowly, C, G; stalkyn, Prompt.; stalked him, pt. s. refl., C2.—AS. stealcian; see Sweet, Anglo-Saxon Primer, 83. 37.

Stalle, sb. place, state, station, prison, stall, booth, PP, Prompt.; steal, S; stal, Prompt.; stale, S3.—AS. steal: OHG. stal (Otfrid).

Stallit, pp. placed, S3.

Stallyn, v. to enthrone prelates, Prompt.

Stalworðe, adj. stout, strong, sturdy, S2, G; stalworth, PP, H (pp. 26, 87); stalword, S2; stalworthy, S3, Prompt.; stalworþest, superl., S2; stalwortly, adv. sturdily, S2. Comb.: stalworth-hede, stalwartness, S2.—AS. stælwurð (Chron. ann. 896).

Stamyn, sb. stamine, linsey-woolsey cloth, a garment made of that material, Prompt., Cath. (n); stamin, S; stamine, HD.—OF. estamine, tamine, also a strainer (Cotg.).

Stamyn, sb. the stem, bows of a vessel, S2; stamyne, Cath. (n).—Icel. stafn, stamn, a post, prow-post, also stern-post; cp. It. stamine, the upright ribs or pieces of timber of the inside of a ship, of our shipwrights called foot-stocks (Florio).

Standen, v. to stand, to cost, be valid, S; stonden, S, S2, C2, W; stant, pr. s., S, S2, S3; stont, S; stand, S2; stonte, S2; stode, pt. s., S2; pl., S2; stoden, S2, C2; stude, S3; i-stonde, pp., S.—AS. standan, pt. stód, pp. ge-standen.

Stane, sb. dat. stone, S; see Stoon.

Stang, sb. stagnant pool; stanc, S2; stank, HD; stangis, pl., H; stangeȝ, S2; staunkis, H.—OF. estang, estan (estanc); Lat. stagnum.

Stangen, v. to prick, to throb, HD, H. Der.: stangynge, torment, H.

Stannyris, sb. pl. the small stones and gravel at the side of a river, S3. See Stoon.

Staple, sb. a loop of iron in a wall used for fastening chains, S3 (p. 472).—AS. stapul (Voc.).

Starf, pt. s. died, S2, C2; see Steruen.

Starin, v. to stare, also to shine, glitter, SD; stare, C2, S3, PP; starinde, pr. p., S; stareand, S2.—AS. starian.

Stark, adj. strong, firm, severe, S, S3; starrc, S; starke, pl., C2.—AS. stearc: OS. starc.

Starnys, pl. stars, S3; see Sterne.

Stat, sb. state, condition, S2; staat, existence (= Lat. status), W. Cf. Estat.

Staþelien, to establish; ȝe-staþeled, pp., S.—AS. ge-staðelod.


Staþelnesse, sb. stability, SD; staþelnes, S2.—AS. staðolnes.

Statut, sb. statute, PP; statute, PP; statutes, pl., S2, PP. Comb.: statute-staple, the staple to which a prisoner is by law attached, S3.—AF. statut (estatut); Lat. statutum.

Stauez, pr. s. stows away, S2; stawed, pp., S2; see Stowyn.

Steal, sb. place, state, S; see Stalle.

Steapre; see Stepe.

Steaȝ, pt. s. of Stien, q.v.

Stede, sb. steed, horse, S, C2, PP, WA. Comb.: stede-bac, horseback, PP.—AS. stéda, from stód, a collection of horses, a stud.

Stede, sb. place, PP, S, S2, S3; stude, S; stide, W, W2; stud, S2; sted, S3. Comb.: stedefast, steadfast, S; stedefastliche, steadfastly, S; stedfastly, C2; stedefastnesse, firmness, C2.—AS. stede: OS. stedi: Goth. stadi- (stem of staths).

Stee, sb. a ladder, WA, HD; sties, pl., HD. See Stien.

Steef, Stef; see Styf.

Steer, sb. a young ox, C, PP.—AS. stéor; cp. Lat. taurus, see Curtius, No. 232.

Stef-creft, sb. the art of grammar, S; see Staf.

Stefne, sb. voice, S; see Steuene.

Steghe, v. to ascend, H; see Stien.

Steghere, sb. rider, H.

Steir, v. to stir, S3; see Stiren.

Steken, v. to fasten, SD, WA; stekye, v., to be fastened up, P; stekez, imp. pl., S2; stac, pt. s., S2; stak, SkD (s.v. stick); stoken, pp., S2; y-steke, G; i-steke, G.—Cp. OHG. stechan, to fix, pierce, pt. stáh (pl. stáchun), pp. gi-stochan, see Otfrid.

Stelen, v. to steal, to go stealthily, PP; stæl, pt. s., S; stal, C2, W; stall, S3; stalen, pl., S; stelen, S; stole, pp., C. Comb.: stæl ut, stole out, S; stal ut, S.—AS. stelan, pt. stæl (pl. stǽlon), pp. stolen.

Stelðe, sb. stealth, PP; stalthe, SkD. Cf. Stouth.

Stem, sb. vapour, ray of light, flame, S; steem, Prompt.—AS. stéam.

Stemin, v. to steam, shine, gleam, C, S3, CM.—AS. stéman (SkD).

Stene, sb. a stone jar, SD, Trevisa 4. 115; steenes, pl., S2. See below.

Stenen, adj. made of stone, S.—AS. stǽnen (Voc.). See Stoon.

Stent, sb. stopping-place, S3.

Stenten, v. to cease, pause, CM; see Stynten.

Steoren, v. to perfume with incense, S.—Cp. AS. stéran (Leo). See Stor.

Steoren, v. lead, direct, S; see Steren.

Steorren, pl. stars, S; see Sterre.

Step-barn, sb. orphan, H.—Cp. AS. step-cild, orphan, Ps. 67. 6 (VP); AS. stéop, orphaned; cp. OHG. stiuf.

Stepe, adj. steep, WA, SkD.—AS. stéap.

Stepe, adj. bright, shining (of eyes), CM, C, S3, HD; steapre, comp., S3 (p. 426).

Stere, adj. strong, stout, firm, S, HD. See Store.

Stere, sb. tiller, helm, rudder, steering-gear, the stern of a ship, C3, S; steere, W2; stiere, PP. Comb.: sterelees, without a rudder, S2, C3; sterman, steersman. Voc.—Icel. stýri, rudder.

Stere, sb. helmsman, C3, S2.

Steren, v. to lead, direct, steer, S, S3, PP; steir, B; steoren, S.—AS. stéoran, stýran.

Steren, v. to stir, to move, S2, WA, PP; see Stiren.

Sterlinge, sb. coin, penny of standard currency, C3, PP, SkD.—Cp. Low Lat. sterlingus (Ducange).

Sterne, sb. star, WA, H, S2; stern, S2, B; starnys, pl., S3.—Icel. stjarna. Cf. Sterre.

Sterne, adj. stern, Prompt.; sturne, S, S2; steryn, WA; sterin, HD; steryne, HD; stiarne, pl., S; adv., S; sterne, PP; sternelich, CM, PP. Der.: sturnhede, sternness, S2.—AS. styrne.

Sterre, sb. star, S, S2, S3, C2, C3, W, PP; storre, S; steorren, pl., S; steores, S; sterris, W, PP; sterren, S, S2. Comb.: sterre-liht, starlight, S2. Der.: i-stirret, starred, S; stirrede, SD.—AS. steorra: OS. sterro; cp. OHG. sterro (Tatian).

Stert, sb. tail, plough-handle, S, Prompt., Palsg., HD; the stalk of fruit, HD, Palsg.; sterte, Voc. Comb.: steort-naket, quite naked, S.—AS. steort; cp. Icel. stertr.

Stert, sb. a start, quick movement, C.

Sterten, v. to start, S2, C, B, PP; stirt, imp. s., S; stirte, pt. s., S; stirt, S; sterte, C, G; stert, S2; stert, pp., C2; y-stert, C.

Steruen, v. to die, S2, S3, C2; sterfeð, pr. s., S; starf, pt. s., S2, C2; sturuen, pl., S; sturfe, S; storuen, C3; storue, 216 pt. subj. s., S; i-storue, pp., S; y-storue, C; staruen, S3.—AS. steorfan, pt. stǽrf (pl. sturfon), pp. storfen.

Steruing, sb. dying, S2.

Steuene, sb. voice, command, note, C2, S; steuen, S2; time of performing any action, CM; stefne, S; stevynnys, pl., S3.—AS. stefn: Goth. stibna; cp. OHG. stemna (Tatian), G. stimme.

Stew, sb. vapour, mist, B; stovys, pl., S3.—Cp. Dan. stöv, Du. stof, dust, stofregen, drizzling rain, G. staub, dust, whence Staubbach, ‘spray-beck.’

Steward; see under Sty.

Stewe, sb. fish-pond, vivarium, C, HD, SD, CM, Prompt.; stwe, Prompt.

Stewe, sb. bath, Cath.; stue, Cath. (n); stwe, Prompt.; stewes, pl. brothels, PP; stywes, CM; stues, P.

Stiarne, adj. pl. stern, S; see Sterne.

Sticchen, v. to prick, stitch, SD; stiȝte, pt. s., SD; stiȝt, pp., SD; i-stihd, S; i-sticched, S (p. 119).

Stien, v. to ascend, HD, PP, S2, W, W2; styȝen, S2; stiȝen, W, S2; steȝen, S2; steghe, H, S2; steaȝ, pt. s., S2; steiȝ, S3; stegh, S2, H; styh, S2.—AS. stígan, pt. stáh (pl. stigon), pp. stigen.

Sties, pl. paths, S2; stighes, H; see Sty.

Stikien, v. to stick, to pierce, stab, S, S2, C2, C3; styken, S2; steek, S3; stekit, pt. s., B; stekyt, S3; y-styked, pp., S2.—AS. stician. See Steken.

Stikke, sb. stick, C3; stykke, Prompt.

Stillatorie, sb. vessel used in distillation, C3, CM; stillatory, a place where distillations are performed, ND.—Late Lat. stillatorium, from Lat. (di)stillare.

Stingen, v. to sting; stonge, pt. pl., S; stongen, pp., C, H; y-stongen, S3; y-stonge, C3; stungen, H.—AS. stingan, pt. stang (pl. stungon), pp. stungen.

Stiren, v. to stir, to move, to instigate, PP, C3, W2, S, S2; stere, PP, S2, G; sturen, S, W; styren, S; steir, S3, B.—AS. styrian.

Stiring, sb. stirring, commotion, W, W2.

Stirte, pt. s. of Sterten, q.v.

Stith, sb. anvil, C, CM, Sh.; stythe, Prompt.—Icel. steði.

Stiward; see under Sty.

Stobil, sb. stubble, W2; stobul, Prompt.—AF. stuble (Ps. 82. 12, Oxford Psalter): Prov. estobla; OTeut. *stuppula; cp. OF. estoulle (Ps. 82. 13), F. éteule; see Kluge (s.v. stoppel), and BH, § 153.

Stok, sb. stock, stem, trap, the stocks, PP, W2; stoc, S; stokke, PP; stocke, S3; stoke, S2; stokkes, pl., PP; stockis, S2; stokess, S.—AS. stocc.

Prof. Napier maintains that the stokess of the Ormulum cannot be identified with AS. stocc, as the gemination of the consonant persists in the Ormulum. He suggests that stokess means ‘places,’ comparing the use of stoke in place-names, e.g. Wude stoke in Chron. (Earle, p. 249), He also cites in illustration AS. stoc-weard, ‘oppidanus,’ see Leo, p. 206.

Stoken, v. to stab, SkD, C.—OF. estoquer (Ducange).

Stole, sb. stool, P; stool, PP, Prompt.; stoule, PP.—AS. stól.

Stole, sb. a robe, W, Prompt.; stoole (= Lat. stola), W; stolis, pl., W.—Lat. stola.

Stonden; see Standen.

Stonge, pt. pl. stung, S; see Stingen.

Stonien, v. to stun, to make a loud din, to amaze with a blow, SD; stunay, H; stunayd, pp., H; stoynde, S3. See Astonen.

Stoniynge, sb. astonishment, W; stonying, W; stoneyinge, S2; stoynynge, Prompt.

Stont, pr. s. of Standen

Stony, adj. rocky, Prompt. Comb.: stony see, Adria, the Adriatic Sea, W.—Cp. Ducange ‘adria, petra; adriaticus, petrosus, lapidosus portus.’

Stoon, sb. stone, PP, W2; ston, PP, S, S3; stane, dat., S; stanes, pl., S. Comb.: stoon-stille, still as a stone, G.—AS. stán: Goth. stains.

Stoor, sb. store, stock, provision, Prompt., C, C2, C3, G; store, PP. Phr.: telle no store, set no store by, set no value upon, C.—OF. estore (Bartsch).

Stope, pp. advanced, C; stopen, CM, SkD (s.v. step).—AS. stapen, pp. of stapan (pt. stóp).

Stor, sb. incense, S; store, dat., S.—AS. stór, incense, storax; Lat. storacem, acc. of storax (Vulg.), also styrax; Gr. στύραξ.

Stordy, adj. rash, reckless, S; see Sturdy.

Store, adj. strong, powerful, large, HD, Prompt.; stoor, Prompt.—Icel. stórr.

Storour, sb. restorer, S3.

Storuen, pt. pl. died, C3; see Steruen.

Stot, sb. stallion, bullock, stoat, SkD, SD; caballus, Prompt., C; stott, buculus, WA, Voc.; stot, stoat, CM; stotte, bullock, Cath., Palsg.; stottis, pl., PP.—Cp. Icel. stútr, bull.

Stounde, sb. time, occasion, instant, period, S, S2, S3, C, C2, C3, G, PP; stund, S, S2; stunt, H; stundum, dat. pl. as 217 adv., at times, H. Comb.: stound-mele, at times, S3.—AS. stund: OS. stunda; cp. OHG. stunta, ‘tempus, hora’ (Tatian).

Stounden, v. to be for a time; stounded, pt. s., SD; stunden, pl. (= stundeden), S.

Stoupen, v. to stoop, W (John 20. 5), C3; stowpen, CM, HD.—AS. stúpian.

Stour, sb. conflict, commotion, agitation, S2, B, JD; stowre, S3; stoure, HD; stoures, pl., C2; stowres, S2.—OF. estour, estor, estur (Roland); cp. Icel. styrr, a stir, tumult, battle.

Stour, v. to move quickly, JD; stowrand, pr. p., S3.

Stouth, sb. stealth, S3.—Icel. stuldr.—Cf. Stelthe.

Stovys, sb. pl. vapours, S3; see Stew.

Stowyn, v. to stow, bring together, Prompt.; stauez, pr. s., S2; stouwet, pp., PP; stawed, S2; staued, S2; stewed, PP.—AS. stówigan (OET).

Stra, sb. straw, S; see Strawe.

Straight (for Strait), adj. close-fitting, tight, S3; see Streyt.

Strain, v. to distrain, S3.—AF. destreindre (pr. p. destreignant). See Streynen.

Strand, sb. stream, torrent, S2, S3, H; stronde, W2; strynd, JD.

Strande, sb. bank, shore, WA.

Strang, adj. strong, S; see Stronge.

Strangelyn, v. to suffocate, Prompt.; estrangle, NED; astrangle, NED, MD; astrangeled, pp., S2.—AF. estrangler; Lat. strangulare, of Gr. origin; cp. στραγγάλη, halter.

Strapeles, sb. pl. fastenings of breeches, S; strapuls, Voc.; strapils, Cath.—AS. strapulas (Voc.).

Strate, sb. way, street, S; see Strete.

Stratly, adv. closely, S2; see Streyt.

Straunge, adj. strange, foreign, C, Prompt.; strange, C.—AF. estrange; Lat. extraneum.

Straunge, v. to become strange; strangeþ, pr. s., S2; straungid, pp., HD.

Strawe, sb. straw, Prompt.; stra, S, Cath.; stree, C, Prompt. Comb.: strauberi, strawberry, SD; strabery, Cath.; strawbery-wyse, strawberry plant, Prompt.; straberi-wythe, Cath.—AS. stréaw, stréa; cp. Icel. strá, see Sievers, 250.

Strayny, pr. s. subj. restrain, S2; see Streynen.

Strayues, sb. pl. escheats, goods of strangers dead without English-born issue, and of bastards dead intestate, PP; streyues, P.—Cp. OF. estrahiere (Godefroy), also estrayere (see Cotg.), Low Lat. estraeria: Late Lat. extrateria; cp. extrates (Ducange). For the v intrusive see Parvis.

Strecchen, v. to stretch, PP; streke, H; strecche on, to exert (one self), S2; strekis, pr. s., H; strauȝte, pt. s., W; streiȝte, W; streiȝt, S2; streiȝten, pl., W; strekid, H; strekand, pr. p., S2, H; strekyng, S3; strekid, pp., H; strahte, pl., S; straughte, C.—AS. streccan, pt. strehte, pp. streht.

Stree, sb. straw, C; see Strawe.

Strem, sb. stream, ray, beam, S, S2, C2, Voc.; streem, C.—AS. stréam: Icel. straumr; see Douse, p. 61.

Stren, sb. race, progeny, HD; streen, C2; streones, pl., S.—AS. stréon, a getting, possession (Leo).

Strend, sb. generation, S2; strinds, pl., sons, children, WA.—AS. strýnd, stock, race.

Strenen, v. to get, beget, HD; ȝe-strenð, pr. s., S; i-streoned, pp., S; i-striened, S.—AS. stréonan, ge-stréonan; cp. OHG. (gi)striunen, to gain (Tatian).

Strenge, sb. string, S3, H (p. 367); strynge, Prompt.—AS. streng.

Strengen, v. to strengthen, SD; streng, imp. s., S.—AS. strangian. See Stronge.

Strengðe, sb. strength, violence, S, S2; strencðe, S; strenðe, S, S2; strengthes, pl., sources of strength, C2; strenthis, strong places, S3.—AS. strengðu.

Strengðen, v. to strengthen, SD; strengðeð him, pr. s. reflex., S; strenghþed, pt. s., S2; pp., S2; i-strengþed, S.

Strengthy, adj. strong; strenthie, JD; strenghthi, H.

Strenken, v. to sprinkle, S.

Strenkil, v. to sprinkle about, H; strenkelyn, Prompt.; strenkle, S2; strinkle, HD; strenkild, pp., H.

Strenkyl, sb. a sprinkling, a holy-water stick, Prompt.; strenkle, HD; strinkle, HD; strenncless, pl., S.

Streones, sb. pl. progeny, S; see Stren.

Strepen, v. to strip, C2, CM; streepe, C; strupen, S.—AS. strýpan (in be-strýpan).

Strete, sb. way, street, PP, S; strate, S; stret, S.—AS. strǽt: OS. stráta; Lat. strāta (uia); see Sievers, 17.


Streynen, v. to draw tight, C2, W, W2, PP; strayny, pr. s. subj., S2.—AF. streign- base of streignant, pr. p. of streindre (straindre); Lat. stringere.

Streyt, pp. and adj. pressed tightly, narrow, strict, S2, C; streite, S3, C; straight, S3; strayte, pl., S2; streyte, adv. closely, S2, C; streitliche, S2; stratly, S2; streatly, S3.—AF. estreit (estrait); Lat. strictum.

Strif, sb. strife, S; stryf, C.—AF. estrif; of Teutonic origin; see below.

Strifen, v. to strive, S2; stryvyn, Prompt.; strof, pt. s., C.—OF. estriver: Prov. estribar; OHG. strībhan; cp. G. streben; see Kluge (s.v.), and Mackel, Germ. Elemente.

Strike, sb. hank of flax, C, HD.

Striken, v. to strike, to rub, to let down, to advance, to move quickly, to flow, S2, SkD; stryke, PP, Palsg.; strok, pt. s., PP; stroke, P, WW; strake, S3, WW; strook, Sh.; strek, SkD; strike, pl., S; strake, S2; strocke, S3; striked, pp., PP, WW; striken, WW; stricken, WW; strooke, Sh.—AS. strícan, pt. strác (pl. stricon), pp. stricen.

Strogelen, v. to struggle, C3, SkD.

Strogelynge, sb. struggling, Prompt.

Stronde, sb. shore, strand, Prompt., S, C, C3, HD.—AS. strand. Cf. Strande.

Stronde, sb. stream, torrent, W2; see Strand.

Stronge, adj. strong, hard, severe, Prompt., S2; strong, S; strang, S, S2; stronge, adv., S, G; strengre, comp., S; strengere, S, S2, W2; strenger, C2; strengeste, superl., S; strengest, G.—AS. strang, comp. strengor, superl. strengest.

Strook, sb. stroke, C2. See Striken.

Stroyen, v. to destroy, PP, G, S3; struyen, P; stroy, S2, Sh.; struen, pr. pl., PP; stryede, pt. s., S2.—AF. destruy- base of destruyant, pr. p. of destruire; Late Lat. *destrŭgere; formed on Lat. destructus, pp. of destruere.

Strupen, v. to strip, S; see Strepen.

Stuard, sb. steward, S; see Sty.

Stubbe, sb. stump, trunk, C; stub, Cath.

Stucche, sb. piece, S; steche, S.—AS. stycce: OHG. stuki (Tatian).

Stude, sb. place, S; see Stede.

Stues, sb. pl. stews, baths, brothels, P; see Stewe.

Stund, sb. time, occasion, period, instant, S; see Stounde.

Stunt, adj. blunt, not sharp, obtuse, foolish, SD, HD, SkD; stuntlic, adv., foolishly, SD. Der.: stuntnesse, foolishness, SD.—Cp. OSwed. stunt, cut short.

Sturdy, adj. obstinate, stern, cruel, rash, Prompt., C2; stordy, CM, S; stourdy, SD.—OF. estourdi, amazed, rash (Cotg.), estordi, pp. of estordir; from Lat. turdus, a thrush; see Förster, ZRP, x. 84.

Sturdynesse, sb. sternness, disobedience, Prompt., C2.

Sturioun, sb. sturgeon, S2, HD.—AF. sturioun; Low Lat. sturionem; from OHG. sturio.

Sturne, Sturn-hede; see Sterne.

Sturuen, pt. pl. died, S; see Steruen.

Sty, sb. path, S2, Prompt.; stighe, dat., H; stighes, pl., H; stihes, S2; sties, S2; styes, H; steghes, H.—AS. stíg. See Stien.

Sty, sb. sty, porcarium, Prompt. Comb.: sty-ward, steward, senescallus, Prompt., C2, C3; stiward, S, C; steward, PP; stuward, P; stuard, S.—AS. stígu, a sty, whence stigweard.

Styf, adj. stiff, strong, violent, PP, S2; stif, S, S2, PP; steef, W2; stef, PP. Der.: stef-hede, sturdiness, S2.—AS. stíf; see SkD.

Styh, pt. s. mounted, S2; see Stien.

Stynten, v. to stint, cease, pause, PP, S2, H; stinten, C2, C3, S2, S; stunten, PP; stente, C2, S3; pt. s., C2; stint, S2; stynted, pl., S3; stent, pp., C.—AS. styntan, to make short. See Stunt.

Sty-rop, stirrup, Prompt., G; stirop, S, C2; stiroppe, S3.—AS. stíg-ráp (Voc.). See Stien.

Su-; see also Sw-.

Note that words in Su- are alphabetized in a single block, without distinguishing between vowel (“su” sound) and consonant (“sv” or “sw” sound).

Sua, so, as, S, S2; see Swa.

Sual, sb. swell (as of the sea), H. See Swellen.

Suank, pt. pl. toiled, S2; see Swinken.

Sublymatorie, sb. vessels for sublimation, C3.—Late Lat. sublimatorium.

Sublymen, v. to sublimate, C3.—Lat. sublimare.

Sublyming, sb. sublimation, C3.

Succinis, sb. amber, S2.—From Lat. succinum (Voc.).

Sudarie, sb. napkin, W; sudary, HD.—Lat. sudarium (Vulg.).

Sudekene, sb. sub-deacon, HD.


Sudene, sb. sub-dean, PP; suddene, PP.

Suein, sb. servant, S2; see Sweyn.

Suen, v. to follow, attend on, persecute, PP, W, W2, S2, S3; suwen, S2, W, PP; sewen, PP, S2, C; swe, S3, W.—OF. siw-, pr. p. base of sivre: Late Lat. sĕquere (for Lat. sequi); see BH, § 32.

Suencten, pt. pl. afflicted, S; see Swenchen.

Suere, sb. follower, W.

Suffisance, sb. sufficiency, C2.—AF. suffisance.

Suffisant, adj. sufficient, S2, C2, C3.—AF. suffisant.

Suffragane, sb. assistant, deputy, properly of a bishop, S3.—Late Lat. suffraganeus.

Suffraunce, sb. endurance, patience, C2; soffraunce, PP; suffrance, P.—AF. suffraunce.

Suffren, v. to suffer, C2, PP; suffri, S; soffren, PP.—OF. suffrir.

Sufrayn; see Souereyn.

Suget, sb. subject, H (p. 361).—AF. suget; Lat. subiectum.

Sugetin, v. to subject; sugetide, pt. s., W; suget, pp., W, W2.

Sugge, 2 pr. s. subj. say, S; see Seggen.

Suggestioun, sb. criminal charge, reason, P, C2.—AF. suggestioun; Lat. suggestionem.

Suhien, v. to sough, sound harsh; suhiende, pr. p. pl., S (9. 336); suinde, S.—From AS. swógan. See Swowen.

Suik, sb. deceit, S2; see Swike.

Suld, should; see Scholde.

Sulf, self, S; see Self.

Sulien, v. to bemire, to sully, SkD, SD; y-suled, pp., S3.—AS. sylian: OHG. sulian (in bi-sulian), see Grein, p. 95; cp. AS. sol, mire (Voc.).

Sullen, v. to sell, S, S2; see Sellen.

Suller, sb. seller, S2; see Seller.

Sulliche, adv. strangely, S; see Sellich.

Suluer, sb. silver, S2; see Siluer.

Sulȝart, adj. (perhaps) bright, shining, S3.—(Cf. Gael. soilleir, bright, shining, OIr. sollus, bright.—W. W. S.)

Sulȝe, sb. soil, earth, S3; soyle, Prompt. Comb.: sule erthe, soil, Prompt.—AF. soyl; Late Lat. solea used for Lat. solum, ground, see Ducange.

Sum, adj. and pron. some, a certain one, S; zom, S2; sumere, dat., S; sume, pl., S. Comb.: sume we, some of us, S; alle and some, one and all, S2; sum . . . . sum, one . . . . one, S; sum-chere, some time, S; sumdel, something, S, S2; somdel, S2, C2; sumdeale, S3; sumdeill, S3; sumdeel, W2; some dele, P; sumhwet, somewhat, S; somwat, S2; summehwile, for some time, S; sumewile, sometimes, S; sumwile, formerly, S; somtym, sometimes, C3; summes-weis, in some wise, S.

Sum, conj. as. Comb.: swa summ, so as, S.

Sumer, sb. summer, S; see Somer.

Sumundis, pr. s. summonses, H; see Sompne.

Sund, adj. sound, S; sound, PP.—AS. (ge)sund; cp. OHG. gi-sunt (Otfrid).

Sunder, adv. apart; sonder, S2. Comb.: sunder-bleo, diverse colour, SD; sunder-halȝe, Pharisee, SD; sunder-liche, separately, S; sundirly, severally, H; sunder-lipes, severally, SD; sunder-lepes, S; sunder-ling, separately, SD. Der.: sundren, to separate, S; i-sundred, pp., S; sundri, separate, S; sondry, C2.

Sunegen, v. to sin, S; sinegen, S; sungið, pl., S; sunegeden, pt. pl., S; sinegeden, S; seneȝden, S; seneȝeden, S; sineged, pp., S; i-suneged, S.—AS. syngian; cp. Icel. syndga.

Sunen, v. to sound, S; see Sounen.

Sungen, pt. pl. sang, S; see Syngen.

Sunne, sb. sun, S. S2; see Sonne.

Sunne, sb. sin, S, S2, PP; senne, S; sinne, S; synne, PP; zenne, S2; sunnen, pl., S; sennenn, S; sinne, S; zennen, S2. Comb.: sun-bend, sin-bond, S; sinne-bendes, pl., S; sun-bote, penance, S; sinbote, S; sunful, sinful, S; senfulle, S; sinfule, S.—AS. synn: OS. sundea; cp. OHG. sunta (Tatian).

Suor, pt. t. of Sweren, q.v.

Sup, v. to sup, drink gradually, eat supper, S3; soop, pt. s., W; sopun, pp., W; sope, W.—AS. súpan, pt. séap (pl. supon), pp. sopen. Cf. Soupen.

Superflue, adj. superfluous, HD; superfluli, adv., W2.—OF. superflu (Cotg.); Lat. superfluum.

Supplement, sb. new piece, patch, S2.—Lat. supplementum.

Supposinge, sb. supposition, C2.

Supposs, conj. supposing, although, S3.

Supprioure, sb. sub-prior, P.

Sur, sb. shower; sures, pl., S; see Schowre.


Sur, adj. sour, S; see Sour.

Sure, adj. sure, PP.—AF. seür; Lat. securum.

Suren, v. to give security to, PP, S3.

Surety, sb. surety; seurtee, C3, S2; seurte, C; souerte, S3.—AF. seürte; Lat. securitatem.

Surfait, sb. surfeit, excess, P; surfet, PP.—AF. surfait, surfet, outrage, annoyance.

Surplys, sb. surplice, C3.—OF. surplis; Late Lat. superpelliceum.

Surquidry, sb. pride, arrogance, WA; surquedry, ND, Spenser 2; surquidrie, CM; succudry, B.—OF. surcuiderie, from surcuider; Lat. super + cogitare, to think.

Surrye, sb. Syria, S2.

Surryen, adj. Syrian, S2.

Suspect, sb. suspicion, C2, HD.—Late Lat. suspectus, suspicion (Ducange).

Suspect, adj. open to suspicion, C2.—Lat. suspectus, pp. of suspicere, to suspect.

Sustene, v. to sustain, C2; susteene, C3; susteyne, PP; sustened, pp., C2; i-susteined, S2; i-sousteined, S2.—AF. sustener, OF. sostenir; Lat. sustinēre.

Suster, sb. sister, S, C2, C3, PP; soster, S2; sustre, P; sustren, pl., S, P; sostren, S2; zostren, S2; sistren, C; sistris, W.—AS. swuster, sweostor; cp. Goth. swistar (Icel. systir), cognate with Lat. soror (for *sosor), Skt. svasr. On the Teutonic intrusive t see Douse, p. 61.

Sute, sb. suit of clothes, clothing of human flesh, also train, suite, PP, Cath., Prompt.—AF. suyte; from suivre, sivre, to follow. See Suen.

Sutel, adj. manifest, SD; suteliche, adv. plainly, S.—AS. sweotol (swutol), see OET; from sweot, an assembly; cp. Icel. sveit.

Suteli, adv. subtly, W; see Sotyle.

Sutelin, v. to be manifest, S.—AS. (ge)sweotulian.

Suð, adj. south, S; see Sowthe.

Suþe, adv. very, S; see Swithe.

Suþþe, afterwards, since, S, S2; see Siððen.

Suthroun, adj. southern, S3; see Sowtherne.

Suun, sb. a swoon, S2; see Swowne.

Suwed, pp. followed, S2; see Suen.

Swa, adv. and conj. so, as, S, S2; swo, S; sa, S, S2; so, S, S2; se, S; sua, S, S2; zuo, S2. Comb.: se-forð, so far, S; so-gat, in such a way, S2.—AS. swá.

Swage, v. to assuage, diminish, W, W2, H, S3. See Aswagen.

Swaliden, pt. pl. dried up, W; see Swelen.

Swamish, adj. timorous, inaudaculus, Manip. See Sweem.

Swappe, sb. a stroke, HD.

Swappen, v. to strike, slash, to fall suddenly, C2; swap, imp. s., C3; swapte, pt. s., C2; pl., S3.

Swarde, sb. covering, skin, turfy surface, sward, Prompt.; swarth, Cath. (n. p. 373); swarthe, HD; swart, HD; sweard, HD. Der.: swardit, pp., grass-covered, S3.—AS. sweard, skin (Voc.); cp. Icel. svörðr (base svarða-), skin of the head, also the sward, surface of the earth.

Sware, adj. square, S2; see Sqware.

Swart, adj. black, S, HD; swarte, S.—AS. sweart: OS. swart; cp. OHG. suarz (Tatian).

Swarve, v. to swerve, S3; see Sweruen.

Swat; see Swot.

Swatte, Swat; see Sweten.

Swe, v. to follow, S3; see Suen.

Sweande; see Sweyen.

Sweem, sb. a swoon, trance, grief, Prompt., SkD (s.v. squeamish); sweam, ‘subita aegrotatio,’ SkD; swaim, Prompt. (n); swem, S; sweme, SkD, HD; sume, S2.—Icel. sveimr, a bustle, stir.

Sweigh, sb. sway, motion, S2, C3. See Sweyen.

Swele, v. to wash, S2; see Swilien.

Swelen, v. to sweal, to waste away under the action of fire, SkD, Trevisa, 3. 325; swale, HD; swaliden, pt. pl., dried up, W.—AS. swélan; from swól, heat (OET).

Swellen, v. to swell; swal, pt. s., S, S2, C2, PP; swollen, pp., C2.—AS. swellan, pt. sweall, pp. swollen.

Swelten, v. to faint, to die, PP; swalt, pt. s., SD; swulten, pl., SD; swelte, pt. s. (weak), C, HD.—AS. sweltan, to die, pt. swealt (pl. swulton); cp. Icel. svelta.

Swelten, v. to destroy, to cause to perish, S2; swelt, pp., SD.—Icel. svelta, to put to death (causal of the above).

Swelth, sb. offscouring, filth, S3, HD, ND. See Swilian.

Swelwen, v. to swallow, C2; see Swolowen.

Swem, sb. a grief, S; see Sweem.


Swenchen, v. to distress, afflict, S; suencten, pt. pl., S; i-swechte, pp., S.—AS. swencan (causal of swincan). See Swinken.

Sweore, sb. neck, S; see Swere.

Sweote, adj. sweet, S; see Swete.

Swep, sb. drift, meaning, S. See Swopen.

Swepe, sb. whip, SD; swepen, pl., S; swupen, S; swepes, S.

Swepen, v. to sweep, SkD; y-sweped, pp., C3. See Swopen.

Swerde, sb. sword, Prompt., PP; swerd, PP, S, C2; sweord, S; suerd, S, S2; zuord, S2.—AS. sweord: OS. swerd; cp. OHG. swert (Tatian).

Swere, sb. neck, S; sweere, G; see Swire.

Sweren, v. to swear, S, S2, C2; swerien, S; sueren, S; swor, pt. s., S: suor, S, S2; sware, S2; sweren, pl., S; sworen, S, C2; suoren, S; suore, S2; sworen, pp., S; swore, C2, G; y-swore, S2, C2; i-suore, S2.—AS. swerian, pt. swór, pp. sworen.

Swering, sb. swearing, C3.

Sweruen, v. to swerve, SkD; swarve, S3; suaruing, pr. p., S3; swarued, pp., S3.—AS. sweorfan, to rub, pt. swearf, pp. sworfen.

Swete, adj. sweet, S, C; sweote, S; suete, S, S2; suote, S2; sote, C2, C3; swete, adv., S; swote, S, C; soote, S3; soot, S3; swettere, comp., W2; sweteliche, adv., sweetly, S; swetlike, S; swetterly, comp. more sweetly, H. Der.: swetnesse, sweetness, S; swotnesse, S.—AS. swéte: OS. swóti cp. OHG. suozi (Tatian).

Sweten, v. to make sweet, S.—AS. swétan.

Sweten, v. to sweat, S, P; swatte, pt. s., S, C2, C3, W2; swattes, 2 pt. s., S; swat, pl., S3.—AS. swǽtan, pt. swǽtte. See Swot.

Sweuen, sb. dream, S, C2; sweuene, S, S2, P, W; swefnes, pl., S.—AS. swefen: OS. sweban.

Sweuenen, v. to dream, SD.

Sweuening, sb. dreaming, S, S2.

Sweuien, v. to send to sleep; sweueð, pr. s., S.—Icel. svefja, to lull to sleep.

Sweyen, v. to sway, to go, walk, pass, SkD, HD; sweiȝen, SD; sweȝen, SkD; sweande, pr. p., S2; swe, pr. pl., S2; seyed, pp., S2.—Cp. Swed. sviga, to bend.

Sweyen, v. to sound, PP; sweien, S.—AS. swégan (causal of swógan). See Swowen.

Sweyne, sb. servant, armiger, Prompt., S; swayn, C2, G; swein, S; sueyn, S; suein, S2.—Icel. sveinn, a boy, lad, servant; cp. AS. swán.

Swi-, prefix, silent. Comb.: swi-dages, still days, days of silence, S; swi-messe, the Canon of the Mass, the silent Mass, S; swi-wike, the still week, SD.—AS. swíge, silence.

Swien, v. to be silent; swigeð, pr. s., S; swiede, pt. s., S.—AS. swían, swígian; cp. OHG. suíigén (Tatian).

Swiere, sb. neck, S; see Swire.

Swike, sb. traitor, deceiver, S; suikes, pl., S.—AS. swica.

Swike, sb. mouse-trap, S; swyke, Voc.; suik, deceit, S2.—AS. swice, ‘scandalum’ (Grein).

Swike, adj. deceitful, SD. Comb.: swikedom, treachery, S, S2; suikedom, S2; swicful, treacherous, S; swikfull, H.—AS. swice.

Swikel, adj. treacherous, S, H; sikil, H; swikilly, adv., H. Comb.: swikeldom, treachery, S; swikeldome, S2; swikelhede, treachery, S; swikelede, S; suikelhede, S2.—AS. swicol.

Swiken, v. to cease, fail, deceive, S; swyken, H; suyken, pt. pl., S.—AS. swícan, pt. swác (pl. swicon), pp. swicen.

Swilien, v. to wash, SkD; swele, S2.—AS. swilian.

Swilk, adj. such, H, S; see Swyche.

Swin, sb. pig, porcus, SD; swyne, Voc.; pl., S.—AS. swín.

Swinden, v. to perish, dwindle away, S; swynde, S.—AS. swindan, pt. swand (pl. swundon), pp. swunden.

Swing, sb. bias, inclination, sway, HD; free course of behaviour, S3; swinge, sway, S3.

Swingen, v. to swing, beat, whip, scourge; swyngen, H; swungen, pp., S; swongen, H; swongyn, H.—AS. swingan, pt. swang (pl. swungon), pp. swungen.

Swink, sb. toil, S, C3; swynk, S2; swinc, S; suinc, S; swinch, S; swunche, S.—AS. (ge)swinc.

Swinken, v. to toil, S, C3, ND; swynke, S2, C; swincke, S3; swanc, pt. s., S; swonc, S; swunken, pl., S; swonken, S2; suank, S2.—AS. swincan, pt. swanc (pl. swuncon), pp. swuncen.


Swinkere, sb. labourer, C.

Swippen, v. to move violently; swipte, pt. s., tossed, S.—AS. swipian.

Swire, sb. neck, CM; swyre, S2, HD; sweore, S; swere, S; sweere, G; swiere S; swyer, HD.—AS. sweora.

Swirk, v. to dart swiftly away, S3.

Swirk, sb. a jerk, a blow, HD.

Swithe, adv. very, greatly, much, quickly, S, S2, P, W, G; swythe, S, S2, C3; swuðe, S; suiðe, S, S2; suyðe, S, S2; suþe, S; swith, S2; swiðeliche, exceedingly, S.—AS. swíðe, adv. from swíð, strong: Goth. swinths.

Swiðen, v. to scorch, burn, SD; swideð, pr. s., S.—Icel. svíða.

Swo, so, as, S; see Swa.

Swogh, sb. a swoon; see Swough.

Swolowe, sb. gulf, W2.

Swolowen, v. to swallow, W2; swolwen, C3; swelwen, C2, Prompt.; swolgen, pp., S; i-swolȝe, S; swolewid, pt. s. weak, W2.—From AS. swelgan, pt. swealh (pl. swulgon), pp. swolgen.

Swongen, pp. beaten, H; see Swingen.

Swonken, pt. pl. toiled (to get), S2; see Swinken.

Swopen, v. to sweep, cleanse, S2, PP, HD, SkD (s.v. swoop).—AS. swápan, pt. swéop, pp. swápen.

Swor, pt. t. of Sweren, q.v.

Swot, sb. sweat, PP, W; swat, S; swote, dat., C3.—AS. swát.

Swote, adj. sweet, S, C; see Swete.

Swouch, v. to make a rustling sound, S3.—AS. swógan. See Swowen.

Swough, sb. the sound of the wind, a sighing, swoon, C, C2, CM, HD; swogh, S3, HD; swowe, S2, HD. See above.

Swowe, sb. swoon, S2; see Swough.

Swowen, v. to faint, swoon, PP; i-swoȝe, pp., S; y-swoȝe, S.—AS. swógan, to make a noise like the wind, to sough, sigh. Cf. Swouch, Swough, Suhien.

Swowne, sb. swoon; sowne, S3; suun, S2; swownde, HD; sound, S3.

Swownen, v. to swoon, C, C2, C3, Prompt., Cath.; swoune, PP.

Swunche, sb. toil, S; see Swink.

Swungen, pp. beaten, scourged, S; see Swingen.

Swunken, pt. pl. worked, toiled, S; see Swinken.

Swupen, pl. whips, scourges, S; see Swepe.

Swuðe, adv. very, quickly, S; see Swithe.

Swyche, adj. such, PP, S2; swiche, S, C2, PP; swuch, S; suich, S2; soche, S; zuyche, S2; siche, W; swice, S; swulche, S; swilch, S; swulc, S; swilc, S; swilk, H, S; suilc, S; suilk, S, S2; silc, S2; sike, S3.—AS. swilc (= swá + líc).

Swymbel, sb. a giddy motion, C.—Cp. Dan. svimmel, giddiness.

Swyme, sb. dizziness, vertigo, HD (s.v. swime), SkD (s.v. swim, 2); swym, SkD.—AS. swíma; see SkD (s.v. squeamish).

Sy, sb. victory, S; see Siȝe.

Syde, adj. and adv. wide, long, far, Cath.; side, S, PP, S2, Cotg. (s.v. robon); syd, Prompt. (n); syyd, Prompt.; cyyd, Prompt.; sydder, comp., P.—AS. síd, wide, síde, far.

Syen, pt. pl. saw; see Seon.

Syke, sb. sigh, C; syk, C2; seych, S3.

Syken, v. to sigh, C, C3, PP; siken, S, S2, PP; syghte, pt. s., C3; sicht, S3; sykede, PP; syked, C2; siȝede, S3.—AS. sícan.

Syment, sb. cement, MD; cyment, MD.—OF. ciment; Lat. caementum; see BH, § 39.

Symented, pp. cemented, S2.

Symulacris, sb. pl. images, idols, W; simylacris, W; symelacris, W.—Lat. simulacrum (Vulg.).

Syn, since, S2, S3; see Siððen.

Synewe, sb. sinew, Prompt.; synow, Voc.; synoghe, S2.—AS. sinu (gen. sinwe), see Sievers, 259.

Syng, sb. sign, S3; singne, W; sygne, PP; signe, PP.—AF. signe; Lat. signum.

Syngabil, adj. pl. things to sing (= Lat. cantabiles), H.

Syngen, v. to sing, PP; singen, S; song, pt. s., S, S3, C2; pl., S3; songe, S3; sungen, pl., S; sunge, pp., S; songe, C2.—AS. singan.

Synguler, adj. sole, alone, excelling all, PP; singuler, S2, C3, W2; relating to one person, S3; singulare, individual, S3; syngulerli, only, W2.—Lat. singularis.

Synnamome, sb. cinnamon, S3; cynamome, MD; synamome, MD; synamon, MD.—OF. cinamome; Lat. cinnamomum (Vulg.); Gr. κινάμωμον; Heb. qinnāmōn.


Synopyr, sb. a pigment of reddish and greenish colour, Prompt.; synopar, S3; cynoper, MD; cinoper, ND; cynope, green, in heraldry, SkD (s.v. sinople).—Cp. OF. sinople, green colour in blazon (Cotg.), also sinope; Late Lat. sinopidem, red ochre; from Gr. σινωπίς, a red earth; from Σινώπη, Sinope, a port on the Black Sea.

Syon, sb. scion, a cutting for grafting, a young shoot, S3, Palsg.; cyun, Prompt.; cion, SkD; sioun, SD; siouns, pl., branches (= Lat. palmites), W2.—OF. cion.

Syrupe, sb. syrup, Cath.; sirop, SkD; soryp, Prompt.; seroppes, pl. syrups, S3.—OF. syrop (Cotg.); Arab. shuráb, syrup, a beverage.

Sythe, sb. scythe, PP, Voc., Prompt.; sithe, P.—AS. síðe (Voc.), sigdi (OET); cp. Icel. sigðr.

Syue, sb. sieve, C3, Prompt.—AS. sife (Voc.), sibi (OET), see Sievers, 262.

Syȝen, pt. pl. saw; see Seon.

Syȝt, sb. sight, S2; see Sighte.

Ta-, Te-.

Ta, v. to take, S2, S3; see Take.

Taa, Comb.: the taa, the one, HD.

Taa, sb. toe, S2; see Too.

Tabard, sb. a short coat or mantle, usually sleeveless, formerly worn by ploughmen, noblemen, and heralds, now by heralds only, HD, SkD, C; tabart, S2, PP; tabarde, PP, Voc.; tabbard, collobium, Prompt.; taberd, Voc.; taberde, Voc.; tabare, Voc.—OF. tabard, tabart, also tabarre (Cotg.); cp. It. tabarro.

Tabarder, sb. a name for scholars at Queen’s College, Oxford, ND.

Tabernacle, sb. a place in which some holy thing is deposited, WA; tabernacles, pl., niches of a lofty cross, S3; ornamental niches, HD; shrines, S3 (1. 181).—Lat. tabernaculum (Vulg.); cp. OF. tabernacle (Cotg.).

Table, sb. in palmistry, a space between certain lines on the hand, HD; tables, pl., a game, now called backgammon, CM. See Tavel.

Tabour, sb. a small drum, SkD; tabur, WA; taber, Voc.—OF. tabor, thabour.

Taburne, sb. a drum, tympanum, WA, Voc., Cath.; taburn, H.

Taburner, sb. a player on the tabor, timpanista, Cath.; taberner, timpanizator, Voc.

Taburnystir, sb. female tabor player (= tympanistria), H.

Tache, sb. a mark, sign, quality, stain, blemish, fault, HD; tacche, HD; tacches, pl., PP; tacchis, HD; teches, S2. Der.: tached, pp., tainted, stained; tachyd, PP.—OF. tache, teche, and OF. tacher, to spot, to stain.

Tache, sb. a clasp, brooch, fibula, Cath. (n), Voc. Cf. Takke.

Tachen, v. to fasten, Cath. (n). Cf. Takken.

Tacne, sb. token, S; see Tokne.

Tacnen, v. to betoken, S; takened, pp., S2.—AS. (ge)tácnian.

Tade, sb. toad, bufo, Voc., Cath., S2; tadde, S. Comb.: tadde-chese, tubera, Voc.; tadde-pol, brucus, Voc.; tadpolle, lumbricus, Voc.; tade-stole, boletus, fungus, Cath.—Cp. AS. tádige (tádie).

Taffata, sb. a thin glossy silk stuff, C, WA, Cotg.; tafata, Palsg.; taffaty, HD.—Low Lat. taffata (Ducange); cp. OF. taffetas (Cotg.).

Tahte, Tagte, pt. s. of Techen.

Tai, they, S; see Þei.

Taille, sb. a tally, an account scored on a piece of wood, C, P; taile, CM, P; tayle, Cath., Prompt.; taly, Prompt.—OF. taille, a cut, a notch, a tally (Cotg.), from tailler, to cut.

Taillour, sb. tailor, S2, PP; tayleȝour, Voc.; taylȝor, Voc.; taylours, PP.—AF. taillour. See above.

Takel, sb. implement, tackle, arrow, C, SkD; tacle, Prompt.; takil, B. Der.: takild, pp., caught, seized, H.—Cp. Du. takel.

Taken, v. to take, to deliver, yield up, hand over, to hit, reflex., to betake oneself, S, S2, S3, G, PP, W; tæcen, S; ta, S2, S3, B; toc, pt. s., S: tok, S, S2; tuk, S3; toke, 2 pt. s., S; token, pl., S, W2; taken, pp., S3; take, S2, C, C2; y-take, S2, C2; i-take, S; tane, S2, S3; tan, S2. Phr.: taken with, to endure, accept, S; taken 224 to, to take to, S (s.v. tok); taken kepe, to take heed, C2; taken tome, to vacate, H.—Icel. taka.

Taken, sb. token, S2; see Tokne.

Taking, sb. snare; takyng, W2.

Takke, sb. button, clasp, Prompt. Cf. Tache.

Takken, v. to fasten, to sew together, Prompt. Cf. Tachen.

Takning, sb. signification, S2; see Toknynge.

Tal, adj. seemly, Prompt.

Talde, pt. s. of Tellen.

Tale, sb. account, reckoning, tale, narrative, talk, the gospel narrative, S, S2, C2, PP. Comb.: tale-tellour, tale-bearer, PP; tale-wys, slanderous, PP; tal-wis, PP.—AS. talu, ‘numerus, narratio’; cp. OHG. zala ‘numerus’ (Tatian).

Talen, v. to speak, C, S2.—AS. talian, to reckon (Grein).

Talent, sb. desire, inclination, appetite, B, Prompt., C3, HD.—OF. talent, desire (BH); Late Lat. talentum (Ducange).

Talvace, sb. a kind of buckler or shield, HD; talvas, HD.—OF. talevas, talvas (Ducange), also tallevas (Cotg.); cp. Low Lat. talavacius (Ducange).

Talyage, sb. a taxing, Prompt. (s.v. taske); tallage, flavour, S3; talage, HD.—Low Lat. talliagium, a taxing, testing public weights and measures (Ducange).

Tan, pp. taken, S2; see Take.

Tancrit, adj. transcribed; tancrete, S3.—OF. tancrit; Lat. transcriptum (Ducange).

Tang, sb. sea-weed, SkD, JD. Comb.: tang-fish, the seal, JD.—Icel. þang.

Tangle, sb. sea-weed, HD, JD.—Icel. þöngull.

Tangle, v. to twist confusedly; tangell, Palsg.; tangild, pp., ensnared, H (p. 149).

Tapecer, sb. a maker of tapestry, Prompt.; tapicer, C; tapesere, Prompt.—OF. tapissier, from tapis, tapiz; Late Gr. ταπίτιον, for ταπήτιον. Cf. Tapet.

Tapecerye, sb. tapestry, HD.—OF. tapisserie.

Tapet, sb. cloth, hangings, tapestry, Prompt., ND; tappet, HD; tapite, S3; tapyt, Voc.; tapett, Cath.; tapetis, pl. (= Lat. tapetes), W2; tapites, HD; tapets, S3. Der.: tapiter, a maker of tapestry, HD.—Lat. tapete, from Gr. ταπήτιον Cf. Tapecer.

Tapinage, sb. secret sculking, HD.—OF. tapinage (Ducange); cp. tapir, to hide (Cotg.).

Tapissynge, sb. hangings, H.

Tappe, sb. a tap, clipsidra, Prompt.; teppe, SD. Comb.: tap-tre, clipsidra, HD, Cath.

Tappestere, sb. a female tapster, C; tapstare, propinaria. Prompt.

Tarette, sb. ship of heavy burden, S2.—Low Lat. tareta, also tarida (Ducange); cp. OF. taride.

Targe, sb. a charter, Prompt.

Targe, sb. a small shield, C, S2, Voc.—OF. targe (BH); cp. targue (Cotg.).

Target, sb. a small targe, Prompt.; targett, Voc.; tergate, S3; targattes, pl., SkD.—Low Lat. targeta; cp. It. targhetta (Florio).

Tarien, v. to delay, to hinder, C2; to tarry, W2, S3; see Terien.

Tarne, sb. a girl, HD.—Icel. þerna; cp. OHG. thiarna (Otfrid); see Kluge (s.v. dirne). See Þerne.

Tarne, sb. a tarn; see Terne.

Tas, sb. heap, C; taas, C; tasse, Prompt., HD.—OF. tas, stack, heap (BH); cp. Du. tas, Low Lat. tassis (Voc.), tassus (Ducange).

Taske, sb. a taxing, Prompt.; a task, HD, Palsg.—Cp. Late Lat. tasca for taxa, a tax. See Taxen.

Tasker, sb. a thrasher, Voc., HD; taskar, B; taskur, Bardsley.

Tassel, sb. male hawk; see Tercel.

Tast, sb. taste, S3, PP; taast, Prompt.

Tasten, v. to feel, touch, kiss, taste, C3, PP; taasten, Prompt.; tast, pt. s., probed, HD.—OF. taster, to feel by touch, to taste (F. tâter); Late Lat. *taxitare, frequent. of Lat. taxare, to handle.

Tatter, a shred, loose-hanging rag, a ragged person, ND, SkD; totters, pl., rags, Sh. Der.: tatered, adj., jagged, S3.—Icel. tötturr (for tölturr), töturr.

Tauny, adj. tawny, P; tanny, Prompt.—AF. taune, OF. tanne, tawny, tanned, pp. of taner, to tan (BH).

Tavel, sb. the game of ‘tables’, backgammon, SD. Comb.: tævel-bred, backgammon-board, SD.—AS. tæfel, ‘alea’ (Voc.); Lat. tabula. See Table.

Tavelen, v. to play at ‘tables’, S.

Taverne, sb. an inn, Prompt., Voc.—AF. taverne; Lat. taberna.


Taverner, sb. inn-keeper, C2, HD, P, Voc.; tavernere, Prompt.—AF. taverner; Late Lat. tabernarium.

Tawen, v. to prepare leather, SkD; tewen, Prompt.; taw, to dress hemp, HD; tawed, pp., hardened with labour, S3; i-tauwed, S.—AS. tawian, to prepare, dress leather, to scourge.

Tawer, sb. a tanner, SD, SkD.

Tawnen, v. to shew, S; taunede, pt. s., SD.—Cp. ODu. toonen and MHG. zounen for zougenen, from OHG. zougjan for azougjan (see Lexer); cp. AS. æt-ýwan. See Awnen.

Taxen, v. to tax, SkD, PP.—AF. taxer; Lat. taxare.

Taxoure, sb. a taxer, P.

Tayl, sb. tail, a retinue, train of followers, S2, C2, PP; taile, S2, PP; tayle, Cath.—AS. tægl: Goth. tagl, hair.

Tayt, adj. glad, cheerful, brisk, S3; teyte, pl., HD.—Icel. teitr.

Te-, prefix; same as To- (2).

Teald, pp. of Tellen.

Teares, pl. tears, S; see Tere.

Techen, v. to teach, S, C2, S2; teachen, S; tache, S; tahte, pt. s., S; taihte, S; tagte, S; tahtes, 2 pt. s., S; tehten, pl., S; taucht, pp., S3; y-taȝt, S2; y-taught, C2.—AS. tǽcan, pt. tǽhte, pp. tǽht.

Teches, sb. pl. marks, signs, S2; see Tache.

Teer, sb. tear, C2; see Tere.

Teise, sb. a fathom, HD.—AF. teise (OF. toise); Late Lat. tensa. Cf. Teyse.

Teiȝen, v. to tie, bind, S2; see Tiȝen.

Teld, sb. a covering, tent, SkD (s.v. tilt); telde, S2, HD; telte, Prompt.; tilde, PP (p. 779).—AS. (ge)teld, a tent; cp. Icel. tjald.

Telden, v. to pitch a tent, to erect a building, to dwell, PP; tilden, S3; tilde, pt. s., PP; tulde, PP; telt, HD; teldit, pp., PP; tyld, S3.

Tele, sb. sorcery, magic, HD.

Telen, v. to reprove, to scoff at, S; tælen, S.—ONorth. telan (Luke 7. 30), AS. tǽlan, to blame, from tálu, ‘calumnia’ (Grein).

Telie, v. to till, cultivate, PP; see Tilien.

Telinge, sb. husbandry, culture, study, practice of magic; telynge, HD; tulyinge, PP; teolunges, pl., S.—AS. teolung, tilung, tilling, culture, study.

Tellen, v. to tell, count, esteem, S, S2; telst, 2 pr. s., S; telð, pr. s., S, S2; tellus, pl., S2; talde, pt. s., S; tolde, S2, PP; telld, S2; tolden, pl., S; talden to, accounted, S; telden, W; teald, pp., S; talde, S2; ytold, C2, S2; i-told, S; told, S2.—AS. tellan, pt. tealde, pp. ge-teald. See Tale.

Teme, sb. theme, subject, text, PP; teeme, S2, PP.—OF. theme; Lat. thema; Gr. θέμα.

Teme, v. to tame, H; temyd, pp. H.—AS. temian (Voc.): Goth. (ga)tamjan.

Temen, v. to bring forward as witness, S.—AS. téman, týman (Schmid), from téam, a summoning for warranty (Schmid).

Temen, v. to make empty, to pour out, HD, Prompt., Cath., H; tume, JD; teym, JD.—Icel. tœma, to empty; from tómr, empty. See Tome.

Temp, v. to tempt, H; tent, to probe, Sh.; temped, pp., HD.—OF. tempter (F. tenter); Lat. tentare.

Temporal, adj. lasting but for a short time, S2.—OF. temporel; Lat. temporalem (Vulg.).

Temporalite, sb. temporal power, PP; temperaltes, temporalities, PP.—AF. temporalitee.

Tempre, v. to temper, moderate, restrain, PP, C2; temperid, pp., directed, W2; tempred, fitted, attuned, S2, PP.—OF. temprer (F. tremper); Lat. temperare.

Tempre, adj. tempered, modified, temperate, H.—OF. tempre.

Ten, v. to draw, pull, train, also to go, mount, reflex. to conduct oneself, S; teon, S; tuen, HD; te, HD; teð, pr. s., S; tuhen, pt. pl., S; i-toȝen, pp., S; i-tohen, S. Comb.: ful-itohe, badly trained, S.—AS. téon, pt. téah (pl. tugon), pp. togen: Goth. tiuhan; cp. Lat. ducere; see Brugmann, § 65.

Tend, adj. ord. tenth, S2, B; tende, HD.

Tende, sb. a tenth, HD; teind, tithe, S3; tendis, pl., H.—Icel. tíund, a tenth.

Tende, v. to tithe, Cath.

Tenden, v. to kindle, set fire to, S2, W; teenden, W; tind, HD; tendeden, pt. pl., PP; tenden, PP; tendyn, PP; tende, S2; y-tend, pp., S2.—AS. tendan (in on-tendan): Goth. tandjan, causal of *tindan, to burn.

Tene, sb. grief, vexation, injury, S, S2, S3, PP, B; teene, PP; teone, S, S2, PP; teyne, B; tyene, S2.—AS. téona.

Tenen, v. to vex, trouble, injure, PP; teene, PP; teonen, PP.—AS. týnan.


Tennes, sb. tennis, S3; see Tenyse.

Tenserie, sb. an extraordinary impost, robbery, S (2. 42).—OF. tenserie; Late Lat. tensaria.

Tente, sb. a tent, C2, PP.—OF. tente (Bartsch); Late Lat. tenta, cloth stretched.

Tente, sb. intention, purpose, PP; tent, attention, care, heed, S2, JD, W, W2, H.—OF. atente (BH).

Tentyf, adj. attentive, CM; tentifly, adv., attentively, C2.—OF. attentif.

Tenyse, sb. tennis, Palsg.; teneys, tenisia, Prompt.; tennes, S3, SkD.

Teolung, sb. magical practice, S; see Telinge.

Teon, v. to draw, S; see Ten.

Teone, sb. grief, S; see Tene.

Terce, adj. a third, SkD; tierce, the third hour (canonical), SkD; tyerse, SkD.—AF. terce, tierce, OF. terc, tiers, tierce; Lat. tertia.

Tercel, sb. the male of any kind of hawk, CM, Prompt., Sh.; tercelle, Voc.; terselle, Cath.; tassel, Sh.; tassell, Cotg.—AF. tercel, from OF. terce.

Tercelet, sb. a small hawk, C2.—AF. tercelet, OF. tiercelet (Cotg.).

Tere, sb. tear, S, C2; teer, C2; teares, pl., S.—AS. téar, also teagor, OHG. zahar (Tatian); cp. Gr. δάκρυ; see Douse, p. 94.

Teren, v. to tear, S.—AS. teran, cp. Goth. (ga)tairan.

Teren, v. to tar, S. See Terre.

Tergate, sb. a small shield, S3; see Target.

Terien, v. to vex, irritate, to make weary, to delay, hinder, irritare, fatigare; teryyn, Prompt.; terwin, Prompt.; terre, W, W2; tarien, C2; y-taryed, pp., S2.—AS. tergan, to vex.

Terien, v. to tarry, to delay; teryyn, Prompt.; taryen, CM; tarien, W2, S3.—The same word as above; for change of sense cp. AS. dreccan, to vex, with the equivalent ME. drecchen, to tarry (q.v.).

Terme, sb. term, period, S, C2; termes, pl., expressions, examples, PP, C2; limits, ends, W, W2.—AF. terme; Lat. terminum.

Terminen, v. to determine, limit, W; itermynet, pp., S2; y-termyned, PP.—AF. terminer, to determine.

Terne, sb. a tarn, small lake, S2; tarne, Manip.—Icel. tjörn (tjarn-).

Terre, sb. tar, Prompt.; tarre, PP; teer, HD; ter, B.—AS. teoru (Voc.).

Terre, v. to provoke, W, W2; see Terien.

Terryng, sb. a provoking, W2.

Teruagant, sb. one of the seven gods of Hengest, S; Termagant, a supposed god of the Saracens, ND; one of the characters in the old moralities, ND, Sh., TG; Trivigant, ND.—OF. Tervagant, also Tervagan, one of the three gods of the Saracens (Roland); cp. It. Trivigante (Ariosto).

Teste, sb. a pot in which metals are tried, HD, SkD, C3; teest, HD. Phr.: to bring to the test, lit. to bring to the refiner’s vessel, Sh.—OF. teste, a refiner’s vessel; Lat. testa, a vessel used in alchemy, orig. a piece of baked earthenware, also shell of fish, skull, head. Cp. OF. test (F. têt), a test in chemistry, orig. a potsherd, see Bartsch.

Testere, sb. a head-piece, helmet, tester for a bed, SkD, HD; teester, Prompt.; tester, C; testar, Palsg.—OF. testiere, head-piece (Cotg.).

Testif, adj. headstrong, testy, CM; testie, S3.—OF. testif (Palsg.).

Te-tealte, adj. quite unstable, in jeopardy, S2. (To- 2.)

Teð, pr. s.; teð up, mounts, S; see Ten.

Tewelle, sb. the pipe of a chimney, HD; tuel, a pipe, HD.—OF. tuel, tuyel (F. tuyau): Sp. tudel; of Teutonic origin; see Kluge (s.v. düte), and Weigand (s.v. zotte).

Texte, sb. text, scripture, SkD; text, Cath., C2; tixte, PP, S2; tixt, PP; tyxte, PP; tyxt, PP.—OF. texte; Lat. textum.

Textuel, adj. literal, C3.

Teye, sb. a coffer, Prompt.—OF. teie (toie); Lat. thēca; cp. F. taie.

Teyne, sb. a thin plate of metal, C3.

Teyrre, of them, S; see Þei.

Teyse, v. to poise for shooting, HD; tasit, pt. s., B; taisand, pr. p., HD.—OF. toiser, to measure (Cotg.). See Teise.

Teyte, adj. pl. cheerful, HD; see Tayt.


Th, an abbreviation of the article the, ND. Comb.: thair, S2; thangel, C2; tharmes, C; tharray, S2, C2; thassemblee, S2, C3; thavys, the advice, C; theffect, C2; theffusion, S3; thegle, C2; thembatel, S3; themperice, S; themperour, S2, C3; thencens, C; thenchauntement, C; thencres, C; thende, S, S2, S3; thentencioun, C3; therle, S3; thestat, C; thimage, C2; thingot, C3; thold, S3; thorient, C2; thorisoun, C; thothre, S, S3.

Þa, art. def. fem. the, S; dat. masc., S; pl., S; pron. pl., who, S; see Þe.

Þam, art. dat. s. and pl. the, S; see Þe. And see Þei.

Þan, art. dat. and acc. the, S; see Þe.

Þan, adv. then; see Þanne.

Þane, art. acc. masc. the, S; see Þe.

Þane, adv. then, S; see Þanne.

Þane, sb. thane, S2; see Þeyn.

Þanen, adv. thence, S; þanene, S2.—AS. þanon.

Þank, sb. a thought, a thank, gratitude, grace; þanc, S; þonc, S; þonk, S, PP; þance, dat., S; þonke, S, S2; þankes, pl., PP; thonkes, PP, S2. Phr.: can þanc, con þonk, is thankful, S; here þankes, gen. as adv., of their own thought, spontaneously, S, C.—AS. þanc; cp. OHG. thanc (Otfrid).

Þanken, v. to thank, PP, S; þonken, PP, S, S2.—AS. þancian.

Þanne, adv. then, when, S, PP, S2, C; þann, S; þane, S; þan, S, S2, C2; þenne, S, PP, S2; þene, S, PP; þen, S; þeonne, S.—AS. þænne.

Þanne, conj. than, S; þane, S; þan, S2; þenne, S; þenn, S; þene, S; þen, S, PP.—AS. þænne.

Þanne, adv. thence, S2; see Þenne.

Þar, pt.-pr. s. impers. it needs, opus est, B, H; thare, H; þarf, S; tharst, 2 pt.-pr. s., PP; thart, pt.-pr. s., HD. Comb.: thardestow, thou wouldst need, PP; see Þurfen.

Þar-, prefix; see Þer-.

Þare, art. dat. f. to the, S; see Þe.

Þarmes, sb. pl. entrails, HD.—AS. þearm (Voc.); for cognates see Kluge (s.v. darm).

Þarne, v. to lack, want, HD, H; tharn, H; tharnys, pr. s., H; tharnyd, pt. s., H.—Icel. þarnask (for þarfnask), to lack.

Þas, pron. dem. pl. those, S, S2; see Þes.

Þat, pron. dem., pron. rel. and conj. that, S, S2; þet, S, S2; at, S2, S3, H, NED.—AS. þæt. See Þe.

Þauien, v. to permit, SD; þeauien, S; thave, HD.—AS. þafian.

Þe, pron. dem. and def. art. m. that man, the, S; þæ, S; te, S; to, S; þat, n., S, S2; þet, S, S2; tat, S; tatt, S; þes, gen. m., S; þes þe, so much the (more), S; þas, S; þane, acc. m., S, S2; þan, S, S2; þene, S; þenne, S; þen, S, S2; þam, dat. m., S; þan, S; þen, S, S2; þon, S; þo, S; þa, S; þeo, nom. f., S; þære, dat. f. and gen. f.; þare, S; þere, S; þar, S; þer, S; þa, acc. f., S; þo, S; þeo, S; þie, S; þe, inst. as in þe bet, the better, PP. Comb.: the self, itself, H.—ONorth. ðé, see Sievers, 337.

Þe, pron. rel. who, which, S.—AS. ðe (the indeclinable relative pronoun). See above.

Þe, conj. than, S.—AS. ðe, ‘quam.’

Þeaw, sb. habit, virtue, S; see Þew.

Þedam, sb. prosperity, Prompt., HD. See Þeen.

Þede, sb. pl. nations, S2 (3. 29); see Þeode.

Þeden, adv. thence, S; see Þeþen.

Þeder, adv. thither, S2; see Þider.

Þeef, sb. thief, C2; see Þeof.

Þeen, v. to thrive, vigere, Prompt.; thee, S3, C2, C3, Spenser (2), HD; the, C, HD; the, 1 pr. s. subj., PP; theech (thee + ich), may I thrive, C3; theich, PP; þeagh, pt. s., SD; i-þeȝ, S2.—AS. (ge)þéon: *þíhan; cp. Goth. theihan; see Sievers, 383, Douse, p. 40.

Þefe, sb. leafy branch, twig; theve, Prompt. Comb.: thefethorn, buckthorn, Alph. (n. p. 156), Voc.; thefthorne, H; thewethornys, pl., morus, Voc.; thethorne, ramnus, Prompt.; the thorntre, Voc.—AS. þýfe (þéfe), þefe-þorn, ‘ramnus’ (Voc.), ðeofeðorn (Voc.); cf. AS. þúfian, ‘frutescere’ (Voc.).

Þei, pron. pl. they, S, PP, C; þeȝȝ, S; teȝȝ, S; þai, S, PP, S2; tai, S; the, S3; þeȝȝre, gen., S; teȝȝre, S; thair, S2; 228 thayr, PP; þar, S2, S3; þeȝȝm, dat. acc., S; thaim, S2; thaym, PP; tham, S2. Comb.: þam-selue, themselves, S2.—Icel. þeir, they (Dan. de), gen. þeirra, dat. þeim; cp. AS. ðá, those. See Þe.

Þein, sb. thane, S; see Þeyn.

Þellyche, pron. such, S2; see Þulli.

Þenchen, v. to think, to intend, S, S2; þenken, PP, S; þohte, pt. s., S, S2; þoȝte, S; þoght, S2; thoucte, S; þouhten, pl., S; þoght, pp., S2; þouht, PP; thouct, S.—AS. þencan, pt. þóhte, pp. (ge)þóht. See Þynken.

Þene, art. acc. masc. the, S; þen, S; see Þe.

Þenien, v. to serve; þenið, pr. pl., S. Der.: þeninge, services, S.—AS. þénian, þegnian, from þegn. See Þeyn.

Þenne, than; also then; see Þanne.

Þenne, adv. thence, S; þanne, S2; þonne, S; þeonne, S2, PP. See Þanen.

Þennes, adv. thence, PP, S2, C2, C3; thennus, W. Comb.: thennes-forth, thenceforth, C2.

Þeode, sb. people, nation, S; þiode, S; þeode, pl., orders (of angels), S; nations, S2; þede, S2; þeden, dat., S.—AS. þéod; cp. Goth. thiuda, OHG. thiota (Tatian).

Þeof, sb. thief, S, PP; thef, PP; þyef, S2; theef, C2, Prompt.; þeue, dat., S; þieue, S; þeofes, pl., S; þeoues, S, PP; theues, W2; theueli, in a thief-like manner, W2; þeofte, theft, S; þefte, PP, Prompt.—AS. þéof: Goth. thiubs; cp. OHG. thiob (Tatian).

Þeorrf, adj. unleavened, S; see Þerf.

Þeos, pron. dem. f. this, S; see Þes.

Þeoster, sb. darkness, S.—AS. þéostru: OS. thiustri.

Þeostre, adj. dark, S; see Þester.

Þeow, sb. servant; þeoww, S. Der.: þeou-dom, bondage; þeoudome, dat., S.—AS. þéow: Goth. thius; cp. OHG. thiu, ‘ancilla’ (Otfrid).

Þeowten, v. to serve; þeowwtenn, S.—From AS. þéowet, service.

Þer, pron. dem. pl. these, S2, HD; there, H; þir, S2, H. S3, JD; those, B.—Icel. þeir, they. See Þei.

Þer-, prefix, SkD (s.v. there-). Comb.: þerfore, for it, for that cause, PP, S, C2; þerfor, S, S2; þeruore, S2; þereuore, S; þarfore, S, S2; þaruore, S; þareuore, S; þærfore, S; þerinne, therein, S, S2, C2; þærinne, S; þarinne, S; þrinne, S, S2; thrynne, G; þarin, S, S2; þerin, S; þerwið, therewith, S, C2; þarwið, S, S2; þerwiȝt, S2; þærwiðð, S; þermide, therewith, S; þeremyde, P; þarmid, S; þerof, thereof, S, C2; þrof, S.—AS. ðǽre, pron. dem. dat. f.; see Þe.

Þere, adv. there, where, S, S2, S3; þare, S; þore, S, S2; þer, S, S2, S3; þar, S, S2; þor, S; þear, S; þiar, S; þær, S; tær, S (in Ormulum). Comb.: þer aboute, thereabouts, S2; þare amang, at various times, S2; þer an under, there beneath, S2; þere as, where that, S3; þer biuore, before then, S2; þer before, S; þer efter, thereafter, S; ther on, thereon, C2; þron, S; þrute, thereout, S; þer oȝeines, in comparison therewith, S; þare ogayne, S2; þorquiles, meanwhile, S; þere whiles, P; þertil, thereto, S; þortil, S; þerto, thereto, S, S2, C2, C3; þarto, S2; þer towart, against it, S; þer uppe, besides, S; þruppe, thereupon, S.—AS. þær: Goth. thar.

Þere, art. gen. and dat. f. of the, to the, S; see Þe.

Þerf, adj. unleavened, W, S2, PP; þeorrf, S. Comb.: therf looues, unleavened bread, W; therf breed, HD.—AS. þeorf; cp. Icel. þjarfr.

Þerfling, adj. unleavened; þerrflinng, S.

Þerne, sb. a girl, SD (Havelok, 298); see Tarne.

Þes, pron. dem. m. this, S; þis, S; þis, n., S; þeos, f., S; teos, S; þesses, gen. m., S; þisse, gen. f., S; þissen, dat. m., S; þisse, dat. f., S; þisser, S; þesser, S; þeser, S; þas, acc. f., S; þas, pl., S, S2; þos, S; þeos, S; þes, C, W2; these, W2; þues, S2; þis, S2; þies, S3; þisse, dat. pl., S; þise, S2, C2; þyse, S2; þesen, S.—AS. þes, see Sievers, 338, and SkD (s.v. this).

Þester, adj. dark, HD; þyester, S2; þeostre, S, þuster, S.—AS. þéostre: OS. thiustri.

Þesternesse, sb. darkness, S, PP; þyesternesse, S2; þiesternesse, S; þeosternesse, S.—AS. þéosternis.

Þestrien, v. to become dark, S.—AS. þystrian.

Þet, pron. that; see Þat, Þe.

Þeþen, adv. thence; þeþenn, S; þeden, S; thethyn, H.—Icel. þeðan, þaðan (Dan. deden).

Þeues, sb. pl. thieves, W2; see Þeof.


Þew, sb. habit, practice, virtue, S2; þeaw, S; þeawes, pl., manners, virtues, S; þæwess, S; þewes, PP, S2, C2, C3; thewis, W; thewys, H. Comb.: þeauful, moral, virtuous; þeaufule, pl., S.—AS. þéaw, habit.

Þewed, adj. mannered; thewde, S3. Phr.: wel þewed, S.

Þeyn, sb. service (?), S2.

Þeyn, sb. thane, warrior, attendant at a king’s court, S; þein, SkD, S; thane, S2, Sh.—AS. þegn (þén), Icel. þegn: OS. thegan, a youth, disciple, knight, warrior; cp. OHG. thegan (Otfrid).

Þi, pron. poss. thy, S; see Þou.

Þicke, adj. thick, S; þikke, S2, C2; thykke, Prompt.; thicke, adv., S; þikke, S, PP; þicce, S.—AS. þicce, adj. and adv.: OS. thikki.

Þicke, sb. thicket, S3.

Þider, adv. thither, S, PP, S2, C3; þuder, S, PP; þeder, S2; þedyr, S2, PP. Comb.: þider-ward, thitherward, S, S2; þuder-ward, S2.—AS. þider.

Þie, art. f. the, S; see Þe.

Þies, pron. dem. pl. these, S3; see Þes.

Þiesternesse, sb. darkness, S; see Þesternesse.

Þild, sb. patience, S.—AS. (ge)þyld: OS. gi-thuld. See Þolien.

Þildiliȝ, adv. patiently, S.

Þilk, adj. that, that very, that sort of, such, W; thylke, S3; thilke, C2, C3, W2, S; þulke, pl., S2, PP.—AS. þylc; cp. Icel. þvílíkr, such.

Þin, pron. poss. thy, thine, S; see Þou.

Þing, sb. thing, affair, property, S; pl., S, C3; þyng, PP; þinge, S, PP; þynge, S2; þinges, S, C2; þinkes, S; þenges, S; þynges, PP.—AS. þing.

Þiode, sb. people, S; see Þeode.

Þir, pron. dem. pl. those, these, S2, H, S3, JD, B; see Þer.

Þire, pron. poss. dat. f. thy, S; see Þou.

Þirlen, v. to pierce, C, S2, H; see Þurlen.

Þis, Þise, Þisse, &c.; see Þes.

Þistel, sb. thistle, Voc.; thystell, Voc.; thystylle, Voc., Prompt.; thrissil, S3. Comb.: thistle-finch, linnet, HD.—AS. þistel (Voc.): OHG. thistila (Tatian); cp. Icel. þistill.

Þit, put for þe it, who it, S; see Þe.

Þo, pron. dem. and def. art. pl. those, they, them, the, S, S2, C, PP, W2; þoo, S2, S3, W2, PP; þa, S, S2, H; þaa, S2; þeo, S; þe, S; þam, dat., S; þan, S, S2; þa, S.—AS. þá, dat. þǽm (þám). See Þe.

Þo, adv. then, when, S, S2, S3, C, C2, C3, PP; þoo, PP; þa, S.—AS. ðá.

Þo, art. acc. f. the, S; see Þe.

Þoght, sb. thought, anxiety, S2, C2; þohht, S; þogt, S; þouht, S, PP; thought, C2; þoȝte, dat., S; þuȝte, S; þohtes, pl., S; þoȝtes, S2. Der.: þoghtful, thoughtful; þoghtfulest, superl., S2.—AS. (ge)þóht. See Þenchen.

Þohte, pt. s. of Þenchen.

Þolemode, adj. patient, H, HD; tholemodely, adv., H.

Þolemodnes, sb. patience, H, HD, S2.

Þolien, v. to suffer, S, S2; þolyen S, S2; þolen, S, S2, H, PP, HD; þoland, pr. p., B; þolede, pt. s., S, S2, S3; þaleð, pr. s., S.—AS. þolian; cp. OHG. tholén (Tatian).

Þombe, sb. thumb, PP, C, C2; thome, HD.—AS. þúma (Voc.); cp. G. daumen; see Kluge.

Þonc, sb. thought, mind, S; see Þank.

Þondringe, sb. thundering, S2.

Þoner, sb. thunder, the god Thunor, S2, S; thonur, H; þunre, S; thonder, C, C2; þunder, S2. Comb.: þunres dæi, the day of Thunor, Thursday, S; þunder-þrast, stroke of thunder, S2.—AS. þunor, thunder, also Thunor, the thunder-god; cp. OHG. thonar (Tatian). Cf. Þorr.

Þoneren, v. to thunder, S2; thonord, H (Ps. 17. 15).—AS. þunrian.

Þonken, v. to thank, S, S2; see Þanken.

Þonwanges, sb. pl. the temples, HD.—Icel. þunn-vangi, the thin cheek (CV.).

Þong, sb. a slip of leather, S; see Þwong.

Þorn, sb. thorn, SD; thorne, Prompt. Comb.: thorne-garthis, hedges (= Lat. sepes), H (Ps. 88. 39).—AS. þorn.

Þorp, sb. a village, hamlet, farm, SkD; þrop, S, C2; thropes, gen., C3; thrope, dat., C2; þorpes, pl., PP; þropes, PP; þroupes, PP.—AS. þorp, Icel. þorp; cp. OHG. thorph (Tatian).

Þorr, sb. the god Thor, the god of thunder. Comb.: þors-day, Thor’s day, Thursday, PP; þorisdai, S.—Icel. þórr, þórsdagr.

Þoru, prep. through, S; þorw, S; þorȝ, S2; see Þurgh.

Þos, pron. dem. pl. these, S; see Þes.

Þou, pron. thou, SD; þu, S, PP; tu, S; 230 þe, dat. and acc., S, S2, C2; þei, S2; te, S; þin, gen. and poss., S, S2; þi, S; tin, S; ti, S; þire, poss. dat. f., S; þina, S; tine, pl. dat., S. Comb.: þut (= þu + it), S; þeself, thyself, S; þesellf, S; þe-selue, S; þe-suluen, S; þe-seoluen, S.—AS. þú.

Thoue, v. to say ‘thou’; thowis, 2 pr. s., S3.

Þouht, sb. thought, S; see Þoght.

Thowe, sb. thaw, Prompt.

Thowen, v. to thaw, CM, Prompt.—AS. þáwan.

Þoȝ, conj. though, nevertheless, PP; þowȝ, PP; þowgh, PP; þouȝe, PP; þoh, SD; þohh, S; thocht, S3; thoucht, S3; thofe, HD; þof, S2, WA; of, WA; þauh, S, PP; þah, S, S2; þaȝ, S2; þaȝt, S2; þeh, S; þeih, S; þeiȝ, PP; þeyȝ, S2; þeigh, PP; þeiȝe, PP; þeȝ, S; þei, S2; þey, S2, G. Comb.: þah-hweðer, nevertheless, S; þeih-hweþere, S; þoþwæthere, S; þof-queþer, S2; þaȝles, nevertheless, S2; þahles yef, unless, S2.—AS. þéah (þéh): Goth. thauh.

Þoȝte, sb. dat. thought, S; see Þoght.

Þoȝte, pt. s. of Þenchen. See also Þynken.

Þra, adj. eager, B; see Þro.

Þral, sb. servant, slave, thrall, S, C2, C3; thrall, S3; þralle, dat., S; threllis, pl., B; þralles, S, PP. Comb.: eorðe-þrelles, slaves upon earth, S; þral-dom, slavery, S, PP, C3; thrildome, B; þral-hod, slavery, S; þral-shipe, slavery, S; þral-sipe, S; þrel-weorkes, thrall-works, S.—ONorth. þrǽl; Icel. þræll.

Þrallen, v. to put into bondage; thralled, pt. s., S2.

Þrasten, v. to oppress, afflict, S.—AS. (ge)þræstan, to twist, hurt, torment.

Þraw, sb. space of time, S2; see Þrowe.

Þreaten, v. to threaten, S; see Þreten.

Þred, ord. third, S2; see Þridde.

Threed, sb. thread, C, SkD; þred, S; þræd, S; threde, Prompt. Comb.: þredbare, threadbare, C, PP, SkD.—AS. þrǽd, a dental derivative from þráwan, to twist; cp. OHG. drát (G. draht), from drájan; see Kluge (s.v.), and Douse, p. 101. See Þrowen.

Þrelles, sb. pl. thralls, slaves, S; see Þral.

Þrengen, v. to press, SD; þrengde, pt. s., S. Causal of Þringen.

Þreo, num. three, S, S2, PP; þre, S, PP; þree, PP; þri, S; þrie, S. Comb.: 231 þreohad, Trinity, S; þreottene, thirteen, S; þrettene, S2, PP; þrettyne, PP; thretend, thirteenth, S2; thritteind, S2; þretti, thirty, PP; þrette, S2; þritty, PP; þritti, S2; þrines, Trinity; þrunnesse, S; thresum, with three at a time, B.—AS. þréo.

Þrep, sb. controversy, contradiction, S2; threpe, JD.

Þrepen, v. to maintain a point obstinately in contradiction to another, to assert, C3, CM, JD; threape, HD.—AS. þréapian.

Þreschen, v. to thresh, beat, PP; thresshe, S, C; þrosshenn, pp., S; y-þorsse, S2.—AS. þerscan; see Douse, p. 112.

Þrescwolde, sb. threshold, PP; threschwolde, Prompt.; thresshewolde, P; threshfold, C2; threshfod, HD.—AS. þrescold, Icel. þreskoldr; cp. OHG. driscufli; see Douse, p. 110.

Þrestelcoc, sb. throstle, S2; see Þrustel.

Þrete, sb. threat, S.—AS. þréat, pressure.

Þreten, v. to menace, S2, Prompt., HD; þreaten, S.—AS. þréatian, to reprove.

Threting, sb. menace, C3; thretynges, pl., W.

Thretnen, v. to threaten, W2; thretenede, pt. s., W.

Þrette, num. thirty, S2; see Þreo.

Þrettene, num. thirteen, S2; see Þreo.

Þridde, ord. third, S, S2, PP; þrydde, S2, PP; þryd, S2; thrid, S3; þred, S2.—AS. þridda.

Þrië, num. three, S; see Þreo.

Þrië, adv. three times, S; þrien, S.—AS. þríwa.

Þriës, adv. thrice, S, S2; þriȝess, S; thryes, C2. The form is due to analogy; cp. AS. ánes, E. once.

Þrift, sb. prosperity, success in life, C3, PP; þruft, PP; þryft, fertilising power, S2.—Icel. þrift. See Þriuen.

Thrifty, adj. serviceable, cheap, S2, C2, C3.

Thrill, v. to pierce, H; see Þurlen.

Thrillage, sb. thraldom, B; see Þral.

Þrim-setel, sb. throne, SD. See Þrum.

Þringen, v. to press, S, HD; dringan, S; þrungen, pt. pl., PP; þrongen, S2, PP; i-þrunge, pp., S; thrungun, W; y-thrungin, S3.—AS. þringan, pt. þrang (pl. þrungon), pp. þrungen.

Þrinne, adv. three at a time, S.—Cp. Icel. þrinnr.

Þrinne, adv. therein, S, S2; see Þer-, prefix.

Þrist, sb. thirst, S, S2, PP; þurst, S, C2, PP. Comb.: þurstlew, thirsty, HD.—AS. þyrst (þirst), þurst.

Þrist, pt. pl. thrust, S; see Þrusten.

Þriste, adj. bold, S.—AS. þríste: OS. thrísti; cp. G. dreist.

Þristen, v. to thirst, W, S; thresten, S2; þursten, SD; thursted him, pt. s. impers., C2.—AS. þyrstan: OHG. thursten (Tatian).

Þriuen, v. to thrive, S, PP; þryue, PP; þroff, pt. s., PP; þriuen, pp., grown up, PP; þryuen, well grown, S2.—Icel. þrífa, to seize, þrífask, to thrive.

Þro, adj. eager, earnest, vehement, HD; þra, B; þraa, HD; þroo, sharp, HD; throw, adv., S3; þroliche, adv., vehemently, S2; þroly, quickly, resolutely, S2, HD, PP.—Icel. þrá-r, stubborn, also frequent.

Þrof, adv. thereof, S; see Þer-.

Þroh, sb. coffin; see Þruh.

Þrop, sb. a village, S, C2; see Þorp.

Þrosshen, pp. threshed, S; see Þreschen.

Þrote, sb. throat, S, PP.—AS. þrotu (Voc.); cp. OHG. drozza (whence G. drossel); related to Du. stroot; cp. It. strozza (Diez). See Kluge (s.v. drossel).

Þrowe, sb. a little while, course, time, moment, Prompt., PP, S2, C2, C3, HD; throw, HD; þroȝe, S; thrawe, S2; thraw, S2, B.—AS. þrág.

Þrowe, sb. suffering, aerumna, SD, Prompt.

Þrowen, v. to throw, S; þreu, pt. s., S; þrewe, threw himself, P; 2 pt. s., S; þrowe, PP; þrawen, pp., S2; þrowen, S2; y-throwe, C2.—AS. þráwan, to twist, to whirl, pt. þréow, pp. þráwen.

Þrowen, v. to suffer, S; þrowede, pt. s., S.—AS. þrowian; cp. OHG. thruoén (Tatian).

Þrowunge, sb. suffering, passion; þroweunge, dat., S; þrowenge, S; þroweinge, S.—AS. þrowung.

Þrublen, v. to press, crowd; þrublande, pr. p., S2.

Þruh, sb. coffin, S; throh, HD.—AS. þruh.

Þrum, sb. strength, a crowd, glory, SD; þrom, SD. Comb.: þrim-setel, thronus, SD; þrimsettles, pl., S.—AS. þrymm, þrymsetl.

Þrunnesse, sb. Trinity, S; see Þreo.

Þruppe, adv. thereupon, S; see Þer-.

Þrusche, sb. a thrush, S.—AS. þrysce.

Þrustel, sb. the song-thrush, S; þrostle, S. Comb.: þrustel-cock, thrustlecock, C2; þrestelcoc, S2.—AS. þrostle (Voc.).

Þrusten, v. to thrust, SD; threste, C; thristen, W; thruste, pt. s., W; þrist, S; þriste, pp., S.—Icel. þrýsta.

Þu, pron. thou, S; see Þou.

Þues, pron. dem. pl. these, S2; see Þes.

Þuften, sb. handmaid, S; þuhten, S.—A fem. deriv. of AS. (ge)þofta, a comrade, properly one who sits on the same rowing-bench; from þofta ‘transtra’ (Voc.); cp. Icel. þopta.

Þulke, adj. that, those, S2; see Þilke.

Þulli, adj. such, S, SD; þellich, SD; þellyche, S2.—AS. þullic, þyllic, also þuslic, þyslic, from þus; see Sievers, 349. See Þus.

Þuncheð, Þuncð; see Þynken.

Þunre, sb. thunder, S; see Þoner.

Þurfen, v. to need; þarf, pt.-pr. s., need, ei opus est, S; thare, H; thar, H; tharst, 2 pt.-pr. s., PP; þurt, pt. s., needed, S2, H, B. Comb.: thardestow, thou wouldst need, PP.—AS. þurfan, pt.-pr. þearf; pt. þorfte (þurfte), Icel. þurfa, pt.-pr. þarf; pt. þurfum; cp. OHG. thurfan, to need (Tatian).

Þurgh, prep. through, S2, C2; þurȝ, S2, W2; þureȝ, S; þurh, S; þurch, S; þuruh, S; þorȝ, S2; þoruȝ, S2, W2; þorw, S; þoru, S, S2; thorou, W; thurght, H; þurð S, S2; þurf, S2, HD; þoruȝlike, adv., thoroughly, S. Comb.: thurghfare, thoroughfare, C; þurhfaren, to pass through; thurghfare, S2; thurgh-girt, pierced through, C; thurchhurt, thoroughly hurt, S3; þurh-lefien, to live through; þurhlefede, pt. s., S; þurh-seon, to perceive; þurhsihð, pr. s., S; þuruh-ut, wholly, S; thurghout, C2; þuruhtut, throughout, S; þoru-out, S2.—AS. þurh; cp. OHG. thuruh (Tatian).

Þurl, sb. an aperture for admitting light, a hole, S; thurles, pl., HD.—AS. þyrel, hole, from þurh, through; so (with different suffix) Goth. thairko, hole, the eye of a needle, from thairh, through; see Kluge (s.v. durch). See Þurh.

Þurlen, v. to pierce, S, S2, PP; þirlen, 232 C, S2, PP, H; thrill, H.—AS. þyrlian (þirlian).

Þurst, sb. thirst, S, C2; see Þrist.

Þus, adv. thus, S; tus, S (in Ormulum). Comb.: þusgate, in this way, PP; þusgates, HD, PP.—AS. þus, OS. thus.

Þuster, adj. dark, S; see Þester.

Þut, for Þu it, S; see Þou.

Þuvele, sb. pl. twigs, S.—AS. þýfel, ‘frutex’ (Voc.). See Þefe.

Þwang, sb. thong, S; see Þwong.

Þwert, adv. thwart, SD. Comb.: þwert-ut, throughout, S.—Icel. þvert, neuter of þverr, transverse; cp. AS. þweorh, Goth. thwairhs, angry, cross.

Þwong, sb. strip of leather, thong, S, S2, W; þwang S; þong S.—AS. þwang.

Þwytel, sb. a knife, whittle; thwitel, SkD; thewtill, S3. See below.

Þwyten, v. to cut, to whittle, Voc., Prompt., Palsg. Der.: thwytynge, cutting, whittling, PP.—AS. þwítan.

Þy, sb. thigh, Prompt.; þe, SkD, HD; þee, HD; þyȝ, S2; þih, SkD; þeiȝ, SkD.—AS. þéo, þéoh.

Þyester, adj. dark, S2; see Þester.

Þyesternesse, sb. darkness, S2; see Þesternesse.

Þyht, adj. close, compact, tight. Prompt.; thite, HD; tiȝt, SkD.—Cp. G. dicht, Icel. þéttr; see Kluge (s.v.).

Þyhtyn, v. to make tight, Prompt.; y-tiȝt, pp., S3.

Þynken, v. to seem; þynkeþ, pr. s. impers., PP; þuncð, S; þunchð, S; þincheð, S; þinkð, S; þingð, S2; þenkeð, PP; þuhte, pt. s., S; þuȝte, S; þoȝte, S2; thoughte, C3; þout, S2.—AS. þyncan, pt. þúhte, pp. (ge)púht. See Þenchen.


Ti, pron. poss. thy, S; see Þou.

Tid, sb. time, season, hour, hora canonica, S, S2, S3; tide, S2; tyde, S2, C3, PP. Comb.: tideful, seasonable (= Lat. opportunus), H; tydfulnes, needfulness, H.—AS. tíd, time, hour; cp. Icel. tíð, time, ‘hora canonica.’

Tid, adv. quickly, PP; tyd, PP. See Tit.

Tiden, v. to happen, S; tyden, S2, C3; tid, pr. s., PP; tit, PP; tydde, pt. s., PP; tidde, S2.—AS. tídan.

Tidi, adj. seasonable, honest, respectable, S; tidy, PP; tydy, PP, Prompt.

Tidif, sb. the name of some very small bird, C2; tydy, a sort of singing bird, ND.

Tiding, sb. an event, tidings, S; tyding, C2, C3; tidinge, pl., S2; tydinge, S; tydinges, C2. See Tiðing.

Tiffen, v. to trick out, trim, adorn, SkD.—OF. tiffer, to trim, adorn.

Tiffung, sb. adornment, finery, S.

Til, prep. and conj. to, till, S, PP, S2, C3; tyl, S, PP; till, S, S3.—Icel. til.

Tilden, v. to set a trap, S; tildeþ, 2 pr. pl., set up, S3; see Telden.

Tilien, v. to till, cultivate, earn, gain, PP; tilen, S, PP; tylie, PP; tulien, PP; telie, PP; tolie, S; tylle, S2.—AS. tilian, to aim at, to till land; cp. OHG. zilón, to attempt (Tatian).

Tilier, sb. tiller, husbandman, W.

Tillen, v. to draw, entice, S, H, PP; see Tollen.

Tilðe, sb. labour, toil, tilth, S; tulthe, PP; telðe, PP.—AS. tilð. See Tilien.

Timen, v. to prosper, S.—Icel. tíma (reflex.), to happen.

Tin, pron. poss. thy, thine, S; see Þou.

Tinsel, sb. a stuff made partly of silk and partly of silver, S3, TG, SkD.—OF. estincelle, a spark, a flash (BH).

Tintreȝe, sb. torment; tintreow, S; tintreohe, S; tintreohen, pl., S.—AS. tintreg (Grein).

Tirannye, sb. tyranny, C2, C3; tirandye, HD.

Tiraunt, sb. tyrant, C2, PP; tyraunt, PP, W; tirant, S2; tyrauns, pl., oppressors, PP.—AF. and OF. tirant, tiranz; Lat. tyrannus; see Constans, Supplement, p. 57, and BH, § 72.

Tirauntrie, sb. tyranny, W2; tyrauntrye, HD.

Tis-dæi, sb. Tuesday, S; Tisdei, S.—AS. Tíwes-dæg, the day of Tiw, the English name of a Teutonic deity; cp. OHG. Zio, Icel. Týr; see Grimm, Teut. M., cap. ix, and Kluge (s.v. dienstag).

Tit, adv. quickly, PP; tyt, S2; tyte, PP, S2, H; tite, PP, S2, H; tiȝt, S2; tiȝtly, S2; titere, comp., H; titter, S2.—Icel. títt, neut. of tiðr. See Tid.


Tiðende, sb. pl. tidings, news, customs, S; tiðenden, S; tiðand, S2; tiðandes, S2.—Icel. tíðindi, pl., tidings, news; from tíða, to happen; cp. tíðska, a custom, tíðr, customary, frequent.

Tiðing, sb. tidings, news, S, S2; tyðyng, S, S2; tiðinge, pl., S; tiðinges, S2.—Cf. Tiding.

Titill, sb. an epistle, WA.

Titmose, sb. titmouse, S3, Manip.; tytemose, Prompt.; tytmase, Voc.—AS. máse, a word forming the second element of the names of many kinds of small birds, see SkD.

Titte, sb. a quick pull, S2.

Titte, v. to pull tightly, HD; tytted, HD.

Tixt, sb. text, PP; see Texte.

Tiȝen, v. to tie, PP, S2; teiȝen, S2; tey, B; te, B; teien, pr. pl., SkD; teyd, pp., C2; y-teyd, C.—AS. tígan (*tégan).

Tiȝt, adv. quickly, S2; see Tit.

To, prep. to, at, in, upon, for, with reference to, by, against, after, as, until, PP, S, S2; te, S, S2. Comb.: tabide, to abide, S; tacord, C3; taffraye, C2; tallege, C; talyghte, C2; tamenden, S2, C2; tanoyen, S2; tapese, S3; tariue, S; tarraye, C2; tassaile, C2; tassaye, C2; taswage, S3; tembrace, C2; tencombre, S3; tendure, S3; tenforme, S3; tenrage, S3; tespye, C2; texpounden, C2.

To, adv. too, S, PP; te, S.

To, num. two, S, S2; see Tuo.

To-, prefix (1). The prep. to in composition.

To-, prefix (2), in twain, asunder, to pieces.—AS. tó-; cp. OHG. zi- (Tatian), Lat. dis-.

To-belimpen, v. to belong to, S. (To- 1.)

To-bellen, v. to swell extremely; tobolle, pp., PP. (To- 2.)

To-beren, v. to part; tobar, pt. s., S. (To- 2.)

To-beten, v. to beat in pieces, C3. (To- 2.)

To-breden, v. to spread out; tobreddest, 2 pt. s., S2. (To- 2.)

To-breiden, v. to tear asunder, distorquere; tobreidynge, pr. p., W; debreidynge, W; tobraidide, pt. s., W. (To- 2.)

To-breken, v. to break in pieces, S, C3, W; to-brac, pt. s., PP; to-brak, G; to-brake, pt. s. subj., S; to-broken, pp., PP, G; to-broke, PP, S2, W. (To- 2.)

To-bresten, v. to burst asunder, C; to-bersteð, pr. s., S: to-barst, pt. s., S2, G; to-brast, W; to-brosten, pp., C. (To- 2.)

To-brisen, v. to break to pieces; tobrisid, pp., W. (To- 2.)

To-cleue, v. to cleave asunder, to fall to pieces, PP; to-cleef, pt. s., PP; to-clief, PP. (To- 2.)

To-comen, v. to come together; to-comen, pt. pl., PP. (To- 1.)

To-comyng, adj. future, W2. (To- 1.)

To-cweme, adv. agreeably, S. (To- 1.)

To-cyme, sb. advent, S. (To- 1.)

Tod, sb. a fox, JD, ND, HD, SkD; toddis, pl., S3. Comb.: Todman, Bardsley.—The word is common in Mid Yorkshire and Cumberland, see EDS (Ser. C).

Tod, sb. a bush, generally of ivy, HD; todde, SkD.

To-dasht, pt. s. dashed (herself) in pieces, S3. (To- 2.)

To-delen, v. to divide, S, S2; to-dælen, S; to-dealen, S. (To- 2.)

To-drawen, v. to draw asunder, S2, W; to-draȝen, S; to-drowe, pt. pl., PP; to-droȝe, S; to-drawun, pp., W; to-drahen, S. (To- 2.)

To-dreuen, v. to trouble; to-dreued, pp., S2, (To- 2.)

To-driuen, v. to drive asunder; to-dryue, PP; to-drif, imp. s., S. (To- 2.)

To-dunet, pp. struck with a sounding blow, S. (To- 2.)

To-fallen, v. to fall in pieces, SD. (To- 2.)

To-flight, sb. refuge, S2. (To- 1.)

To-foren, prep. and adv. before, SD; toforn, PP, S3; tofore, S, PP, S2; touore, S, S2; tofor, S, PP, S2, W. (To- 1.)

To-forrow, adv. previously, S3. (To- 1.)

Toft, sb. hillock, eminence, a slightly elevated and exposed site, PP, S2; campus, Prompt.—Cp. OSwed. tomt, a cleared space (Dan. tomt, a toft); from Icel. tómr, empty. See Tome.

To-gadere, adv. together, S, S2; tegædere S; togedere, S, PP; togedre, PP; togeddre, S; togidere, PP; togider, S, C2; togederes, PP, S; togideres, PP; togidres, PP, C3; togederis, PP; togeders, PP; togedders, S2. (To- 1.)


To-gan, v. to go asunder, SD; togað, pr. pl., S. (To- 2.)

To-genes, prep. towards, S; togeines, S; toȝeines, S; toȝenes, S. (To- 1.)

Toggen, v. to draw, allure, sport, S, Prompt.

To-grinden, v. to grind in pieces; togrynt, pr. s., PP. (To- 2.)

To-hewen, v. to hew in pieces, S, S2, C3. (To- 2.)

To-hope, sb. hope, S. (To- 1.)

To-hurren, v. to hurry apart, S. (To- 2.)

Tokker, sb. fuller, one who thickens cloth, S2, PP; towker, PP; toucher, PP; tucker, HD; touker, Bardsley; tuker, Bardsley. See Tuken.

Tokne, sb. token, PP; tocne, S; tacne, S; taken, PP, S2; takun, W; takens, pl., S2.—AS. tácn: Goth. taikns; cp. OHG. zeichan (Tatian).

Toknynge, sb. signification, PP; tocninge, S; toknyng, PP; takning, S2; takeninge, S2; tokening, C3.—AS. tácnung.

Tolie, v. to till, S; see Tilien.

To-liggen, v. to pertain to; tolið, pr. s., S. (To- 1.)

Tolke, sb. a man, S2; see Tulk.

Tolle, sb. toll, custom, Voc.; tol, PP, Prompt. Comb.: tol-bothe, toll-booth (= Lat. telonium), S2, W, Voc.—AS. toll: OFris. tolen, tolne; Lat. telonium (Vulg.); Gr. τελώνιον. Note that the n of the stem appears in AS. tolnere, ‘teloniarius,’ Voc.; see Weigand (s.v. zoll).

Tollen, v. to take toll, C. Der.: tollere, taxgatherer, usurer, S2, PP; toller, Voc.

Tollen, v. to draw, allure, entice, Prompt., PP, ND, SkD; tole, ND; tullen, CM, SD; tillen, S, H, PP.—AS. tyllan (in for-tyllan).

To-loggen, v. to drag hither and thither, S2, PP; to-lugged, pp., PP.

Tolter, adv. unsteadily, totteringly, S3, SkD (s.v. totter).

To-luken, v. to rend asunder, S; toloken, pp., S. (To- 2.)

Toly, sb. scarlet colour, WA; tuly, Prompt., HD; tuely, SkD (s.v. trap, 2).—Heb. tōlā’, crimson (Isaiah 1. 18), properly a worm.

Tombestere, sb. female dancer, C3; see Tumbestere.

Tome, adj. empty, void, unoccupied, H, HD; toom, Prompt.; tume, JD.—Icel. tómr, vacant, empty. Cf. Toft.

Tome, sb. leisure, S2, PP, H (p. 169); toym, B; tume, B; Icel. tóm, leisure. See above.

To-morwen, adv. to-morrow, S; tomorwe, PP; tomoreȝe, S; tomorn, C. (To- 1.)

To-name, sb. cognomen, PP; towname, PP. (To- 1.)

Tonge, sb. tongue, S2, C2, C3, PP; tunge, S, C, PP, W2; tounge, PP; tong, S3; tung, S2. Der.: tongede, tongued, talkative, PP.—AS. tunge.

Tonge, sb. pair of tongs, forceps, S, S2, Prompt.; tange, Voc.—AS. tange (Voc.).

Tonne, sb. tun, PP, S3, C2, G; tunne, S, PP. Comb.: tonne-greet, as large round as a tun, C.—AS. tunne.

Too, sb. toe, C; taa, S2, HD; toon, pl., C; ton, C; tas, S2; taes, S2.—AS. (pl. tán).

Tool, sb. tool, weapon, C, Prompt.; toles, pl., PP; tooles, PP.—AS. tól.

Toom, adj. empty; see Tome.

Toord, sb. stercus, W2, Prompt.

Topase, sb. topaz, Cotg.; topace, S3; tupace, SkD; topacius, W (Apoc. 21. 20); thopas, C2 (p. 151).—OF. topase; Lat. topazum (acc.); Gr. τόπαζος.

Toppe, sb. tuft of hair, P, S; top, top of the head, Prompt.

To-quassen, v. to shake asunder, PP; to-quashte, pt. s., PP. (To- 2.)

To-quaȝte, pt. s. quaked, PP. (To- 2.)

To-racen, v. to scrape to pieces, C2. (To- 2.)

To-renden, v. to rend in pieces, PP; torente, pt. s., C2, W; to-rent, pp., S, C2, W. (To- 2.)

Toret, sb. ring on a dog’s collar, through which the leash was passed, CM; torettz, pl., C; turrets, DG.—OF. touret, the chain which is at the end of the check of a bit, also the little ring whereby a hawk’s lune is fastened to the jesses (Cotg.).

Toret, sb. turret, G, C, Prompt.; touret, SkD.—OF. tourette (Cotg.).

To-reuen, v. to completely take away, PP. (To- 2.)

Torf, sb. turf, S2; turf, Voc.; turues, pl., S2.—AS. turf (Voc.).

Torfare, sb. hardship, misery, peril, WA.—Icel. torfœra.


To-rightes, adv. to rights, aright, G. (To- 1.)

To-riven, v. to rend in twain; to-rof (intrans.), pt. s., was riven in twain, S2.

Torment, sb. a tempest, torment, suffering, SkD, C3, Prompt.; tourment, SkD.—AF. torment, a tempest, turment (Roland), OF. torment, tourment, a tempest, torture (Bartsch), tormente, a tempest (Cotg.).

Tormenten, v. to torment, SkD.—OF. tormenter.

Tormentour, sb. executioner, C3, WW; tormentoures, pl., C3.—AF. tormenter, executioner.

Tormentynge, sb. torture, C2.

Tormentyse, sb. torture, C2.

Torne, sb. a turn, trick, wile, G.

Tornen, v. to turn, PP; see Tournen.

To-rof, pt. s. of To-riven.

Tortuous, adj. oblique (term in astrology), C3.—Lat. tortuosus, crooked.

To-samen, adv. together, S. (To- 1.)

To-schaken, v. to shake asunder, S. (To- 2.)

To-scheden, v. to part asunder; tosched, pp., S2. (To- 2.)

To-schellen, v. to shell, peel; toshullen, pp., PP. (To- 2.)

To-schreden, v. to cut to pieces, C. (To- 2.)

To-spreden, v. to scatter; to-sprad, pp., S2. (To- 2.)

To-swellen, v. to swell greatly; toswolle, pp., S, PP. (To- 2.)

To-swinken, v. to labour greatly, C3. (To- 2.)

To-tasen, v. to pull to pieces; to-tose, S. (To- 2.)

Toten, v. to peep, look about, PP, S3; tutand, pr. p., projecting, pushing out, S3; totede, pt. s., S3; y-toted, pp., S3. Comb.: tote-hylle, specula, Prompt.—AS. tótian; see SkD (s.v. tout).

To-teren, v. to tear to pieces, C3; toteoren, S; toteore, S; totorne, pp., PP; totorn, S; totore, C3. (To- 2.)

To-turn, sb. refuge, SD. (To- 1.)

To-twicchen, v. to pull apart; totwichet, pr. pl., S. (To- 2.)

Toun, sb. an enclosure, farm-stead, town, S2, C, W; toune, PP; tun, S, S2; toune, dat., S2, C2. Comb.: toune-men, men of the town, not rustics, PP; tun-scipe, the people of the farm-stead, S. Der.: townish, belonging to the town, S3.—AS. tún, enclosure, farm, town; cp. OHG. zún, hedge (Tatian).

Tour, sb. tower, S, S2, C2, PP, W2; tur, S; torres, pl., S2.—OF. tur, tor, tour: Lat. turrem.

Tournen, v. to turn, PP; turnen, S, S2, PP; tornen, S2, PP; teornen, S2; tirnen, S; y-tornd, pp., S2; i-turnd, S, S2.—AF. turner; Lat. tornare, from tornus, a lathe.

Tourneyment, sb. tournament, C2.—OF. tornoiement.

Towaille, sb. towel, C2; towayle, Prompt., Voc.; twaly, Prompt.; towelle, Voc.; towylle, Voc.—AF. towaille (tuaille), OF. touaile (Bartsch); Low Lat. toacula; of Teutonic origin, cp. OHG. duáhila, washing-cloth; from duahan, also thuahan, to wash (Tatian). See SkD, also Kluge (s.v. zwehle).

To-walten, v. to roll with violence; pt. pl., overflowed, S2. (To- 2.)

To-ward, prep. towards, against, S, PP; touward, S; towart, S. (To- 1.)

To-warde, adj. present, as a guard or protection, PP. (To- 1.)

To-wawe, v. to move about near, S2. (To- 1.)

Towker, sb. a fuller; see Tokker.

To-wringen, v. to distort; towrong, pt. s., S. (To- 2.)

To-wrye, v. to cause to go on one side, S3 (4. 164) (To- 2.)

Toȝeines, prep. towards, S; see To-genes.

To-ȝere, adv. this year, Cath. (To- 1.)

To-ȝesceoden, v. to separate, S. (To- 2.)

Trace, sb. track of a way over a field, trace, Prompt., C, SkD; tras, PP; trass, S2.

Tracen, v. to trace, to draw a picture, to trace one’s way, to conduct oneself, Prompt., CM, S3; trasen, S3.—OF. tracer (trasser); Late Lat. *tractiare, from Lat. tract-, base of pp. of trahere; see BH, § 131.

Trade, sb. a trodden path, S3, TG, SkD, HD. See Treden.

Tradicion, sb. surrender, S3.—Lat. traditionem. Cf. Tresoun.

Traitorye, sb. treachery, C3, CM.

Traitour, sb. traitor, S; traytour, S; treitur, S.—AF. traitur; Lat. traditorem.

Tram, sb. engine, machine, WA; trammys, pl., B.


Trappe, sb. the trappings of a horse, SkD; trappys, pl., SkD.

Trapped, adj. adorned with trappings, C, Prompt.

Trappings, sb. pl. ornaments, Sh.

Trappure, sb. trappings of a horse, Prompt.; trappures, pl., C.

Trauail, sb. work, labour, toil, trouble, S2, PP; trauaille, C2; trawayle, S2; trauell, S2; trauel, W, W2, H (Ps. 108. 10).—AF. travail, travaille; Late Lat. *trabaculum; from Lat. trabem, a beam; cp. It. traváglio, a frame for confining unruly horses. See Trave.

Trauaille, v. to work, toil, travel, trouble, vex, torment, PP; traueilen, W, S2; trauele, W, W2.—AF. travai(l)ler, to work, to vex. See above.

Trauailous, adj. laborious, W2.

Trave, sb. a frame in which farriers confine unruly horses, CM. See Trauail.

Trawed, pt. pl. trowed, expected, S2; see Trowen.

Tray, sb. vexation; see Treȝe.

Trays, sb. pl. traces, horse-harness, C; trayce, Prompt.; trayse, Cath.—OF. trays, horse-harness (Palsg.) for traits, pl., of traict a trace for horses (Cotg.); Lat. tractum, pp. of trahere.

Trayste, v. to trust, S2; traste, PP, S2.—Icel. treysta, from traust. See Trist.

Traystly, adv. confidently, H.

Traystnes, sb. confidence, H.

Traystynge, sb. confidence, H.

Traytyse, sb. treaty, truce, S3; see Tretis.

Tre, sb. tree, wood, lignum. Prompt., S2, PP, W, W2; treo, S, PP; treowe, dat., S; treuwe, pl., S; tren, S2; treen, S3; treon, S; trewes, S; trowes, PP. Comb.: tre tymus (lignum thyinum), W.—AS. tréow (tréo), dat. tréowe, pl. tréowu (tréo), see Sievers, 250; cp. Goth. triu.

Treatise, sb. a passage (lit. a treatise), S3; see Tretis.

Treatyce, sb. treaty, truce, S3; see Tretis.

Trechery, sb. treachery, trickery, S; see Tricherie.

Trechoure, sb. a cheat, HD.—OF. trichëor (Bartsch); Late Lat. tricatorem.

Trechurly, adv. treacherously, S3.

Tred, sb. a foot-mark. SkD (s.v. trade).

Treden, v. to tread, C, Prompt., PP; pt. pl., W, PP; tret, pr. s. CM; troden, PP; trade, H (Ps. 55. 2); troden, pp., C3; trodun, W2; treddede, pt. s. (weak), S3.—AS. tredan, pt. træd (pl. trǽdon), pp. treden.

Treget, sb. guile, trickery, CM.

Tregetrie, sb. a piece of trickery, CM.

Tregettowre, sb. a juggler, joculator, Prompt.; tregetour, Prompt. (n), CM, HD.

Tregettyn, v. to juggle, Prompt.—OF. tresgeter (Ducange); Lat. trans + iactare.

Treien, v. to betray, P; trayet, pp., HD.—OF. traïr; Late Lat. *tradīre for Lat. tradere.

Treilȝis, sb. trellis, S3; trelys, cancellus, Prompt.—OF. treillis, from treille, a vine, arbour (Bartsch); Late Lat. *tricla; Lat. trichila; see BH, § 98.

Tremlen, v. to tremble, stagger, PP; tremelyn, Prompt.; trimlen, HD; trymlen, S3; tremblen, W, PP; trimble, Manip.—Picard F. tremler (AF. trembler); Late Lat. tremulare.

Tremlynge, sb. trembling; tremelynge, Prompt.; trimlyng, S3; trymlinge, HD.

Trental, sb. a set of thirty masses for the dead, SkD, ND, PP; trentall, money paid for a trental, S3; a month’s mind, ND.—OF. trental, trentel; Church Lat. trigintalem (Ducange).

Treo, sb. tree, S; treon, pl., S; see Tre.

Treowe, adj. true, S; see Trewe.

Trepeget, sb. a military engine, HD, CM; trebget, Prompt.; trebgot, an instrument for catching birds, Prompt.

Tresor, sb. treasure, S, S2, C3; tresour, PP, S2, S3, C2; treosor, S; tresores, pl., PP; tresures, S.—AF. tresor; Lat. thesaurum.

Tresorere, sb. treasurer, PP; treserour, PP.—AF. tresorer.

Tresorie, sb. treasury, S2; tresory, WA.—AF. tresorye.

Tresoun, sb. treason, craft, C, PP; tresun, Prompt., S; treson, WA, C2, H; treison, PP; trayson, S.—AF. treson, traïson; Lat. traditionem.

Trespas, sb. trespass, PP; trespace, PP, C.

Trespassen, v. to trespass, PP, WW; trespace, C2; trespasside, pt. s., W (Acts 1. 25).—AF. trespasser, to cross over, to disobey.

Tretee, sb. treaty, C2, C3; trete, C.—OF. traite; Late Lat. tracta. See Tretis.

Tretis, adj. well made, pretty; tretys, 237 CM, C; treitys, CM.—OF. tretis, treitis, traitis, nicely made (Bartsch); from traitier; Lat. tractare.

Tretis, sb. treatise, short poem, PP, C2, WA; treatise, S3. See below.

Tretis, sb. treaty, B, CM; tretys, S2, C2, C3; treatyce, S3; traytyse, S3.—AF. tretiz; Late Lat. *tracticium.

Trewage, sb. tribute, S, JD; truage, Voc., S2, WA; trouage, WA.—OF. treüage (truage), toll, tax, from treü, treüd, tribute; Lat. tribūtum; see Constans (s.v.).

Trewe, adj. true, S, PP, S2, C2; treowe, S; trywe, PP; triwe, S2; trew, S2, C2; tru, S2.—AS. tréowe: OS. triuwi.

Trewe, sb. fidelity, trust, agreement, truce, PP; treowe, SkD; treowes, pl., truce, SkD; trewes, PP; trewis, B; treuwes, PP; triwes, SkD; truwys, Prompt.; trewysse, Cath.

Trewehede, sb. truth, uprightness, S2.

Treweliche, adv. truly, PP, C2; trewely, C2.

Trewen, v. to think to be true, to trow, believe, S.—AS. tréowan. See Trowen.

Trewes, pl. trees, S; see Tre.

Trewes, sb. pl. truce; see Trewe.

Trewðe, sb. truth, troth, S, C2, PP; treuðe, S, S2, PP; trouthe, S2, C3; trouth, H; tryuðe, PP; trowwðe, S; trawðe, S2; treothes, pl., S; truthes, pledges, S2.—AS. tréowðu.

Trey, sb. a throw at dice, viz. three, SkD; treye, C3. Comb.: trey-ace, the throw of three and one; a quick exclamation, S3.—OF. trei, treis; Lat. trēs.

Treȝe, sb. affliction, grief, SD; treiȝe, S; treie, S; treye, S2; tray, vexation, B.—AS. trega; cp. Icel. tregi, Goth. trigo.

Treȝen, v. to afflict, SD.

Triacle, sb. a remedy, healing medicine, S2, PP, C3, NQ (6. 1. 308); tryacle, Voc., PP, NQ; treacle, TG, Prompt.; tryakill, S3.—OF. trïacle (Bartsch); Lat. theriaca, lit. an antidote against the bite of serpents; cp. Gr. θηριακὰ φάρμακα. For examples of the intrusive l see Cronicle.

Triblen, v. to trouble, H; see Trublen.

Tricherie, sb. treachery, trickery, S, PP, S2; trecherie, PP; trechery, S; treccherie, C.—AF. tricherie; from OF. tricher, trecher, to cheat; Late Lat. tricare for Lat. tricari.

Trick, adj. neat, elegant, ND; trig, JD.—For the voicing of the guttural in North.E. cp. prigmedainty (JD), with prickmedainty or prickmedenty (HD); see SkD (s.vv. prig, trigger).

Trien, v. to try, PP; triȝede, pp., S2, PP; i-triȝed, S2; itriȝet, S2; y-tried, PP; y-tryed, PP; tried, pp. as adj., choice, PP; trye, PP, C2; triedest, superl., S2, PP; trieste, PP; tryest, PP; triedliche, adv., excellently, PP; triȝely, PP, S2; trielich, P.—AF. trier; Late Lat. tritare, to thresh corn.

Triennels, sb. pl. masses said for three years, PP; triennales, P.—OF. triennal; Church Lat. triennale.

Trillen, v. to turn round and round, to trickle, CM, Prompt., C2, S3, Sh., SkD; tryll, Palsg.; tril, Manip.—Cp. Swed. trilla, to roll.

Trinal, adj. threefold, RD; trinall, Spenser, 1. Comb.: trinal triplicities, SkD.—Late Lat. trinalis.

Trine, adj. taken three at a time, ND. Comb.: trine aspect (in astrology), SkD, ND; tryne compas, the round world containing earth, sea, and heaven, C3—OF. trine; Lat. trinum.

Trinite, sb. Trinity, S2, PP; Trinitee, PP.—AF. Trinite, Trinitet; Church Lat. Trinitatem.

Trisen, v. to hoist up, to trice, to pull off, SkD; tryce, C2; trice, CM. Der.: tryyste, tryys, windlass, Prompt.—Cp. Dan. tridse, to haul up, to trice, Swed. trissa, a pulley. The final -se is the same as in E. clean-se.

Trist, sb. trust, a tryst, meeting-place, B, W, W2, PP, S2; station in hunting, HD; trust, PP.—Icel. traust. For E. ī = Icel. au, cp. ME. mire = Icel. maurr; see SkD (s.v. pismire).

Tristen, v. to trust, S2, C3, W, W2, PP; trysten, S2, PP; truste, S2; trosten, S3, S2, PP; truste, pt. s., S, S2. Der.: tristyng, a trust, W. See above.

Tristili, adv. confidently, W, W2.

Tristnen, v. to trust, W. Der.: tristenyng, a trust, W.

Triuials, sb. pl. studies connected with the trivium, the initiatory course taught in the schools, comprising grammar, rhetoric, and dialectic, S3; trivial, adj., initiatory, ND.—Schol. Lat. trivialem.

Troblen, v. to trouble, W; troubild, pp., WA; see Trublen.

Trod, sb. a trodden path, SkD (s.v. trade), HD. See Treden.


Troden, pp. of Treden.

Trofle, sb. a trifle, S3; see Trufle.

Trompe, sb. a trump, trumpet, C3; trumpe, C.—AF. trompe.

Trompe, v. to play the trumpet, PP; trumpe, W, Prompt.—AF. trumper.

Tronchoun, sb. a truncheon, broken piece of a spear-shaft. C; trunchone, Prompt.—OF. tronchon, tronçon.

Trone, sb. throne, S, PP, S3, C2, C3, W; trones, pl., S; one of the nine orders of angels, WA; tronen, S2.—OF. trone; Lat. thronum; from Gr. θρόνος.

Tronen, v. to enthrone, PP.—OF. troner.

Trost, subj. pr. s. trust, S2; see Tristen.

Trotevale, sb. a trifling thing, HD.

Trouble, adj. troubled, S2, C2.—AF. truble, pp. of trubler; see Trublen.

Trouthe, sb. truth, S.2, C3; see Trewthe.

Trowabile, adj. credible, H.

Trowen, v. to believe, S, S2, S3, C2, C3, H, PP; tru, S2; trawed, pt. pl., expected, S2.—Icel. trúa; Swed. tro. See Trewen.

Trowyng, sb. belief, S2.

Truage, sb. tribute, S2; see Trewage.

Trublen, v. to trouble, W; troblen, W; triblen, H.—AF. trubler; Late Lat. turbulare.

Trufle, sb. nonsense, absurd tale, trifle, PP, SkD; trofle, S3, SkD; trefele, PP; triful, PP; trifle, PP.—AF. trufle, trofle, mockery, OF. truffe, a jest, a flout, also a truffle (Cotg.); Lat. tubera, truffles; see SkD (s.v. truffle). For the intrusive l cf. Triacle.

Truflen, v. to beguile, SkD; trofle, SkD; trifelyn, Prompt.; treoflynge, pr. p., S2.—OF. truffler, truffer, to mock (Cotg.).

Trukenen, v. to fail, S.

Trukien, v. to fail, S.—AS. trucian, to fail, deceive.

Trusse, sb. a bundle, Manip., CM.

Trussen, v. to pack, to pack off, C, S2, PP, Manip.; turss, B.—OF. trusser, trosser, torser; Late Lat. *tortiare.

Truste, pt. s. trusted, S; see Tristen.

Tryce, v. to trice, to hoist up, C2; see Trisen.

Tryg, adj. trusty, secure, S3.—Icel. tryggr.

Trymlyt, pt. pl. trembled, S3; see Tremlen.

Tryst, adj. sad, S3. Der.: tristes, sadness, S3.—OF. trist; Lat. tristem; and OF. tristesse; Lat. tristitia.

Tua, num. two, S2; see Tuo.

Tuhen, pt. pl. of Ten.

Tuht, sb. discipline, S.—AS. tyht; cp. OHG. zuht (Otfrid). See Ten.

Tuhten, v. to draw, persuade, discipline, S; tihte, pt. s., S.—AS. tyhtan.

Tuin, num. two, S2; see Twinne.

Tuken, v. to pluck, vex, S; tuke up, succingere, Cath.; tukkyn up, Prompt.; y-touked, pp., tucked, fulled, PP.—AS. tucian (twiccan); cp. OHG. zukken (Otfrid).

Tuker, sb. a fuller; see Tokker.

Tulke, sb. a man, soldier, knight, WA, EETS (56); tolke, S2; tulk, WA, SkD (s.v. talk).—Icel. túlkr, interpreter; Lithuan. tulkas, interpreter; cp. Dan. tolk.

Tullen, v. to draw, entice, CM, SD; see Tollen.

Tumben, v. to leap, tumble, dance; tombede, pt. s., SD.—AS. tumbian (Mk. 6. 22); cp. OF. tumber, to fall.

Tumbestere, sb. a female dancer, HD; tombester, SD; tumbesteris, pl., SD, C3 (p. 151); tombesteres, C3.

Tumblen, v. to leap, dance, SD, SkD; to tumble, PP; tombly, PP; tumlyn, volutare, Prompt.

Tumbler, sb. a tumbler, a female dancer, Voc.; tumlare, volutator, Prompt.

Tun, sb. enclosure, farm-stead, town, S, S2; see Toun.

Tunen, v. to enclose, S; see Tynen.

Tunge, sb. tongue, S, C, W2; see Tonge.

Tunne, sb. tun, S; see Tonne.

Tuo, num. two, S2, C, PP; tua, S2; two, S; twa, S, S2; to, S, S2; towe, S3.—AS. twá (neut).

Tur, sb. tower, S; see Tour.

Turnen, v. to turn, S; see Tournen.

Turss, v. to pack; see Trussen.

Turues, sb. pl. pieces of turf, S2; see Torf.

Tus, for thus, S; see Þus.

Tutand, pr. p. projecting, pushing out, S2; see Toten.

Tute, sb. a horn, cornu, os, SD.—For Teutonic cognates see Weigand (s.v. zotte). See Tewelle.

Tute, v. ‘to tute in a horne,’ Manip.—Cf. Swed. tuta, to blow a horn.

Tutel, sb. beak, mouth (?), S.


Tutelen, v. to whisper, S.

Tuteler, sb. tittler, tattler, PP.

Tutlyng, sb. noise of a horn, B. See Tute.

Tutour, sb. guardian, warden, keeper, P, WW, TG.—OF. tuteur; Lat. tutorem.

Twa, num. two, S, S2; see Tuo.

Tweamen, v. to separate, S.—AS. (ge)twǽman.

Tweire, num. gen. of twain, S.—AS. twegra (gen.).

Twelf, num. twelve, S, C2; tuelf, S2; tuelue, S2. Comb.: twelfmoneth, twelvemonth, PP; tuelmonth, S2.—AS. twelf: Goth. twalif.

Twengen, v. to press tightly, tweak, S; tuengde, pt. s., S2.—Cf. Twingen.

Twestis, pl. twigs, S3; see Twyste.

Tweye, num. twain, PP, C, C2; tweie, S; tueie, S; twey, S3, PP; twei, PP. Comb.: twey-fold, twofold, C3.—AS. twega (gen.). See Tuo.

Tweye, adv. twice, PP; twye, HD; twie, S.—AS. twíwa.

Tweyne, num. twain, G, PP; tueyne, S2; twene, S; tweien, S; tweȝȝenn, S.—AS. twegen.

Twi- (prefix). Comb.: twi-bil, an axe, bipennis, Voc., Prompt., H; twi-feald, twofold, SD; twye-lyghte, twilight, Prompt.; twi-ræd, of diverse opinion, SD.

Twichand, pres. pt. touching, regarding, S3 (13. 271).

Twie, adv. twice, S; see Tweye.

Twikken, v. to twitch, snatch, pull slightly but quickly, Prompt.; twychyn, Prompt.; twyghte, pt. s., CM; twight, pp., CM.

Twine, sb. doubled thread; twines, gen., S.—AS. twín.

Twinen, v. to twist, S; twined, pp., S; twyned, PP.

Twingen, v. to pain, afflict, SkD; twungen, pp., SkD.—Cp. G. zwingen.

Twinging, sb. affliction, S2.

Twinken, v. to wink, Prompt., G.

Twinklen, v. to twinkle, Prompt.

Twinne, num. two apiece, two at a time, S; twynne, S2; tuin, S2.—Icel. tvinnr.

Twinnen, v. to separate, C2; twynnen, S2, S3, H; twyne, S3; twyn, S2, H; tuyn, H; twynned, pt. pl., PP, S3.

Twyes, adv. twice, S2, C2, C3, PP.—Formed with suffix -es on AS. twíwa. See Tweye.

Twyste, sb. bough, Cath., S3; twist, B, S2, C2, CM; twest, S3.—Cp. ODu. twist.

Twyste, v. to strip the boughs, defrondare, Cath.

Twyster (of trees), sb. a stripper of boughs, defrondator, Cath.

Tycement, sb. enticement, HD.

Tycen, v. to entice, instigate, provoke, Prompt., Manip., S; tisen, PP; tyse, HD (s.v. tise). See Atisen.

Tykel, adj. unsteady, uncertain, CM.

Tyle, sb. tile, Prompt.; tyil, Prompt.; tyyl, S2. Comb.: tyle-stone, tile, brick, Prompt.; tiyl-stoon (= Lat. testa), W2.—AS. tigele; Lat. tegula.

Tymber, sb. timber, wood for building, Voc., PP; tymbre, PP.—AS. timber.

Tymbre, v. to frame, build, PP; timbrin, S, S2.—AS. timbrian: Goth. timrjan; cp. OHG. zimbrón (Tatian).

Tymbre, sb. the crest of a helmet, also a helmet, WA; timber, Cotg.; tymbrys, pl., B.—OF. timbre (Cotg.); Lat. tympanum; Gr. τύμπανον; cp. SkD (s.v. timbrel).

Tyme, sb. time, due season, S, C2, C3, PP; tyme, pl., C2; tymes, C2. Comb.: tymeful, seasonable, early, W; timliche, quickly, S.—AS. tíma; cp. Icel. tími.

Tymen, v. to betide, S2.—AS. (ge)tímian.

Tynd, sb. the tine or prong of a deer’s horn, the spike of a harrow, JD, SkD; tyndis, S3.—AS. tind (Voc.); cp. Icel. tindr.

Tyne, adj. tiny, WA.

Tyne, sb. prickle, Prompt.

Tyne, v. to lose, S2, PP, H; tine, S2, H; tynt, pp., S2, PP, H. Der.: tynsil, loss, ruin, H; tinsill, H.—Icel. týna, to lose, to destroy, týnask, to perish, from tjón, loss, damage.

Tynen, v. to enclose, S2; tinen, S; tunen, S.—AS. týnan, from tún. See Toun.

Tynken, v. to ring, tinkle, W.

Tynkere, sb. tinker, PP.

Tynsale, sb. loss, harm, B. See Tyne.

Tyred, pp. attired, dressed, S2; see Atyren.

Tysane, sb. a drink, Prompt.—OF. tisane, barley-water; Lat. ptisana, pearl-barley, also barley-water; Gr. πτισάνη.

Tysyk, sb. consumption, S2, Prompt.; tysike, Cath.—OF. tisique (Bartsch); Lat. phthisica, consumptive disease; from Gr. φθίσις decay; cp. It. tisica.

Tyyl, sb. tile, S2; see Tyle.

U, V (vowel).

Uggen, v. to dread, to shudder at, HD; ug, H; huge, H; uggis, pr. s., H; uggid, pt. s., H.—Icel. ugga.

Uggynge, sb. shuddering, horror, H.

Ugly, adv. dreadful, horrible, H, SkD; uglike, SkD.—Icel. uggligr.

Ugsom, adj. frightful, SkD (s.v. ugly).

Uhte, sb. the part of the night before daybreak; uȝten, dat., S, SD.—AS. úhte: OS. uhta: Goth. uhtwo; cp. OHG. uohta, Icel. ótta, see Weigand (s.v. ucht), and Fick, 7. 9.

Uhten-tid, sb. early morning-time, SD.

Uht-song, sb. morning-chant, matins, SD.—AS. uht-sang.

Ulke, adj. the same, S; see Ilke.

Umbe, prep. about, around, WA, S; ummbenn, S; embe, S.—AS. ymbe (embe): OHG. umbi (Otfrid), OS. umbi.

Vmbe-cast, v. to cast about, consider, ponder, B; umbekestez, pr. s., S2.

Umbe-grouen, pp. grown all round, S2.

Umbelappe, v. to surround, WA. See Umlap.

Vmbe-set, v. to beset, B; umbeset, pt. s., B; vmset, S2; umbeset, pp., B; umsett, H, HD; vmset, S2.—AS. ymb-sittan.

Vmbe-stount, adv. sometimes, B; umstunt, H.—AS. ymbe + stund.

Umbe-þenken, v. to bethink, meditate, S; umthink, H; vmbethinkis ȝow, imp. pl. refl., B; umbithoghte, pt. s., HD; vmbethoucht, B.—AS. ymb-þencan.

Umbe-weround, pp. environed, B.

Umbe-while, adv. sometime, at times, S; umwhile, H, HD; umwile, S; vm-quhile, B; umquile, WA.

Um-ga, v. to go about, H.

Um-gang, sb. circuit, S2, H.—AS. ymb-gang.

Um-gifen, v. to surround, H; vmgaf, pt. pl., S2, H.

Um-gripen, v. to surround; vm-griped, pt. pl., S2.

Um-hilen, v. to cover up; umhild, pt. s., H.

Um-lap, v. to wrap around, comprehendere, to embrace, WA, S2; umlappe, H, HD; vmlapped, pp., S2. See Umbelappe.

Um-louke, v. to lock in, H.

Um-sege, v. to besiege, H.

Um-set, pp. beset all round, S2; see Vmbe-set.

Um-shadow, v. to shadow round, protect, H.

Um-stride, v. to bestride, S2; umstrode, pt. s., HD.

Um-writhen, v. to wind round, H; umwrithyn, pp., H.

Um-ȝede, pt. s. went about, H.

Un-, prefix (1), has a negative force and is used before substantives, adjectives, and past participles; on-, B.—Goth. un-; cp. Gr. ἀν-.

Un-, prefix (2), expresses the reversal of an action, and is used before verbs; on-, S3.—Goth. and-; cp. Gr. ἀντι-.

Un-, prefix (3), until.—OS. und-. Cf. Oth.

Un-aneomned, pp. unnamed, innumerable, S. Cf. A-nemnen.

The word Anemnen does not occur in the Dictionary. The simple form is Nemnen.

Un-auanced, pp. unpromoted, S2.

Un-bermed, pp. unleavened; unberrmedd, S.

Un-bicumlich, adj. unbecoming, S; unbicomelich, S.

Un-biheue, adj. unprofitable; unbihefre, comp., S.

Un-bileue, sb. unbelief, W.

Un-bileueful, adj. unbelieving, W; unbileful, S.

Un-binden, v. to unbind, S2; unbind, pr. s., S; unbint, S; unbond, pt. s., S; unbounden, pl., S; pp., C2.—Cp. OHG. in-bintan (Otfrid). (Un- 2.)

Un-bischoped, pp. unconfirmed; unbishped, S.

Un-bisorȝeliche, adv. piteously, S.

Un-bliðe, adj. joyless; unblyþe, S2.

Un-boht, pp. unatoned for, S; unbouht, S.

Un-bokelen, v. to unbuckle, C2, C3. (Un- 2.)

Un-brosten, pp. unburst, S2.

Un-buhsum, adj. disobedient, S; vnboxome, P.

Un-buxsumnes, sb. disobedience, H.

Unce, sb. ounce, SkD, C; ounces, pl., C2.—OF. unce; Lat. uncia. Cf. Inche.


Un-chargid, pp. unladen, W. (Un- 2.)

Un-cofre, v. to take out of a coffer, S3. (Un- 2.)

Un-conabil, adj. unsuitable; unkonnabil, H; vncunable, H.—Cp. OF. covenable (BH. 153. 43).

Un-conabilly, adv. unsuitably, H.

Un-conabilnes, sb. misbehaviour, H.

Un-conabiltes, sb. pl. incongruities, H.

Vn-conand, adj. ignorant, HD, H; vnkunand, H.

Vn-conandly, adv. ignorantly, H.

Un-corrupcioun, sb. incorruption, W.

Uncuð, adj. strange, unknown, S2; see Un-kouth.

Un-cweme, adj. displeasing, SD: unncweme, S. See Un-yqueme.

Undampned, pp. uncondemned, W.

Un-deedli, adj. immortal, W; vndedly, H.

Un-deedlynesse, sb. immortality, W; undedlynes, WA.

Un-defoulid, pp. undefiled (= impollutus, immaculatus), W, WA.

Un-dep, adj. not deep, S.

Under, prep., adv. during, between, under, underneath, S; onder, SD; undur, W; undir, B. Phr.: vnder þan, during these things, interea, meanwhile, S.—AS. under: Goth. undar; cp. OHG. untar.

Under, sb. afternoon, CM; see Undern.

Under, v. to subject, S2.

Under-crien, v. to cry out; undurcrieden, pt. pl. (= succlamabant), W.

Under-fangen, v. to receive, S; underfonge, S; onderuonge, S2; underuongen, S; onderfang, imp. s., S; undurfong, pt. s., S2; underueng, S2; underfangen, pp., S; underuonge, S; underfongen, P; undurfongun, W.

Under-fon, v. to receive, S; underfo, S; under-uon, S; underfon, pp., S.—AS. under-fón.

Under-giten, v. to perceive, understand; underȝiten, SD; underȝeite, S; undergæton, pt. pl., S.—AS. under-gitan.

Under-leggen, v. to subject; under-laide, 2 pt. s., S2.

Under-ling, sb. a subject, inferior, S, PP.

Under-lout, adj. subject, H.

Under-master, sb. usher; undurmaistir (= paedagogus), W.

Under-mel, sb. the afternoon-meal, SD, CM. See Undern.

Undern, sb. the time between, the time between sunrise and noon, between noon and sunset, a mealtime, S2, C, C2, CM, Voc.; undorne, WA; vndren, S, HD, SD; under, S2; undur, HD; aunder, HD.—AS. undern, OS. undorn, Icel. undorn; cp. OHG. untorn (G. untern).

Undern-time, sb. SD; undrentime, S; undirtime, SD.

Under-nymen, v. to receive, perceive, reprove, PP; undirnyme, W2; undernimen, S; underneme, reprehendo, Prompt.; undernom, pt. s., C3; undernumen, pp., S; undirnommen, W; undernome, PP.

Under-picchen, v. to fix underneath; underpyghte, pt. s., C3.

Under-preost, sb. under-priest; unnderr-preost, S.

Under-sette, v. to place beneath, support, prop up; undursette, W2.

Under-standen, v. to understand, S; onderstanden, S2; understonden, S, S2; undyrstonde, S2; understant, pr. s., S; understont, S; undyrstode, pt. s., S2 understoden, pt. pl., S; undurstoden, stood under, W2; understande, pp., S; understonde, S2; onderstonde, S2.

Under-stondingnesse, sb. faculty of understanding, S.

Under-take, v. to undertake, agree, SD; undertoc, pt. s., S2; undertok, S.

Under-þeod, sb. subject, S; underþeoden, pl., S; underþiede, S.—AS. under-þéod.

Under-uon, v. to receive, S; see Under-fon.

Under-ȝeite, v. to learn, discover, S; see Under-giten.

Un-digne, adj. unworthy, C2.—OF. undigne.

Un-discreet, adj. undiscerning, C2.—OF. undiscret.

Un-don, v. to undo, open, disclose, SD, W; undo, WA; undede, pt. s., S2; undude, S, PP; undone, pp., S.—AS. un-dón. (Un- 2.)

Undon, v. to undo, destroy, PP.

Undoubtabili, adv. without doubt, S3.

Un-dreh, adj. impatient, out of patience, S2.

Un-duhtiȝ, adj. unworthy; unduhti, S.

Un-eað, adj. uneasy; uneaðe, S.

Un-eaðe, adv. scarcely, S; unneðe, S, S2, C2, C3, W; onneaþe, S2; oneþe, S3; uneth, S3, P, WA; unneth, S3.


Un-eðes, adv. scarcely, WA, S; unnethes, S2, C2, W, H; vnneths, H; vnees, PP.

Un-faȝen, adj. displeased; unfeyn, S2.

Un-fest, adj. unstable, S2.

Un-festlich, adj. unfestive, C2.

Un-fete, adj. ill-made, bad, S2. (Un- 1.)

Un-filabil, adj. insatiable, H. (Un- 1.)

Un-filed, pp. undefiled, S2.

Un-flichand, pp. unflinching, H. (Un- 1.)

Un-forȝolden, pp. unrequited, S; unvorgulde, S.

Un-freme, sb. disadvantage, S.—AS. unnfremu.

Un-fruytouse, adj. unfruitful, W.

Un-gert, pp. ungirt, G.

Un-glad, adj. unhappy, S2.

Un-happe, sb. ill-luck, WA.

Un-happy, adj. unlucky, S2.

Un-hardy, adj. not bold, PP.

Un-hele, sb. sickness, S; misfortune, CM.

Un-heled, pp. uncovered, WA, PP.—AS. helian: OHG. haljan. (Un- 2).

Un-helðe, sb. sickness, S; unhalðe, S.

Un-hersumnesse, sb. disobedience, S.—AS. unhýrsumnis.

Un-hillen, v. to disclose, S; unhilen, S2, W; onhillin, Prompt.; unhulien, SD, MD; unhiled, pp., CM, G, SD, PP; unhuled, S2.—Cp. Goth. huljan, OHG. huljan, hullan. (Un- 2.)

Un-hol, adj. sick, S.—AS. un-hál.

Un-hold, adj. ungracious, S.

Un-ifoȝ, adj. innumerable; unnifoȝe, pl., S.—AS. un-gefóg.

Un-imeað, sb. want of moderation, S (8 b. 12).

Un-imet, adj. immense, immeasurable, S; onimete, S.—AS. un-gemet.

Un-imete, adv. immensely, S.—AS. ungemete.

Un-imeteliche, adv. infinitely, S.—AS. ungemetlice.

Un-iredlice, adv. sharply, roughly, S; unrideli, S.—AS. un-gerýdelice.

Un-isalðe, sb. unhappiness, S.—AS. un-gesǽlð.

Un-iseli, adj. unhappy, S.—AS. un-gesǽlig.

Un-itald, pp. unnumbered, S.—AS. un-geteald.

Universite, sb. universe, world, W.—OF. universite; Lat. universitatem (Vulg.)

Un-iwasse, pp. unwashen, S.

Unk, pron. dual. us both, S; unker, of us both, S.—AS. unc, dat. and acc., uncer, gen.: Goth. ugk, acc., ugkis, dat., ugkara, gen.

Un-kempt, pp. uncombed, rough, S3.

Un-keuelen, v. to ungag, S. (Un- 2.)

Un-kouth, adj. unknown, strange, PP; unkuð, S; uncuð, S2; uncouthe, pl., S2, C2; uncuðe, S; uncoðe, S.—AS. un-cúð.

Vn-kunnyng, sb. ignorance, W; vnkunnyngis, pl., W2.

Vn-kunnynge, adj. unskilful, ignorant, S2, W, W2; unkonnyng, C; vnkonnynge, PP.

Un-kunnyngenesse, sb. ignorance, W.

Un-kynde, adj. unnatural, unkind, C2, PP; uncunde, SD.

Un-kyndenesse, sb. unkindness, C3, PP.

Un-kyth, v. to hide, S2. (Un- 2).

Un-lace, v. to unbind, W. (Un- 2.)

Un-lappe, v. to unfold; onlappyt, pt. s., S3. (Un- 2.)

Un-lede, adj. miserable, wretched, S, SD.—AS. un-lǽd: Goth. un-léds.

Un-leueful, adj. not permissible, W; onleefful, illicitus, Prompt.

Un-leuesum, adj. not permissible; onlesum, S3.

Un-liche, adj. unlike, S.

Un-louken, v. to unlock, PP; vnloke, pp., G. (Un- 2.)

Un-lust, sb. lack of pleasure, displeasure, SD.

Un-lusti, adj. unlusty, idle, SD; onlosti, S2.

Un-lykynge, adj. unfit, improper, scandalous, PP.

Un-mayte, adj. unmeet, H. Phr.: in unmayte, unfittingly, H.

Un-meoð, sb. want of moderation, S; unmeð, S (8 a. 10). See Meth.

Un-meuable, adj. immovable, W.

Un-moebles, sb. pl. immovable property, PP.—Cp. OF. muebles (BH); pl. of mueble; Late Lat. mŏbilem.

Un-mylde, adj. cruel, W; unmyld, H.

Un-nait, adj. useless, S2, H.

Unnen, v. to grant, S; hunne, S; an, 1 pr. s., S; on, pr. s., S; i-unne, pp., S.—AS. unnan, 1 and 3 pr. s. ann, opt. unne, pt. úðe, pp. ge-unnen. Cp. Icel. unna, OS. gi-unnan, OHG. gi-unnan, pt. onda (Otfrid), G. gönnen.


Unneðe, adv. scarcely, S, S2, C2, C3, W; unneth, S3; see Un-eaðe.

Unnethes, adv. scarcely, S2, C2, W, H; vnneths, H; see Un-eðes.

Un-nit, adj. useless, S; unnet, S; unnut, S.—AS. un-nytt.

Un-noble, adj. ignoble, W2.

Un-noblei, sb. ignobleness, W.

Un-noyandnes, sb. harmlessness, H.

Un-obedience, sb. disobedience, W.

Un-onest, adj. dishonourable, W.

Un-orne, adj. old, worn out, S; unorn, S; unourne, HD.—AS. un-orne (Grein).

Un-perfit, adj. imperfect, W2; unparfit, PP.

Un-pesible, adj. unquiet, W.

Un-pined, pp. untouched by pain, S.

Un-pitè, sb. want of feeling, W, W2.

Un-profit, sb. unprofitableness, W.

Un-quaynt, adj. imprudent, unwise, H.

Un-rede, sb. bad counsel, folly, mischief, S.—AS. un-rǽd.

Un-redi, adj. not prepared, W; unredy, improvident, PP.

Un-repreuable, adj. not to be reproved, W.

Un-rest, sb. restlessness, S3; vnreste, dat., C2.

Un-resty, adj. restless, H; unristy, H.

Un-ride, adj. harsh, cruel, WA, HD, SD.—AS. un-(ge)ryde (Luke, 3. 5).

Un-rideli, adv. sharply, vehemently, roughly, S; unridly, fiercely, WA; see Uniredlice.

Un-riȝt, adj. sb. injustice, wrong, S2; unryht, S; vnright, PP, S2; unriht, S.—AS. un-riht.

Un-riȝtfulnesse, sb. unrighteousness, unlawfulness, W2; unrihtfulnesse, S.

Un-riȝtwisnesse, sb. unrighteousness, W.

Un-sad, adj. unsteady, C2.

Un-sadnesse, sb. instability, W.

Un-saht, adj. unreconciled, discontented, S2.

Un-schape, pp. unshapen, outlandish, S2.

Un-schutten, v. to open, SD; unschette, pt. s., SD; onschet, S3; vnshette, pp., S3. (Un- 2.)

Un-scilwis, adj. unwise, H.

Un-scilwisly, adv. unwisely, H.

Un-sehelich, adj. invisible, S.

Un-seill, sb. misfortune, B.—AS. unsǽl.

Un-sele, adj. unhappy, S, S2.

Un-selð, sb. unhappiness; unselðe, S; unnsellðe, S; unnseolðe, S.—AS. un-sǽlð.

Un-sely, adj. unhappy, C2; vnceli, W.

Un-sete, sb. unsettledness, S2.

Un-skaþeful, adj. harmless; unnskaþefull, S.

Un-skaþiȝnesse, sb. harmlessness, S.

Un-skilful, adj. unreasonable, outrageous, unprofitable, PP; unschilful, S2.

Un-slekked, pp. unslacked, C3.

Un-soote, adj. unsweet, bitter, S3.

Un-sounded, pp. unhealed, S3.

Un-souerable, adj. insufferable, S3.

Un-sowen, v. to slit open what has been sewn, PP; unsouwen, PP. (Un- 2.)

Un-spedful, adj. unsuccessful, H; onschet, S3.

Un-sperren, v. to unfasten, unbar, PP. (Un- 2.)

Un-spurne, v. to kick open, S. (Un- 2.)

Un-staðeluest, adj. without a firm foundation, S.

Un-stedefast, adj. not firm in one’s place, unsteady, S, PP; unstudeueste, S.—AS. unstedefæst.

Un-stirabil, adj. immovable, H.

Un-strong, adj. feeble, S.—AS. un-strang.

Un-suget, pp. not subject, W.

Un-tellendlic, adj. indescribable, S.

Un-þanc, sb. dislike; unþonkes, gen., S. Phr.: hares unþances, against their will, S.—AS. un-þanc.

Un-thende, small, out of season, PP, HD. Cf. Theen.

Un-thewe, sb. immorality, S; un-þeu, S; unþewe, dat., S; unþewes, pl., S2.—AS. un-þéaw.

Un-tholemodnes, sb. impatience, H.

Un-þrift, sb. unprofitableness; unþryfte, S2.

Un-thryftyly, adv. unprofitably, improperly, S2, C3.

Un-tiffed, pp. unadorned, S.

Until, conj., prep. until, unto, S2, PP, SkD; ontill, B. (Un- 3.)

Un-tiled, pp. untilled, PP; untuled, S2.

Un-to, prep. unto, SkD.—OS. untó for undt + ó; cp. OS. unte, until, Goth. unte, for, OHG. unz (Tatian). (Un- 3.)


Un-todealet, pp. undivided, S. (Un- 1.)

Un-toheliche, adv. unrestrainedly, S.

Un-tohen, pp. undisciplined, S; untowun, SkD (p. 695), untohe, S.—Cf. AS. téon. See Ten.

Un-trewe, adj. untrue, not straight, S, PP, C2.—AS. un-tréowe.

Un-trewnesse, sb. untruth, S.

Un-trewthe, sb. untruth, C3.

Un-trist, sb. disbelief, W.

Un-vysible, adj. invisible, W.

Un-war, adj. unexpected, unexpecting, SD, S2, C2, C3.

Un-ware, adv. unwarily, S2.

Un-warly, adv. at unawares, S3.

Un-way, sb. wrong path, H.

Un-weawed, pp. unveiled, S.—Cp. AS. wǽfels, a covering, veil.

Un-welde, adj. impotent, weak, SD, S; vnweldy, S3, C3.

Un-wemmed, pp. unstained, unspotted, S, S2, C3, W2; unwemmyd, W, H; unwemmet, S; unweommet, S.—AS. un(ge)wemmed.

Un-werȝed, pp. unwearied; unwerget, S.—AS. un(ge)wériged.

Un-wiht, sb. monster, an uncanny creature, evil spirit, S; unwiȝt, S; adj., S; unwiȝtes, pl., S.

Un-wille, sb. unwillingness, displeasure, S. Phr.: hire unwilles, against her will, S.—AS. un-willa.

Un-willich, adj. unwilling, S.

Un-wine, sb. enemy, S; unwines, pl., S.

Un-wis, adj. unwise, S2.—AS. un-wís.

Un-wisdom, sb. folly, W.

Un-wist, pp. unknown, C.

Un-wit, sb. want of wit, C3, H.

Un-witti, adj. unwise, W.

Un-wityng, pr. p. unknowing, C3.

Un-wityng, sb. ignorance, W.

Un-wiȝt, adj. uncanny, S. See Un-wiht.

Un-worschip, v. to dishonour, W.

Un-wrappen, v. to disclose, C2. (Un- 2.)

Un-wrast, adj. infirm, weak, base, bad, S, PP; unwreast, S; unwraste, pl., S; unwreste, dat. s., S.—AS. un-wrǽst.

Un-wrenc, sb. evil design; unwrenche, dat., S.—AS. unwrenc.

Un-wréon, v. to discover, to reveal, SD; unwreo, S; unwroȝen, S; unwroȝe, S.—AS. un-wréon. (Un- 2.)

Un-wrien, v. to uncover, SD; pp., S.—From AS. wríhan. (Un- 2.)

Un-wunne, sb. sadness, S, SD; unwinne, S; unwenne, S.

Un-wurð, adj. unworthy, S; unwurðe, pl., S; unwurðere, comp., S; unwurðeste, superl., S.—AS. un-wurð.

Un-wurði, adj. unworthy, S, SD; onwurþi, Prompt.

Un-wurðlich, adj. unworthy, base; unworþelych, S2; unwurðliche, adv., S.—AS. un-wurðlic, -lice.

Un-yliche, adj. unlike, S; unilich, S.—AS. un-gelíc.

Un-yqueme, adj. displeasing, S. See Un-cweme, Icweme.

Up, adv. and prep. up, S2, S3, G; op, S, S2. Phr.: up so doun, upside down, C, C3, W, PP; up se doun, W, W2; up soo doune, S3.—AS. up, upp; cp. OHG. úf (Otfrid).

Up-braiding, sb. reproach, S2.

Up-breiden, v. to reproach, S, W.

Up-breyd, sb. reproach, S2.

Up-cumen, v. to ascend; uppcumenn, S.

Up-heuen, v. to raise, S2; uphaf, pt. s., C; uphouen, pp., S2; upe-houen, S2.

Up-holdere, sb. seller of second-hand things, P.

Up-londisch, adj. rustic, countrified, S2; oplondysch, S2.

Vppe, adv. up, PP, S; upe, S, S2; ope, S2.

Vppon, prep. upon, PP; uppen, S; apon, S2. Phr.: vpon lofte, above, S2.

Up-right, adv. on one’s back, C, C2; upryghte, C2.

Up-risen, v. to rise up; up-rist, pr. s. CM.

Up-risinge, sb. resurrection, S2.

Up-rist, sb. rising, SD, S3; upriste, dat., S, C.

Up-set, pp. set up, S2.

Up-sterten, v. to start up; upsterte, pt. s., S2, C.

Up-stiȝe, sb. ascension, S.

Up-stiȝen, v. to ascend, SD; upsteghes, pr. pl., S2; upstegh, pt. s., S2.

Up-stowr, v. to be stirred up, S3.

Up-take, v. to take up, receive; uptoke, pt. s., S2.

Up-ward, adv. upward; uppard, S.

Up-warp, v. to throw up, S3.


Up-wauen, v. to move upward with an undulating motion; up-wafte, pt. pl., S2.

Up-ȝelden, v. to deliver up, S2.

Vrchun, sb. hedghog, H; see Irchon.

Ure, sb. practice, work, operation, ND, Manip., SkD.—OF. eure, uevre; Lat. ŏpera.

Ure, sb. fate, luck, good luck, B, CM.—OF. eur, eür: Prov. agur; Late Lat. *agurium for Lat. augurium; see BH, § 27.

Urnen, v. to run, S; see Rennen.

Urre, sb. anger, S; see Eorre.

Urþe (written Vrþe), sb. earth, S2; see Erthe.

Usage, sb. custom, C2, C3.—AF. usage.

Usaunce, sb. custom, HD, CM.—OF. usance (Cotg.).

Use, sb. use, usury, HD; us, S2, SD; vce, S3; oyss, B.—AF. us; Lat. usum.

Usen, v. to use, to be accustomed, PP, S3, C2; usede, pt. s., SD, PP; usiden, pl., dealt with, W; yvsed, pp., S2; uset, customary, PP; used, C3; vsyt, S3; oysit, B; wsyt, S3.—AF. user.

Ussher, sb. usher, door-keeper, C2, SkD; uschere, Prompt.; usshere, PP.—AF. ussher, usser, OF. ussier; Lat. ostiarium, door-keeper, from ostium, door.

Usure, sb. usury, C2, P; vsuris, pl., W.—AF. usure; Lat. usura.

Utas, sb. the octave of a festival, HD, ND, SkD, Palsg.—AF. utaves; Lat. octavas. For the s = v’s cp. in Old French vis = vivus (BH).

Ute, adv. out, S.—AS. úte.

Uten, prep. away from, S.—AS. útan; cp. Goth. utana.

Uthe, sb. wave, S; yþez, pl., S2, HD.—AS. ýð: Lat. unda.

Ut-laȝe, sb. outlaw, S.—Icel. útlaga, outlawed, útlagi, an outlaw. See Out-lawe.

Uttring, sb. circulating, S3. See Outren.

Uȝten, sb. early morning, S; see Uhte.

V U (consonant).
For some words of Teutonic origin beginning with V, see F; see also in some cases W.

Vacherye, sb. a dairy, Prompt.—OF. vacherie, a cow-house (Cotg.); Late Lat. vaccaria, from Lat. uacca, a cow.

Vader, sb. father, S, S2; see Fader.

Uæin, adj. fain, S; see Fayn.

Uair, adj. fair, S2; see Fayr.

Uale, adj. many, S; see Fele.

Vale, sb. vale, PP.—AF. val; Lat. vallem.

Valè, sb. valley, S2, B; valeie, S2; valeye, PP; valayis, pl., B.—OF. valee; cp. It. vallata.

Vale, v. to descend, S3.—Cp. OF. avaler, to descend. Cf. Aualen.

Valuwen, v. to become yellow, S; see Falwe.

Vampies, Vampett; see Vaumpe.

Vane, sb. a vane, C2; see Fane.

Vanishen, v. to vanish, C2; vanshe, Voc.; vanshede, pt. s., PP; vanyschiden, pl., became vain, W; vanyssht, pp., S2.—Cp. OF. esvanuïss-, base of pr. p. of esvanuïr; Lat. ex + uanescere, from uanus.

Vant, v. to vaunt, WA.—OF. vanter; Late Lat. vanitare, from Lat. uanus.

Vantwarde, sb. vanguard, S2; see Vauntwarde.

Uaren, v. to fare, S; see Faren.

Variaunt, adj. changing, fickle, C2.

Varien, v. to vary, Prompt.; wariande, pr. p., S2; variand, S2, S3; variant, S3.—AF. varier; Lat. uariare.

Varlet, sb. a young vassal, servant, squire, SkD, Sh.; verna, Manip.; verlet, S3.—OF. varlet, vaslet, dimin. of vassal. See below.

Vassal, sb. a servant, subject.—AF. vassal; Low Lat. vassallum (acc.), from vassus, a man, a subject (of Celtic origin); cp. Wel. gwas, a youth, servant.

Vassalage, sb. good service, prowess in arms, courage, B; vasselage, C, CM.—AF. vasselage (Roland).

Vath, sb. danger, B.—Icel. váði.

Vath, interj. fie! (= vah), W.

Uaumpe, sb. the fore part of the foot, the vamp, Prompt., S; vampies, ND; 246 wampe, pedana, pedium, ante pedale, Voc.; wampay, pedana, Voc.; vauntpe, Palsg.; vampett, Cath.—OF. uantpie (Palsg.), avant-pied, the fore part of the foot (Cotg.).

Vaunte, sb. a boast, WA. See Vant.

Vaunten, v. to vault, S3; vant, S3 (s.v. vaut). Probably for vauut, vaut.

Vauntwarde, sb. vanguard, PP; vantwarde, S2; vaward, B, WA.—AF. avaunt-garde, OF. avantwarde, avantgarde.

Vauntynge, sb. vaulting, S3.

Vavasour, sb. a sub-vassal, C, HD.—AF. vavasour; OF. vavassor, a gen. pl. form, see Bartsch, p. 500; Low Lat. vassus vassorum, vassal of vassals (Diez, p. 338).

Vaylen, v. to avail; vaille, PP; vayleth, pr. s., S3; vayls, H. See Auailen.

Vayn, sb. vein, S3; see Veyne.

Ueale, adj. many, S; see Uele.

Ueat, sb. vessel, S; see Fat.

Veaw, adj. few, S2; see Fewe.

Veder, sb. father, S; see Fader.

Veel, sb. veal, SkD; veale, calf, Manip.; veal, Manip.; veilys, pl., calves, S3.—OF. veël (Ps. 28. 6): Prov. vedel; Lat. uitellum (acc.).

Veer-tyme, sb. spring-time, W2. See Ver.

Veille, sb. watcher, P; veil, PP.—OF. veile; Lat. uigilia, a vigil, a watch.

Ueir, adj. fair, MD; see Fayre.

Ueir, sb. beauty, S. See above.

Vekke, sb. an old woman, CM.

Uelaȝ-rede, sb. fellowship, S2; see Felawrede.

Uele, adj. many, S, S2; ueole, S; ueale, S; see Fele.

Uelen, v. to feel, MD; see Felen.

Veluet, sb. velvet, sericum villosum, Manip., Prompt.; velwet, Prompt.; velouette, C2; vellet, HD.—It. veluto (Florio); Late Lat. *villutum; from Lat. uillus, shaggy hair; cf. OF. velu, shaggy (Cotg.).

Vendage, sb. vintage, PP.—OF. vendange; Lat. uindēmia; see BH, § 167.

Venerie, sb. hunting, C; venery, game, DG.—OF. venerie (Cotg.), from vener, to hunt; Lat. uenari.

Venesoun, sb. venison, P, Voc.; venysoun, PP.—AF. venesoun, venysoun, OF. venison; Lat. uenationem, hunting, see Apfelstedt (Introd. xxx), BH, § 28.

Venge, v. to avenge, PP, ND, W; wenge, S2; vengide, pt. s., W.—OF. venger, vengier; Lat. uindicare.

Vengeable, adj. full of vengeance, S3, ND.

Vengeaunce, sb. vengeance, PP; vengance, WA; veniaunce, PP, W, W2; vengeans, B; veniauncis, pl., W.—OF. venjance (BH).

Uenie, sb. supplication for pardon on one’s knees, S.—Church Lat. venia (Ducange).

Venkisen, v. to vanquish, PP; vencuss, B; venkquyst, pt. s., S2; venquysshed, pp., S2, C3; venkised, PP; vencust, B.—AF. venquiss-, base of pr. p. of venquir, an inchoative form of OF. veincre; Lat. uincere.

Uenne, sb. dat. mud, S; see Fen.

Ventose, sb. cupping-glass.—OF. ventose (ventouse), cupping-glass (Cotg.); Late Lat. uentosa.

Ventouse, v. to cup, HD.—OF. ventouser (BH).

Ventusynge, sb. cupping, C.

Venust, adj. beautiful, S3.—Lat. uenustus.

Venym, sb. poison, PP, C; venim, C2, C3, PP, Manip.—OF. venin (Ps. 139, 3). Lat. uenēnum; see BH, § 44.

Venym-makere, sb. poisoner, W2, H.

Venymous, adj. venomous, CM.—AF. venymouse, OF. venemouse.

Venymous-heede, sb. venom, PP.

Ueole, adj. many, S; see Uele.

Ueond, sb. enemy, S; see Feend.

Ueor, adv. far, S; see Fer.

Ver, sb. spring, JD, H (Ps. 73. 18). Comb.: veer-tyme, spring-time, W2.—Lat. uer.

Ver, sb. glass, W2; verre, HD.—OF. verre (voirre); Lat. uitrum.

Uerd, sb. army, MD; uerden, pl. dat., S; see Ferd.

Uerden, pt. pl. fared, S; see Faren.

Verdegrese, sb. verdigris, PP; verdegrece, viride grecum, Voc.; verdegrees, C3.—OF. vert de gris, verdigrease (Cotg.); OF. Gris, Greeks (Ducange), pl. of gri; Late Lat. grĕcum; Lat. graecum; see Constans, Notes, p. 25, and BH, § 32.

Verdite, sb. verdict, C; verdyte, Palsg.—AF. veirdit; Lat. uere dictum.

Uere, sb. companion, S; see Fere.

Vergere, sb. an orchard, CM.—OF. vergier (BH); Late Lat. viridiarium; see BH, § 134.


Verlet, sb. a young servant, S3; see Varlet.

Vermel, adj. vermilion-coloured, S3; vermayle, CM.—OF. vermeil; Lat. uermiculus, scarlet (Vulg.).

Vermiloun, sb. vermilion; vermyloun, Voc.; vermylion, WA; vermeon, WA.—AF. vermiloun.

Vernage, sb. an Italian white wine, Prompt., CM, HD.—AF. vernage; It. vernaccia, ‘a kind of winter wine in Italy very strong like Malmezy,’ so Florio, cp. Dante, Purg. 24, 24; from It. vernaccio, a severe winter, from verno, winter; Lat. hibernum, belonging to winter. Cp. Low Lat. vernachia (Ducange).

Vernicle, sb. a copy of the handkerchief of St. Veronica, S2, PP, C; vernakylle, Cath.; vernacle, HD.—Church Lat. veronicula, also veronica from Veronica, the traditional name of the woman who wiped the Saviour’s face (the word being popularly connected with uera icon, true likeness); Veronica is a form of Bernice, the traditional name of the woman who was cured of an issue of blood. Bernice or Berenice is a Macedonian form of Φερενίκη, bearer of victory. See F. veronique in Cotg.

Vernisch, sb. varnish, S2, PP; vernysche, Prompt.; vernysh, bernix, Voc.; viridium, virificum, Voc.; vernish, encaustum, Manip.—OF. vernis, varnish, Cotg.; from OF. vernir; Late Lat. *vitrinire, from uitrinus, from uitrum, glass (Diez, p. 339).

Vernish, v. encaustare, Manip.—OF. vernisser, to varnish, to sleek, or glaze over with varnish (Cotg.).

Verony, sb. a vernacle, HD.—OF. veronie; Low Lat. veronica (Ducange). See Vernicle.

Verraily, adv. verily, C2, C; verralyest, superl., H.

Verray, adj. true, S, S2, C2, C3, B; verrey, G, HD; very, W. Phr.: verray force, main force, C2.—AF. verrai, verai; Late Lat. *verăcum (whence F. vrai), from Lat. uerus.

Verrayment, adv. verily, C2; verament, S3, HD.

Vers, sb. verse, PP.—AF. vers; Lat. uersus.

Versifie, v. to compose verses, PP.

Versifyour, sb. versifier; vercefyour, S2.

Vertu, sb. power, healing power, miracle, virtue, kindness, S2, PP, W, C2; vertues, pl., S2. Phr.: the Lord of vertues, the Lord of hosts, W2, H.—OF. vertu, virtud; Lat. uirtutem.

Verveine, sb. vervain, SkD; verueyne, S2; verveyn, Voc.—OF. verveine; Lat. uerbēna; see BH, § 44.

Very, adj. true, W; see Verray.

Vese, v. to drive away, HD; see Fesien.

Vese, sb. a rush of wind, C.—Cp. Icel. fýsi, impulse. See above.

Vestiment, sb. vestment, C2; uestimenz, pl., S, C.—OF. vestiment (Bartsch); Lat. uestimentum.

Vewe, adj. few, S2; see Fewe.

Veyne, sb. vein, C; veine, SkD; vaine, S3; vayn, S3; vanys, pl., S2; waynys, S3.—AF. veine; Lat. uēna; see BH, § 44.

Viage, sb. voyage, journey, S2, S3, C, C3, CM, B; vyage, S2.—OF. viage, (BH); Lat. uiaticum, provisions for a journey, from uia.

Vicarie, sb. vicar, PP; vicary, C2; vicorie, PP; vikery, PP; vickery, PP; vecory, Voc.—AF. vicaire (F. viquier); Lat. uicarium, a substitute.

Vilanye, sb. villainy, C2, C3, PP; villanie, violentia, Manip.; vilonye, disgrace, G.—AF. vilanie, OF. vilenie (vilonie), from vilain, peasant, farm-servant, also bad, villainous (BH); Late Lat. villanus, farm-servant, from Lat. uilla, farm-stead, country-house.

Vile, adj. vile; vyle, PP; vil, PP.—AF. vil; Lat. uilem.

Villiche, adv. vilely, S2.

Vilte, sb. vileness, H (Ps. 49. 22); vylte, HD; vilete, HD.—OF. vilté; Lat. uilitatem.

Viole, v. to violate; violid, pp., S3.—OF. violer; Lat. uiolare.

Viole, sb. vial; violis, pl., W (Rev. 5. 8); violes, C3.—OF. viole; AF. fyole; Lat. phiala; Gr. φιάλη.

Virelay, sb. a sort of rondeau, ND; virelayes, pi., S3, CM; virolais, HD.—OF. virelay (Cotg.); OF. virer + lai; OF. virer; Late Lat. virare; Lat. uibrare (Diez, p. 736). Cf. Vyre.

Visage, sb. face, PP, C2; vysege, S2.—AF. visage; Late Lat. *visaticum, from Lat. uisum, acc. of uisus, sight.

Vitaille, sb. food, S2, C2, C3; vitaile, PP, WW; vitayle, S3; victual, WW; 248 vitalis, pl., B.—AF. vitaille; Lat. uictuālia, provisions; see BH, § 6.

Vitailled, pp. provisioned, C3; vitailid, W.

Vitailler, sb. victualler, PP; vittelleris, pi., foragers, B.

Vitremyte, sb. woman’s cap, C2.—Lat. uitream mitram, glass head-dress (?). Cp. Sp. mitra, a sort of cap made of pasteboard, which was put on the heads of witches when led to punishment (Stevens). For the loss of r in -myte cp. F. marte for martre, a marten, also OF. feneste for fenestre, and terreste for terrestre; see Apfelstedt (p. xxxviii).

Voide, adj. void, empty, W2.—AF. voide (F. vide), OF. vuide, fem. of vuit; Late Lat. *vocitum, from stem voc-; [cp. Lat. uacare; see BH, § 63, and Constans (s.v. vuit).—A. L. M.]

Voiden, v. to empty; voyden, to get rid of, C2; to expel, C; voidis, pr. s., S3; voyde, imp. pl., make room, S3; depart from, C2; voydeth, send away, C3; voyded, pt. s., S2; voidid, pp., made void, W.—AF. voider, to leave, OF. vuidier (Bartsch). See above.

Vokyte, sb. an advocate, Voc.; vocates, pl., PP.—Lat. aduocatus.

Volage, adj. light of conduct, giddy, CM.—OF. volage, light (BH); Lat. uolaticum.

Volageouss, adj. light of conduct, B. See above.

Volatilis, sb. pl. birds (a misrendering of Lat. altilia). W; so in the AS. version altilia is rendered by ‘fugelas’; birds (= Lat. uolatilia), W2; volatils, HD.—Lat. uolatilia, poultry (hence F. volaille), pl. of uolatilis (Voc.); from uolare, to fly.

Voluntè, sb. will, CM.—OF. volonta, voluntet; Lat. uoluntatem.

Voluper, sb. a woman’s cap, CM; volyper, Cath.—Cp. OF. envoluper, to wrap round (BH).

Vouches, pr. s. avouches, S3; see Vowchen.

Vow, sb. vow, PP; vowes, pl., PP; vouwes, S2.—OF. vou (Ps. 21); Lat. uotum. Cf. Auowe (p. 18).

Vowchen, v. to vouch, cite, call, HD; vouchen, to avouch, S3. Phr.: vouchen saf, to guarantee, vouchsafe, PP, HD; vouche sauf, C2.—AF. voucher, vocher; Lat. uocare; see BH, § 96.

Vowtres, sb. pl. vultures, WA.—OF. voutre; Lat. uultur.

Vowtriere, sb. adultress, WA. See Avoutrie.

Voys, sb. voice, S2, S3, C2, C3; woice, S2; voce, B; vois, PP.—OF. vois; Lat. uōcem; see BH, § 74.

Vyne, sb. vine, PP.

Vyner, sb. vineyard, W2; vynere, H; vyneris, pl., W2; vyners, H.—OF. vinier (BH); Late Lat. vinarium, vineyard, from Lat. uinum, wine.

Vyner, sb. vine-dresser, Manip.—OF. vinier (Ducange); Late Lat. vinarium (acc.).

Vynour, sb. vine-dresser, Bardsley.—OF. vineür; Lat. uinitorem.

Vyre, sb. a crossbow-bolt, B.—OF. vire (Ducange). Cf. Virelay.


Wa, sb. woe, WA, B; waa, WA, HD; see Wo.

Wa, pron. who, S; see Who.

Waast, sb. waist, C2; see Waste.

Wacche, sb. vigil, watch, PP, HD; wecche, S; wach, one who keeps a lookout; wecche, pl., S; wecchess, S; wacchis, WA; wachis, sentinels, S3.—AS. wæcce.

Wacchen, v. to watch, SkD; vachit, pp., S2.—AS. wacian.

Wachet, sb. a sort of blue cloth, CM. See Philolog. Soc. Trans. 1885, p. 329.

Waden, v. to wade, PP; vayd, S2. Der.: vading, wading, S2.—AS. wadan, pt. s. wód, pp. gewaden.

Wæs, imp. s. be, S, Comb.: wæs hail, be hale, S; wæs hæil, S; wassail, S; wassayl, S.—ONorth. wæs, AS. wes, imp. s. of wesan, to be.

Wæs, pt. s. was, S; see Was.

Waff, v. to waft, lift up, raise, bear, SkD, JD; wafte, pt. s., S2.—Icel. váfa, to wave, vibrate.

Wafre, sb. a thin small cake, wafer, CM, PP; wafur, Prompt., Voc.—AF. wafre (F. 249 gaufre); ODutch wafel (see Kilian); cp. OHG. waba, honey-comb (Tatian); see Weigand (s.v. waffel).

Wafrere, sb. a maker of wafer-cakes, confectioner, PP; wafereres, pl., C3.

Wafrestre, sb. a female maker or seller of wafer-cakes, PP.

Wage, sb. a gage, pledge, pay for service, WA, Prompt.; wages, pl., PP.—AF. wage, gage; Low Lat. wadium, a pledge; Goth. wadi; cp. Lat. uas (uadi-). Cf. Wed.

Wagen, v. to engage, to go bail, P, Prompt.—OF. gagier; Low. Lat. wadiare, from wadium. See above.

Waggen, v. to shake to and fro, Prompt., CM, PP; waggid, pp., W.

Waghe, sb. wall, H; wah, S; see Wowe.

Waille, v. to wail, C2; see Weilen.

Wait, pr. s. knows, S3; see Witen (1).

Waith, sb. danger, peril, B, JD; wathe, WA; vath, B.—Icel. váði.

Waith, v. to hunt, fish.—Icel. veiða, to catch, hunt; cp. AS. wǽðan, to hunt, to wander (Grein). Related to F. gagner (see Brachet). See Gaignage.

Waith, sb. game, sport, a ‘take,’ S3, JD.—Icel. veiðr; cp. OHG. weida (Otfrid), see Weigand (s.v. weide).

Waithing, sb. what is taken in hunting or fishing, JD, S3.

Wak, adj. wet, moist, S3, SkD (s.v. wake). Der.: waknes, moistness, JD.—Cp. Du. wak, Icel. vökr; cp. Icel. vök (vaka-), a hole in ice.

Wake, sb. a watch, vigilia, Cath. Comb.: wakepleyes, ceremonies attending the vigils for the dead, C.

Waken, v. to be awake, to wake, cease from sleep, S, PP, S2; woc, pt. s., S; wok, S; wook, S2, C3.—AS. wacan, pt. wóc, pp. wacen.

Wakien, v. to watch, to awake, S, PP; waky, S2; wakede, pt. s., S, PP; waked, pp., S.—AS. wacian, pt. wacede.

Waking, sb. a watch, S2, C2; wakynge, W.

Waknen, v. to be aroused from sleep, SkD, PP.—AS. wæcnan.

Wal, sb. wall, murus, paries, Prompt., S, S2, C2; wall (= Lat. maceria), H, WA; walles, pl., S; wallen, S.—AS. weall, wall, rampart; Lat. uallum.

Wald, sb. wold, wood, WA.—AS. weald; cp. OHG. wald.

Wald-eȝed, adj. wall-eyed, WA.—Icel. vald-eygðr.

Wale, v. to choose, WA.—Cp. Goth. waljan.

Walette, sb. bag, wallet, Prompt.; walet, C.—Perhaps a corruption of Watel; see SkD.

Walk (Valk), v. to watch, S2, S3, B.—So written for wakk (vakk). See Wakien.

Walke, sb. a walk, WA.

Walken, v. to roll, walk, S; welk, pt. s., SkD; welke, HD; walke, pp., S.

Wallare, sb. stone-mason, murator, Prompt. See Wal.

Walle, sb. a spring of water, HD. Comb.: walle-heued, a springhead, S2.

Wallen, v. to boil, to well, to turn about, S, S2, PP; weallen, S. Comb.: wal-hat, boiling hot, S. Der.: wally, surging, S3.—AS. weallan, pt. wéol, pp. weallen.

Walme, sb. a bubble in boiling, HD.

Walshe, adj. and sb. foreign, a foreigner, Welshman, P. Comb.: walshe note, walnut, CM.—AS. wælisc, foreign, Welsh (SkD); from wealh, a foreigner, a Welshman.

Walt, pt. s. possessed, S2; see Welden.

Walten, v. to roll, to roll over, overturn, to fall, to well out, S2; welt, pt. s., SkD (s.v. welter); welte, HD; walt, S2.—AS. wealtan.

Walter, sb. water, S3; see Water.

Walteren, v. to roll about, welter, S2, S3, PP; weltyn, Prompt. Der.: waltrynge, a weltering, Prompt.; weltering, a turning over, S3.

Walwen, v. to roll, CM, PP; welwyn, Prompt.; walowand, pr. p., WA; walewide, pt. s., W.—AS. wealwian: Goth. walwjan (in compounds).

Walwyng, sb. a rolling, W.

Wambe, sb. belly, womb, WA; wame, WA.

Wan, adj. wan, pale, C3, W; wanne, Prompt.; won, S2. Comb.: wannesse, lividness (= Lat. liuor), W2.—AS. wann (wonn).

Wan-, prefix, expressing lack, deficiency. Comb.: wan-beleue, perfidia, Prompt.; wan-hope, despair, S2, C, P, H, Voc.; wan-towen, untrained, wanton; wantown, C; wantoun, C2; wanton, WA; wantowe, Prompt.; wanton-nes, want of discretion, S3; wantownesse, C; wan-truce, 250 fail, failure, S; wan-trukien, to fail, SD; wan-trokiynge, abatement, S2; wan-trust, distrust, CM.—Cp. Du. wan-, prefix.

Wand, sb. a rod (= Lat. uirga), H (Ps. 109. 3), WA; wande, H (Ps. 44. 8).—Cp. OSwed. wand.

Wand, sb. hesitation, S2. See Wonden.

Wandren, v. to wander, to walk, S2, PP, W; wondren, S2, PP.—AS. wandrian.

Wand-reðe, sb. misery, S, HD; wandreth, peril, S2, WA; wontreaðe, S; wondrede, S; wanrede, S.—Icel. vand-ræði, difficulty, from vandr, difficult.

Wane, sb. weening, thought, judgment, B; wan, S2; vayn, S2, B; veyn, doubt, B.—AS. wén. See Wenen.

Wane, sb. a quantity, a number, S2, S3; see Woon.

Wane, sb. want, deficiency, misery, S, S2, WA; wone, S.—AS. wana.

Wanelasour, sb. one who rouses and drives game, alator, Voc. See HD (s.v. wanlace).

Wanen, v. to wane, to fail, to grow less, C, C2, S2; wanye, P; wanne, to ebb, S3; woned, pp., S2.—AS. wanian (wonian).

Wanene, adv. whence, S; see Whanene.

Wangeliste, sb. evangelist, S2.—Church Lat. euangelista (Vulg.).

Wangtooth, sb. molar tooth, C2; see Wonge.

Wankel, adj. tottery, unstable; wankyll, S2.—AS. wancol (SkD, s.v. wench); cp. OHG. wank, tottering (Otfrid).

Wanne, adv., conj. when, S, S2; see Whanne.

Wannes, adv. whence, S3; see Whannes.

Want, adj. deficient; wannt, SkD; wonte, sb. deficiency, SkD.—Icel. vant, n. of vanr, deficient.

Wanten, v. to be lacking, carere, Cath.; wonte, S, S2; wantede, pt. s., S; wayntyt, pl., S3.—Icel. vanta.

Wapne, sb. weapon, S; see Wepne.

Wapnid, pp. armed, S2; see Wepnen.

Wappen, v. to lap, wap (said of water), to yelp, S3, Prompt.

Wappynge, sb. barking of hounds, Prompt.

War, adj. cautious, wary, S, S2, C2, G, W, W2, PP; wear, S; warliche, adv. cautiously, S; wearliche, S; warly, H; warli, W. Der.: warschipe, prudence, S.—AS. (ge)wær: OHG. gi-war (Otfrid). See I-war (p. 123).

War, pt. s. subj. were, S2; war . . ne, unless, S2; see Was.

War, adv. where, S; see Wher.

Warant, sb. a warrant, guarantee, SkD; protector, Prompt.—AF. warant, OF. garant, Low Lat. warentem (Diez, p. 177); OHG. werento, pr. p. of weren, warjan, to protect, to take heed. Cf. Warice.

Waranten, v. to warrant, C3.

Ward, sb. a guard, SD; wardes, pl., SD.—AS. weard (m.), ‘custos’.

Ward, sb. world (Lancelot of the Laik, E.E.T.S. No. 6). See Werd.

Warde, sb. ward, custodia, S; ward, care, heed, regard, S2; keeping, Prompt.—AS. weard (f.), ‘custodia.’ Comb.: warde-motes, meetings of a ward, P.

Warden, v. to guard, S; warded, pp., S2.—AS. weardian.

Wardeyne, sb. warden, Prompt.; wardeyn, CM, Voc.; wardane, B; wardeynes, pl., umpires, G.—AF. wardein.

Wardone, sb. a kind of pear, volemum, Prompt.

Wardrobe, sb. a house of office, CM.

Ware, sb. merchandise, S2, C3, G, SkD.—Icel. vara; cp. AS. waru, care, custody, (Grein).

Ware, sb. host, collection, S2. Comb.: helleware, the host of hell, SD; watres ware, waters, S2; windes ware, winds, S2.—AS. -waru (Grein), see Fick, 7. 291. Cf. Were.

Ware, sb. spring, H; wayr, ver, Cath.; were, B.—Icel. vár.

Ware, sb. weir, dam, HD; wore, S2; were, CM.—AS. wer (SkD); cp. Icel. vörr.

Ware, adj. comp. worse, H; see Werre.

Ware, v. to lay out, to spend, S2, HD, JD, Palsg. (p. 452); wayr, commutare, Cath., JD; war, JD.—Icel. verja, to clothe, to invest money, to spend. See Werien.

Wareyne, sb. a warren, Prompt.; warrayne, HD. Der.: warnere, warrener, Prompt.; warner, P, HD, Bardsley.—AF. warenne (garenne, garreyne); Low Lat. warenna; from OHG. war- in warjan. See Warant.

Warh (in compounds), an outlawed felon. Comb.: warh-treo, the felon’s tree, the gallows (used of the cross of Christ), S.—AS. wearh, an outlawed felon, a wolf; 251 cp. Icel. vargr, a wolf, an outlaw. With warh-tréo cp. OS. warag-treo, Icel. varg-tré, also AS. wearh-ród (Voc.).

Wari-angel, sb. a butcher-bird, a small woodpecker, WA (p. 469); wary-angle, Cotg. (s.v. pie).

Warice, v. to heal, cure, to be cured, C3; warschyn, convalesco, Prompt.; warisch, WA; warysshe, Palsg.; warisshed, pp., Prompt. (n).—OF. wariss-, pr. p. stem of warir, garir (F. guérir), of Teut. origin; OHG. warjan, to protect. Cf. Warant.

Warien, v. to curse, S, S2, S3, W, H (Ps. 108. 27), C3; werien, H; varyit, pt. s., S2; wereged, pp., S.—AS. wergian; cp. OHG. (fur)wergen (Tatian). AS. wergian, from wearh, an accursed person, an outlawed felon. See Warh.

Warien, v. to be on the watch, S (9. 132); waren, S; ware þe, imp. s., PP; war yow, pl., C2.—AS. warian, to take heed.

Warke, sb. work, S2; see Werk.

Warlaȝe, sb. a warlock, sorcerer, deceiver, WA.—AS. wǽrloga, covenant-breaker, often used of the devil (Grein).

Warnin, v. to warn, moneo, S, C2; warnon, Prompt.; warnyt, pt. s., B; warnede, PP.—AS. wearnian, from wearn, a denial, refusal. Cf. Wernen.

Warnishen, v. to fortify, protect, SkD (s.v. garnish); warenyss, H; warnist, warnyst, warnyscht, pp., H; warnised, HD. Der.: warnysynge, protection, defence, H; warnyshynge, H.—AF. warniss-, pr. p. stem of warnir; of Teut. origin. See Warnin.

Warpen, v. to throw, cast, utter, to lay (eggs), PP, S2, S, Cath.; werpen, S, H; worpen, S; warp, pt. s., S, PP; warpe, PP; werp, S2; worpen, pp., S.—AS. weorpan, pt. wearp, pp. worpen: OS. werpan; cp. OHG. werphan (Tatian).

Warrok, v. to fasten with a girth, PP; warrick, HD.

Warrok, sb. a girth, Voc.

Warysone, sb. reward, donativum, possessio, Prompt.; waryson, WA; warison, CM; warysoun, S2, B; waresun, Voc.; warisoune, B.—OF. warison, help, protection, from warir (guarir, garir). See Warice.

Was, pt. s. was; wæs, S; wees, S2; wes, S, S2; watz, S2; was, 2 pt. s., S; wes, S; were, S, W2; wæren, pl., S; wærenn, S; waren, S; weren, S; wer, S; war, S2; weoren, S; woren, S; wern, S2; wore, S; ware, S; wear, S3; ware, pt. s. subj., S; war, S2; war . . . ne, were . . . not, unless, S2, H; were, S2.—AS. wæs, 1 and 3 pt., wǽre, 2 pt. (pl. wǽron), subj. wǽre (pl. wǽren). See Wæs.

Waschen, v. to wash, S; waische, W2; wasshen, S; weschen, S; wessche, S2; wassen, S; wasse, S; wesch, pt. s., S; wessh, S, S2; wesh, C2, C3; weis, S; waischide, W, W2; wesse, pl., S; wosschen, S2; wisschen, G; wesshen, P; wasshe, pp., C3; wasschen, G; waischun, W; ȝe-wasse, S.—AS. wascan, pt. wósc (wóx), pp. wascen (wæscen).

Waselen, v. to wade in mire; waseled, pt. s., S3.—Icel. vasla, to wade in ooze, from vás, wetness, cp. AS. wós (wór). See Wose, Wori.

Wassail, a salutation used in drinking, S, ND; wassel, ND; wassayl, S; wæshail, S. See Wæs.

Wast, sb. wasteful expenditure, C3 (p. 48).

Waste, adj. solitary, S; vast, S2.—AF. wast.—OF. guaste. See below.

Waste, v. to waste away, C2; vast, to waste, S2.—OF. waster (gaster); cp. MHG. wasten; Lat. uastare; see Mackel, Germ. Elemente, p. 72.

Waste, sb. waist, a man’s middle, Prompt.; wast, Prompt.; waast, C2.—Probably a deriv. from Wexen (to grow); see SkD.

Wastel, sb. a cake made of the finest flour, P, Prompt.; wastell, libum, Voc.; wastelle, Voc., Cath. Comb.: wastel breed, cake-bread, CM, C.—AF. wastel, gastel (F. gâteau).

Wastme, sb. growth, form, personal appearance, S, SkD (s.v. waist); westm, fruit, S.—AS. wæstm. See Wexen.

Wastoure, sb. a destroyer, WA; a wasteful person, P.

Wat, pron. what, S, S2; see What.

Wat, 1 and 3 pr. s. know, knows, S, S2, S3; see Witen (1).

Wat, pt. s. quoth, S; see Queðen.

Wate, sb. chance, luck, S; see Whate.

Watel, sb. a hurdle woven with twigs, a bag of woven stuff, the baggy flesh on a bird’s neck, wattle, SkD. Comb.: watelful, wallet-full, PP.—AS. watel, hurdle, covering. Cf. Walette.

Watelen, v. to wattle, to strengthen with hurdles, SkD; watelide, pt. s., PP.


Water, sb. water, S2; weater, S; vattir, S2; walter, S3; watres, pl., S2. Comb.: watirbank, shore, W; waterles, without water, C. Der.: watrand, watering, S2.—AS. wæter: OS. watar; cp. OHG. wazzar (Tatian).

Watloker, adv. comp. sooner, S2; see What.

Wattri, adj. venomous, S2; see Attrie.

Waueren, v. to waver, to wander, Prompt.; waverand, pr. p., B; vauerand, S2, B; wawerand, B; waweryt, pt. s., B; vaueryt, S2.—Icel. vafra.

Wawe, sb. wall, WA; waghe, WA.—AS. wáh; cp. Goth. waddjus. See Wowe.

Wawe, sb. wave, S2, C3, W, PP, Prompt.; wawes, pl., WA, S2, S3, C3; waweȝ, S2; waȝeȝ, S2; quawes, S2.—Icel. vágr; cp. AS. wég: Goth. wegs; see Kluge (s.v. woge).

Wawen, v. to move from side to side, P; wawid, pp., shaken, SkD (s.v. wag).—AS. wagian (Grein).

Wax, sb. wax, Prompt.; wex, C, C3; wexe, W2. Comb.: wax-bred, a board covered with wax, a writing-tablet, S; wax-lokes, wax-flakes, S2.—AS. weax, wax; wæxbred, a board covered with wax.

Waxen, v. to grow, S, S2; see Wexen.

Way, interj. wo!, S; see Wo.

Wayke, adj. weak, Cath., S2, C, C3, PP; wayk, S2, C2; waik, PP, B; waiker, comp., S3.—Icel. veikr; cp. AS. wác. Cf. Woc.

Waykely, adv. watchfully, carefully, S3.—AS. wacollice, adv. from wacol (Voc.). See Waken.

Waymenten, v. to lament, Prompt., Spenser (2).—AF. weimenter, guaimenter.

Waymentynge, sb. lamentation, C, CM, H; weymentynge, C.

Wayne, sb. wain, cart, Prompt., G; waines, pl., S.—AS. wægn: OHG. wagan (Otfrid).

Wayowre, sb. a wager, Prompt.; waiour, S2.—OF. wageure (F. gageure), from wage (gage). See Wage.

Wayryngle, sb. a little villain, WA.

Wayte, sb. watchman, waker, spy, Prompt.; waites, pl., S2. See below.

Wayten, v. to watch, expect, C2, S2, PP; waiten, S, S2, S3, C2, PP; i-wayted, pp., S2.—AF. wayter, OF. guaiter (Roland): OHG. wahten, to watch (Otfrid).

Wayue, v. to send, put away, WA; wayfe, WA.—Cp. Low Lat. wayviare; see Ducange (s.v. wayf). Cf. Weyuen.

We, sb. way, S2; see Wey.

Weaden, sb. pl. garments, S; see Wade.

Wealden, v. to govern, S; see Welden.

Wealdent, sb. ruler, S; walden, S.—AS. wealdend.

Wealden, v. to govern, rule, control, possess, S; see Welden.

Weallen, v. to boil, S; see Wallen.

Wear, adj. wary, cautious, S; see War.

Weater, sb. water, S; see Water.

Web, sb. that which is woven, S2, W2 (Job 7. 6); webbe, P; wobbys, pl., S3.—AS. webb.

Webbare, sb. maker of woollen or linen cloth, Prompt.

Webbe, sb. a weaver, Bardsley, CM, C; a female weaver, P.

Webster, sb. a female weaver, Voc.; textor, Voc.; webstere, textor, Voc., W2 (Job 7. 6); websteris, pl., S2.—AS. webbestre.

Wecche, sb. vigil, watch, S; see Wacche.

Wed, sb. a pledge, W2; wedde, P; dat., S, S3, C. Comb.: wed-lac, wedlock, S; wedlak, S; wedlock, C2; wedlackes, gen., S; wedlakes, S.—AS. wedd: Goth. wadi. Cf. Wage.

Wedden, v. to engage by a pledge, to marry, S, C; i-weddet, pp., S; y-wedde, S; y-wedded, C2.—AS. weddian, to pledge.

Wede, sb. weed, garment, S, C2, PP, WA; weid, S3; weyd, S3; weden, pl., S; weaden, S; wedes, S, S2, P; wedis, S3, B.—AS. wǽde: OS. wádi.

Weden, v. to be mad, to go mad, S2, WA; weide, S3 (6. 438); wedde, pt. s., S.—AS. wédan, from wód. See Wode.

Weder, sb. wether, Voc.; wedyr, Prompt.; weddir, S2; veddir, S2; wether, S2.—AS. weðer: cp. Goth. withrus, lamb.

Weder, sb. weather, S, S2, C2; wedirs, pl., S2, WA; vedirs, S2; wedereȝ, storms, S2; wederes, P.—AS. weder; cp. G. wetter.

Wederen, v. to expose to the weather; wederyn, auro, Prompt.; widren, to wither, SkD; wydder, S3. Der.: wethering, weathering, seasoning from exposure to the weather, S3.

Wedous, sb. pl. widows, S3; see Widewe.

Wee, sb. a man, WA; we, WA. See Wye.


Weed, sb. weed, wild herb, Prompt.; wed, S; weode, dat., S.—AS. wéod, wíod: cp. OS. wiod.

Weep, pt. s. wept, C1, C3; see Wepen.

Weet, adj. wet, PP; wete, C.—AS. wǽt.

Weete, sb. wet, perspiration, S2, PP; wete, S2, C3; weet, C2, PP.—AS. wǽta.

Weeten, v. to wet, W2; wette, pt. s., C.—AS. wǽtan.

Wei, interj. wo! S; see Wo.

Weilen, v. to lament, W, W2, S2; weylen, C; waille, C2. Der.: weilyng, lamentation, W.—Cp. Icel. væla.

Weir, sb. war, S3; see Werre.

Weir, sb. doubt, B; weyr, B, S2; were, CM, S2, JD; wyre, Digby Myst.

Weird, sb. fate, S3; see Werd.

Weiȝh, sb. man, S2; see Wye.

Wel, adv. well, very, S, S2, PP; wæl, S; weyl, S2; weill, S3; wiel, S3; wol, S; wele, S2; welle, S. Comb.: wel-bigoon, joyous, CM; welcomen, welcome, PP; welcume, S; welcome, to welcome, PP; wolcumen, S; wilcweme, content, S; wel dede, good deed, PP; pl., S; welfaring, prosperous, C2.—AS. wel; cp. OHG. wuola (Tatian). Cf. AS. weldǽd, a benefit (Bosworth).

Wel, 1 pr. s. will, desire, S2; see Wille.

Welde, sb. weld, dyer’s weed, Prompt., CM, SkD; wolde, Prompt.; wald, JD.—Cp. Low Lat. gualdum (Ducange). Cf. Gaude. ‘Weld, Reseda luteola, Genista tinctoria,’ Britten (Plant-names).

Welden, v. to have power over, govern, possess, SD (s.v. walden); wealden, S; wolde, S; wald, pr. s., S; wolde, pt. subj., SD.—AS. wealdan, pt. wéold, pp. wealden.

Welden, v. to wield, possess, S, S2, W2; weld, S3; welt, pt. s., S2; welte, C2; welde, C2; walt, S2; welded, C2; weldide, established, W2; weldiden, pl., obtained, W2.—AS. (ge)weldan.

Weldere, sb. possessor, W2.

Weldynge, sb. possession, H.

Wele, sb. weal, prosperity, S, S2, S3, C2, PP; weole, S, S2, PP; welle, PP; well, PP; weolen, pl., benefits, S. Comb.: weleful, blessed, joyous, S; weoleful, S; welful, S2, C3; welefully, prosperously, W.—AS. wela, weola.

Welewen, v. to fade, to become yellow, W, HD; welwen, S2; welyen, S2; welowe, Cath., HD; wilowe, H (Ps. 72. 17); walows, pr. s., WA; wellowd, pp., Cath.—AS. wealowian (Bosworth).

Welk, pt. s. walked; see Walken.

Welken, v. to fade, wither, Prompt., S, S2, S3, C3, H, HD; wealked, pp., S3.—Cp. Du. welken.

Welkene, sb. welkin, sky, PP; welken, WA; welkne, C2, HD; weolcne, S; wolcne, S.—AS. wolcnu, pl. of wolcen, cloud, OS. wolkan.

Welle, sb. spring, fountain, S, C2, S2; well, S3; wel, S; weeles, pl. (= Lat. torrentes), S2. Comb.: welsprung, wellspring, S.—AS. wella, also well, wyll, from weallan, to boil up. See Wallen.

Wellen, v. to well, S2, PP.—AS. wellan, wyllan.

Wellen, v. to weld; fundo, Prompt.; wellid, pp., W2. Comb.: wellyng-place, a smelting-place (= Lat. conflatorium), W2.—Cp. Swed. välla, to weld.

Welt, pt. s. overturned; see Walten.

Welðe, sb. wealth, riches, S, PP; weolthe, PP. See Wele.

Welwen, v. to fade, S2; see Welewen.

Wem, sb. spot, blemish, S2, PP, C2, W, W2, H; wemme, Prompt., W; wembe, H. Comb.: wemles, spotless, S2, WA; wemmeles, S2; wemmelees, C3.—AS. wamm, Goth. wamm, OS. wam, crime, wickedness.

Wemmen, v. to stain, blemish, SD.—AS. wemman: Goth. (ana)wammjan.

Wenche, sb. a girl, maiden, maid-servant, S2, C2, WA, Prompt., SkD; wench, B, S2, WW.

Wenchel, sb. an infant (boy or girl), SkD (s.v. wench).—AS. wencel, weak, tottery; cp. OHG. wankón, to totter (Otfrid). See Wankel.

Wenden, v. to turn (act.), to turn oneself, to turn, to go, depart, S, S2, C2; went, S3; wend, imp. s., S; went, S; pr. s., turns (act.), S; wend, pl., C2; wende, pt. s., S, S2; wend, H (Ps. 9. 28); wente, S, S2, C2; wenden, pl., S; wenten, S; wente hym, turned him (reflex.), S3, C3; went, pp., S, S2, C2, C3; wente, W; iwent, S; iwente, S. Der.: wendynge, departure, H.—AS. wendan, pt. wende: Goth. wandjan, causal of windan. See Winden.

Wenen, v. to ween, suppose, S, S2, C2, C3, PP; weene, PP, S3; wanst, 2 pr. s., 254 S; wende, pt. s., S, S3, C2, PP; wente, pp., S3; wend, C2.—AS. wénan, (pt. wénde): Goth. wēnjan, from wēns, hope; cp. OS. wánian, OHG. wánen (Tatian).

Wenen, v. to disaccustom, to wean, ablacto, Prompt., W2, H.—AS. á-wenian, to disaccustom, to wean (VP. Ps. 130. 2), cp. wenian (wennan), to accustom, Icel. venja: Goth. *wanjan; cp. Icel. vanr, accustomed.

Wenge, sb. wing, PP, Cath.; wenges, pl., S2, S3; winges, C2; whynges, S2; wengis, W2; wyngis, W2; wengen, dat., S. Der.: wenged, winged, C.—Icel. vengr.

Went, sb. passage, road, pathway; wente, dat., CM.

Weod, sb. weed, S; see Weed.

Weole, sb. weal, S, S2, PP; see Wele.

Weoli, adj. powerful, S.—AS. welig, rich. See Wele.

Weorc, sb. work, S; see Werk.

Weored, sb. a host, cohort; weordes, pl., S; wordes, S.—AS. weorod: OS. werod.

Weoren, pt. pl. were, S; see Was.

Weorld, sb. world, S; see Werld.

Weorren, v. to war, S.—AS. werrian (uerrien in Chron. ann. 1135).

Wepe, sb. weeping, S2; wep, S.

Wepen, v. to weep, S, P, C3; weopen, S; wep, pt. s., S, S2, C; weep, C2, C3; wepe, P; weop, S; wepen, pl., S; wepte, pt. s., C3; wepten, pl., P; wopen, pp., C2.—AS. wépan (pt. wéop): OS. wópian, Goth. wopjan. See Wop.

Wep-man, sb. a man, a male, SD; weopmon, S; wepmen, pl., S.—AS. wæpman (Voc.), wǽpnedman (Grein). See below.

Wepne, sb. weapon, membrum virile, PP, S, Prompt.; wepen, C2; wapne, S; wapynnys, pl., S3, B; wapnys, B; wapen, WA.—AS. wǽpen: Goth. wēpna, pl. weapons; see Sievers, 17, and Cosijn, p. 41.

Wepnen, v. to arm, SD; wapnid, pp., S2; wapened, WA; wopnede, pl., S.

Wer, sb. war, B; see Werre.

Werble, sb. warble; wrablis, pl., S3.

Werblen, v. to warble (of trumpets), WA, SkD; werbelen, SkD; wrabil, to move in an undulating manner, JD.—OF. werbler; of Teut. origin, cp. G. wirblen, to whirl, to warble.

Werchen; see Werke, Werken.

Werd, sb. fate, destiny, S3, B; weird, S3; werðe, S2; wurde, SD; werdis, pl., S3, H, B; wierde, HD, CM; wordis, H; wurðes, S.—AS. wyrd. See Worthen.

Werd, sb. world, WA, S2; see Werld, Ward.

Were, sb. a man, husband, S. Comb.: wer-wolf, wer-wolf, S2; werwolues, pl., S3.—AS. wer, OS. wer; cp. Goth. wair, Lat. uir, OIr. fer.

Were, sb. company, host, S.—Cp. MHG. wer, were: OHG. warí, see Weigand (s.v. wehr). Cf. Ware.

Were, sb. war, H; see Werre.

Were, sb. doubt, S2; see Weir.

Wereged, pp. accursed, S; see Warien.

Wereld, sb. world, S; see World.

Weren, pt. pl. were, S; were, S; wer, S; see Was.

Werien, v. to weary, C3. See Wery.

Werien, v. to wear, PP, S; were, S2, C2; wer, S3; werede, pt. s., C; wered, PP, C2, C3; wered, pp., C2, C3, PP; worne, spent, past, S3.—AS. werian: Goth. wasjan; cp. Icel. verja, to clothe, to invest money, to spend.

Werien, v. to defend, to keep off, S; weren, S, S2, C; werede, pt. s., S2.—AS. werian, OS. werian; cp. OHG. werren, to defend, forbid (Otfrid), weren, to forbid (Tatian).

Werke, sb. work, a work of defence, WA; werk, S, S2, C2, Prompt.; were, S; weorc, S; worc, S2; worke, S2; warke, S3; weorkes, pl., S. Comb.: werk-beeste, jumentum, W2.—AS. (ge)weorc: OS. werk; cp. Icel. virki, an entrenchment.

Werke, v. to work, Prompt.; wirken, S2; werchen, S, S3, C3; wirchen, S; wurchen, S, S2; worchen, W, S2; wrohte, pt. s., S; wroȝte, S, S2; wroght, S2; wraht, S2; wrahtes, 2 pt. s., S; wrogt, pp., S; wrocht, S3; wroght, S2; wroughte, S3; i-wraht, S; i-wrouhte, S; y-wrouȝte, P; y-wroght, C2.—AS. wyrcan, pt. worhte, pp. geworht.

Werke, sb. pain, HD.—AS. wærc (Grein); cp. Icel. verkr.

Werken, v. to ache, WA; werkyn, Prompt.; werchen, S3.—Icel. verkja.

Werkinge, sb. aching; werkynge, H; head-ache, Prompt.; warkynge, H; werkyngis, pl., H.

Werld, sb. world, S, S2; weorld, S; woreld, S; worlde, PP; world, S; wereld, 255 S; wurld, S; worlt, S; wordle, S2, PP; word, S2, PP; werd, WA, S2; werde, Prompt.; weorldes, gen., S; woreldes, S; wereldes, S; werldes, S; werdes, S2; wordles, pl., S2. Comb.: weoreldliche, worldly; weorelldlike, S; worldlich, S; wurldlic, S; worltliche, S; wordliche, S; werdliche, S3; weoreldschipe, worldliness; weorelldshipess, gen., S.—AS. weoruld: OS. werold; cp. OHG. weralt (Tatian).

Wermod, sb. wormwood, Voc.; wermode, SB; wormod (= Lat. absinthium), W; wormode, Voc.; wormwod, Voc.—AS. wermód, (OET.); cp. G. wermuth.

Wern, pt. pl. were, S; see Was.

Wernard, sb. a deceiver, liar, P; wernardes, pl., P.—OF. guernart. See below.

Wernen, v. to refuse, PP, S, S2, G, HD; wurne, S2; warn, H, B, S2, HD; wornde, pt. s., S2.—AS. wyrnan, to refuse (Grein); cp. OS. wernian. Cf. Warnin.

Werpen, v. to throw, to bring forth, S; see Warpen.

Werrayour, sb. warrior, B.—OF. guerreier (BH).

Werre, adj. comp. worse, H, HD; were, JD; wer, B; ware, H, JD; war, JD, B; waur, JD.—Icel. verri.

Werre, sb. war, S, C, C2, H, Cath.; worre, S2; were, H; wer, B; war, B; weir, B, S3. Der.: werely, warlike, S3, JD.—OF. werre (F. guerre); OHG. werra, strife, cp. gi-werri, a tumult (Otfrid).

Werreyen, v. to make war, C2; werray, H, B; warray, B.—OF. werreier, guerroier.

Werrien, v. to make war, SD; weorren, S; worri, S2; waryed, pt. pl., H; werid, H (Ps. 108. 2).—AS. werrían; OF. guerrier (BH). See above.

Werse, adj. comp. worse, S; see Wurse.

Werte, sb. a wart, C, Prompt., Voc.; warte, Cath.; wrette, Prompt.; wrot, Prompt. (n). Comb.: wrot-wort, uerrucaria, Prompt. (n).—AS. wearte (Voc.).

Werwolf, sb. man-wolf; see Were.

Wery, adj. turbid, dirty, S2 (4 a. 38); weary, C2; weri, adv., S. Der.: werinisse, weariness, S2.—AS. wérig, weary. See Worie.

Wes, pt. s. was, S, S2; see Was.

Weschen, v. to wash, S; wessche, S2; wesch, pt. s., S; see Waschen.

Weste, adj. desolate; wesste, sb., wilderness, S.—AS. wéste, desolate (wésten, a desert): OS. wósti; cp. OHG. wuosti (Tatian). Cf. Waste.

Westi, adj. desolate, S.

Westm, sb. fruit, S; see Wastme.

Wet, pron. what, S; see What.

Wether, sb. wether, S2; see Weder.

Wette, pt. s. wetted, C; see Weeten.

Weued, sb. altar, S2.—AS. weofod (for wíh-bedd), idol-table, altar (Voc.), wigbed (Grein), wibed (VP). AS. wíh (wig), idol, sacred place, altar (Grein); cp. Goth. weihs, holy, and G. weih- in weih-nacht, weih-rauch.

Wexen, v. to wax, to grow, S, S2, C3, W, W2; waxen, S, S2; walxis, pr. pl., S3; wex, pt. s., S, S2, S3; weex, C3; wæx, S; wax, S2; wox, S2; wexe, W; wexen, pl., S; wexe, C2; woxen, W; wolx, S3; wexide, pt. s. (weak form), W2; waxen, pp., S; woxen, C2, C3, W; woxe, G; wox, S2.—AS. weaxan, pt. wéox, pp. weaxen.

Wey, sb. way, S, S2, C2; wei, S, S2; weg, S; weie, S; weye, S; we, S2; weies, gen., S; vayis, S2. Comb.: weybrede, plantain, Prompt., Voc. (see Grimm, p. 1215). Phr.: a litill we, a little bit, S2; a wei, a little time, S2 (see SkD, s.v. wee, p. 833).—AS. weg; cp. Goth. wigs.

Weyd, sb. garment, S3; see Wede.

Weye, sb. creature, person, wight, man, PP; wye, PP; wy, PP.—AS. wíga, warrior, man.

Weye, sb. a wey, a weight so called, PP.

Weyen, v. to weigh, to move, PP, C2, S, S2; weie, S2; weiȝen, S; weyen, pp., S2, P; weyede, pt. s. (weak form), S2; weyȝed, P.—AS. wegan, to bear, to move, pt. wæg (pl. wǽgon), pp. wegen.

Weyuen, v. to swing about, to set aside, remove, push aside, waive, C2, C3, G, S2.—AF. weiver; Icel. veifa, to vibrate. Cf. Wayue.

Weyues, sb. pl. men or things found astray without an owner, P.—AF. waif; weifs (pl.). See above.


Wha, pron. who, S2; see Who.

Whær, adv. where, S; see Wher.

Whal, sb. whale, W2.—AS. hwæl (Voc.). Cf. Qual.

Whan, adv. interrog., conj. when, S2, C2; whane, S; whanne, S, W; hwanne, S; huanne, S2; hwenne, S; hwan, S; hwen, S; hwon, S; wanne, S, S2; wonne, S; wane, S, S2; wone, S; wan, S; won, S; quanne, S; quane, S; quan, S; quuan, S; quen, S2; quene, S. Comb.: whannse, whensoever, S.—AS. hwanne.

Whanene, adv. whence, S; wanene, S; wenene, S2; whænnenen, S; whenne, S2, C2.—AS. hwanon.

Whannes, adv. whence, S, S2; huannes, S2; whannus, W2; whennys, W; wannes, S2; whennes, C3, P.

What, pron. interrog., adj. n., and adv. what, why, wherefore, S, S3, W; whæt, S, S2; whatt, S; whaut, S2; hwat, S; hwet, S; huet, S2; wat, S, S2; wet, S, S2; quat, S, S2. Comb.: hwat . . . wat, both . . . and, S; wat . . . wat, S; what swa, whatsoever, S; quat so, S; quat kin, what kind, S2; quat als euer, whatsoever, S2.—AS. hwæt.

What, conj. what time, until; wat, S.—Cf. Al-wat.

What, adj. quick, keen, sharp, strenuous, MD; whæt, MD; hwat, MD; wat, MD; adv., S; wate, MD; whate, MD, HD; hwatliche, S; watloker, comp., S2.—AS. hwæt: OS. hwat; cp. Icel. hvatr, OHG. was, sharp (Otfrid).

[Whate], sb. chance, luck; hwate, S, MD; wate, S; quate, HD.—AS. hwat, omen, augury, incitamentum; cp. Icel. hvöt (hvata-). See What, adj.

Whaup, sb. the larger curlew, HD, JD; whaap, JD; whap, JD; quhaup, JD; quhaip, JD; awp, JD; awppis, pl., S3.

Wheen, sb. a number, a quantity, JD; quhene, JD.—Cp. AS. hwéne inst. of hwón, see Sievers, 237. See Woon.

Wheene, adj. pl. few, B.

Whele, sb. wheel, Voc., W2; whiel, CM; whel, C; quhele, S3; hweoles, pl., S. Comb.: quheill-rym, wheel-rim, S3.—AS. hwéol; cp. Gr. κύκλος; see Douse, p. 37.

Whele, sb. a pimple, Prompt., Voc. (790. 27); wheal, SkD; wheale, ‘pupula,’ Manip.; queale, Manip.

Whelen, v. to putrefy, Prompt.—AS. hwelian (BT).

Whelke, sb. a pimple, Voc., Prompt., MD; whelk, Sh.; whelkes, pl., CM, C, SkD (s.v. wheal).

Whelp, sb. a whelp, dog, C2, C3, Prompt.; welp, MD; quelpe, MD; quilpe, MD; qwelpe, Voc.—AS. hwelp.

Whene, v. to lament, MD.—AS. hwǽnan. See Quain.

Whennes, adv. whence, C3, P; see Whannes.

Wher, adv. interrog. and rel. where, S, C2; whare, S2; whær, S; hwer, S; hwar, S; huer, S2; wer, S; war, S; quar, S2 (s.v. si-quar); quhare, S3; quuor, S. Comb.: wheras, where, S3, C2; werbi, whereby, S; werefore, wherefore, S; hwerfore, S; warevore, S, S2; werinne, wherein, S2; huermyde, wherewith, S2; quor-of, whereof, S; whærswa, wheresoever, S; wherso, C2; hwarse, S; hwerse, S; warso, S2; whærsitt, S; quhair-to, wherefore, S3; whærwiþþ, wherewith, S; wareþoru, wherethrough, S2.—AS. hwǽr.

Wher, pron. and conj. whether of the two, whether, S2, C, C2, G, PP; where, PP; whar, S; hwere, S; wer, S2; quer, S2; quhidder, S3; whether, S; hweðer, S. Comb.: wher so, whethersoever, S; queðer so, S.—AS. hwæðer. Cf. Auþer, Æiðer.

Whete, sb. wheat, Voc., C3; hwete, S; wete, S; quete, S2; quet, S2.—AS. hwǽte: Goth. hwaiteis.

Whethen, adv. whence, HD, H; whythyne, HD (p. 929).—Icel. hvaðan.

Whetten, v. to sharpen, CM, Prompt., S3; whætte, pt. s., S, MD; wette, MD. Comb.: whet-stone, Prompt.; whestone, Prompt.; wheston, Voc.; whestones, pl., S2.—AS. hwettan: Icel. hvetja. See What, adj.

Whi, adv. interrog. why, S; wi, S; wy, S; hwi, S; qui, S2.—AS. hwí, inst. of hwá. See Who.

Whicche, a chest, trunk, box; whucche, PP; whyche, Prompt.; hoche, Prompt.—AS. hwicce; ‘Clustella, hwicce;’ Engl. Studien, xi. 65.

Which, pron. interrog. and rel., adj. which, S2; whilk, S2; whillc, S; whulche, S; hwilc, S; hwilch, S; hwich, S; hwuch, S; huych, S; huyche, S2; wulc, S; wilk, S2; wulche, S; woche, S; 257 wuch, S2; wic, S; quilc, S; quilk, S2 (squilk) H; quhilk, S3. Comb.: wilc so, whichsoever, S; hwychso, S.—AS. hwilc (for hwí-líc).

Whider, adv. whither, PP, C2, C; whidir, SkD; whyder, PP; hwider, S; wider, S; quhethir, S2. Comb.: hwiderse, whitherso, S; whider-ward, whitherward, S2; whederward, S2; whydyrward, S2; whederwarde-so, whithersoever, S2.—AS. hwider.

While, sb. a while, duration of time, PP; whyl, C2; hwile, S; hwule, S; wile, S; wyle, S2; wule, S2; quhyle, S3; whyle, adv., for a time, sometimes, formerly, S2; wile, S; wil, S3; quile, conj., S; quhill, S2, S3; wile, S. Comb.: whyle-ere, formerly, S3; whyler, C3.—AS. hwíl, a time, space: cp. Goth. hweila.

Whiles, adv. and conj. whiles, whilst, S2, PP; wiles, S; whyls, C3; hwils, S.

Whilk, pron. which, S2; see Which.

Whilom, adv. sometimes, formerly, C, S2, PP; whilum, PP; whylom, C2; hwilem, S; hwylem, S; wylem, S; quilum, S; quhilum, S3.—AS. hwílum, at times.

Whipling, sb. a murmuring, S3.

Whippe, sb. whip, scourge, SkD; quippe, Voc.; quhyp, S3.

Whippen, v. to move suddenly and quickly, SkD; whypt, pt. s., S3.

Whit, sb. a wight, man, S3; see Wight.

Whitely, adv. quite, H; see Quytly.

Who, pron. interrog. and rel. who, any one, SD, PP; wha, S2; hwo, S; huo, S2; hwa, S; ho, S2; wo, S, S2; wa, S; quho, S3; quha, S2; ȝwo, SD; qva, SD; qvo, SD; qwo, SD. Comb.: who se, who so, S2, PP; hwo se, S; ho se, S2; ho so, P; wo so, S, S2; hwa se, S.—AS. hwá, hwá-swá; cp. Lat. quo-d; see Douse, p. 71.

Whom, pron. interrog. and rel. dat. to whom, C2; wham, S; wam, S; hwom, S; hwam, S; quam, S.—AS. hwám, hwǽm (dat.).

Whon, pron. interrog. and rel. acc. (also dat.), S; whan, SD; hwan, S; wan, S, S2.—AS. hwone (acc.).

Whos, pron. interrog. and rel. gen. whose, C2, W; whas, SD, P; whes, SD; quhais, S3; quhois, S3.—AS. hwæs (gen.).

Whough, interj. whew!, S3; wough, S3.

Whulche, pron. which, S; see Which.

Whyppyltre, sb. cornel-tree, C; see Wyppyl-tre.

Whyrle, sb. whirl, giraculum, Cath. (n). Comb.: whirl-bon, vertebra, SD; whyrlebone, Voc.; whorlebone, Cath.; whyrlewynde, turbo, Prompt.

Whyrlyn, v. to whirl, Prompt.; whirlen, C2; wyrle, S2; quhyrl, S3. Comb.: whirlinge wyndys, whirlwinds, W.—Icel. hvirfla, to whirl.

Whyte, sb. white wine, C3.

Whyte, adj. white, PP, C2; whit, S, C, PP; hwit, S; wit, S; quhite, S3; quhyt, S3; quite, S2; huyter, comp., S2; whittore, S2. Der.: whytnesse, whiteness, C3. Comb.: Witsunnedei, Whitsunday, S; Witesonetid, Whitsuntide, S2.—AS. hwít: cp. Goth. hweits.


Wi, adv. why, S; see Why.

Wicche, sb. sorcerer, magus, sortilegus, also witch, PP; wyche, magus, Prompt., Cath., Voc.; witch, Cath. Comb.: wicchecrafte, PP; wychecraft, Cath., Voc.; wichchecreftes, pl., S.—AS. wicca (m).

Wicht, adj. active, vigorous, S3; see Wight.

Wicke, adj. bad, false, S, S2, PP; wicce, S; wycke, S2; wikke, P, C2, C3; wike, S, S2; wic, S2; wik, S2, H. Der.: wickenesse, iniquity, SD; wickenes, S2; wiknes, S2; wickenesses, pl., S2.

Wicked, adj. depraved, Cath.; wykkyd, Prompt.; wykkid, H (p. 360); wykked, S2; wikked, C2, P; wikkedly, adv., wickedly, C2.

Wid, adj. wide, S; wide, adv., S, PP; wyde, C2, PP; wydder, comp., PP. Der.: wydene, wide, far, S2, PP. Comb.: wydewhere, far and wide, S2, PP; wydewher, C3, G.—AS. wíd; cp. OHG. wít (Tatian).

Wid, prep. against, with, S2; see Wið.

Widewe, sb. widow, PP; wydewe, PP; widwe, C2, C3; wodewe, PP; wedous, pl., S3.—AS. widwe (weoduwe): Goth. widuwo; cp. OHG. wituwá (Tatian).

Wif, sb. woman, wife, S, S2, PP; wyf, 258 C3, PP; wiues, gen., S2, C2; wiue, dat., S; wif, pl., S; wyf, G; wifes, S; wiues, S2, C2. Comb.: wyfhood, womanhood, C2; wifman, woman, S; wimman, S; wymman, S; wiman, S; womman, S, PP; wummon, S; wommanhede, womanhood, C2, C2.—AS. wíf: OHG. wíb (Tatian).

Wig, sb. a beast of burden, a horse, S.—AS. wicg; cp. Icel. viggr (viggja-), also vigg, see Sievers, 247.

Wigelen, v. to reel, stagger, S.

Wight, adj. active, swift, strong, S2, PP, CM, G; wyght, S2; wiȝt, PP; wiht, PP; wyht, Prompt.; wicht, S3; wycht, S3; wict, S; vicht, S2; wyte, Prompt.; wightly, adv., H; wiȝtli, S2; wiȝtliche, S2, P; wihtliche, S2; witly, S2. Der.: wightnesse, alacrity, Cath.

Wight, sb. wight, creature, being, PP, S2, C3; wyght, PP, S2, C3; wiȝt, PP, S; wijȝt, S3; wiht, S, S2; wyht, S2; whit, S3; whiȝt, S3.—AS. wiht, see SkD.

Wiht, sb. a thing, S; wiȝt, S; whit, WW.—AS. wiht (wuht), thing, f. and n.

Wihte, sb. dat. weight, S; see Wyghte.

Wik, sb. a dwelling; wike, pl., S. Comb.: wike-tun, court; wiketunes, pl., S.—AS. wíc; Lat. uicum (acc.).

Wike, sb. week, S, S2, GS, CM, PP; wyke, PP, C, S2; weke, PP, Cath.; woke, W, S2, PP, Prompt., Cath.; wouke, W; wowke, Cath.—AS. wice (wucu); Lat. uicem.

Wike, sb. office, service, SD; pl., S.—Cp. Goth. wiko; Lat. uicem, change, regular succession, office, service.

Wike, sb. pl. the corners of the mouth, S (4 a. 49).—Cf. Icel. munnvik, pl., the corners of the mouth; see CV (s.v. munnr). The word wikes is still in use in this sense at Whitby. See Whitby Glossary (E.D.S.).

Wiken, sb. office, charge; wikenn, S (5. 1113), SD.

Wikenere, sb. officer, SD.

Wiket, sb. a small gate, S, P, CM; wickett, PP; wykett, valva, gate, Cath.; little window, fenestrella, Prompt.; viket, lodium, a lover-window, Cath. (n).—OF. wiket (viquet); cp. ODu. wicket.

Wikke, adj. bad, C2, C3; see Wicke.

Wikked, adj. depraved, bad, C2; see Wicked.

Wil, sb. will, joy, S; Comb.: wilful, desirous, gracious, willing, W, W2; wilfull, S3; wilfulliche, willingly, S; wilfulli, W; wilfully, C3.—AS. (ge)will. Cf. Wille.

Wild, adj. self-willed, untamed, uncultivated, desert, S; wielde, W2; wylde, sb. pl., wild animals, S2. Der.: wilderne, wilderness, SkD; wildrin, desert, belonging to a wilderness, S2; wildernesse, wilderness, SkD; wyldernys, Voc.—AS. wild.

Wile, sb. a while, S; see While.

Wilk, pron. which, S2; see Which.

Will, adj. at a loss, astray, bewildered, B, S2; wil, H; vill, B; wille, adv., S. Phr.: will of red, at a loss in counsel, B; will of wane, at a loss in thought, B; will of wan, S2; vill of vayn, S2.—Icel. villr (for wildr), wild.

Wille, 1 pr. s. will, S, S2; wel, S2; wule, S; wulle, S; wile, pr. s., S, S2; wole, S; wol, S2, C2; wult, 2 pr. s., S; wolt, S, S2, C2; willen, pl., S; willeð, S; wulleð, S; wulle, S; wilen, S; wiln, G; wolleð, S; wole, C2; woln, C. Comb.: ichulle (ich + wulle), S; ich chulle, S; ich chule, S; wiltu (wilt + ðu), S; wilte, S; woltow, C, PP.—AS. wille, 1 and 3 pr. s., wilt, 2 pr. s. See Wolde.

Wille, sb. will, joy, pleasure, S, S2, C2, PP; wylle, PP; willes, gen. as adv. willingly, S; willeliche, adv., willingly, S. Comb.: willesful, wilful, S; willesfol, S2; wylles uol, S2; wylsfully, wilfully, S2. Phr.: mid guode wylle, willingly, S2; in good wille, anxious, G.—AS. willa: Goth. wilja. Cf. Wil.

Willing, sb. desire, C2.

Wilnen, v. to desire, S, S2, S3, C, C2, W, P; wilnien, S; wylny, S2. Der.: wylnynge, desire, S2.—AS. wilnian.

Wilwe, sb. willow-tree, C, Prompt.—AS. welig (Voc.).

Wimman, sb. woman, S; see Wif.

Wimpel, sb. a nun’s veil, S; wympel, C. Comb.: wimpel-leas, wimple-less, S.—Icel. vimpill; cp. AF. guimple.

Wimplin, v. to cover with a wimple, S; y-wimpled, pp., C; i-wimplet, S; y-wympled, C.

Wimplunge, sb. wimpling, S; wimlunge, dat., S.

Winden, v. to wind, twist, turn; wynde, PP; wand, pt. s., SD; wonden, pl., P; wounden, PP; wunden, pp., S; wounden, S; wounde, PP; y-wounden, PP.—AS. windan, pt. wand (pl. wundon), pp. wunden.

Wine, sb. friend; wines, pl., S. Comb.: wine-maies, kinsmen, S.—AS. wine, wine-mǽg.

Winne, sb. joy, S; wynne, HD (p. 933); wunne, S, S2; win, S. Der.: winli, pleasant, S2; winsom, S2.—AS. wynn.

Winnen, v. to win, S, S2, C2; wynne, 259 S2; wyn, S3; vyn, S2; wunien, S; wan, pt. s., S, S2, C2, C3, P; van, S2; wonne, pl., PP, S2; wonnen, pp., C; wonne, C; y-wonne, P; i-wonne, S2; wonen, S2; wune, S2. Der.: wynnyng, gain, W.—AS. (ge)winnan, pt. wan (pl. wunnon), pp. wunnen.

Wirken, v. to work, S2; see Werke.

Wis, adv. indeed, S; wisly, adv., certainly, surely, C, C2, C3.—AS. (ge)wiss. See I-wis.

Wissen, v. to direct, guide, S, S2, S3, CM, P; wyssen, S2; wyssye, S; wisi, S. Der.: wissunge, instruction, S; wissinge, dat., S; wissenge, S.—AS. wissian, wísian: OHG. wîsjan, also uuîsen (Otfrid).

Wiste, pt. s. knew, S, C2, G; wist, pp. known, S3, C2, G; see Witen (1).

Wistynge, sb. learning, H.

Wit, sb. wisdom, intelligence, S, C2; wyt, S; wittes, pl., senses, S, S2, C2; wites, S.—AS. (ge)witt.

Wit, prep. with, S; see Wið.

Wite, sb. blame, S2, H; wyte, C3. See Witen (3).

Witen (1), v. to know, S, S2, W, PP; wyten, S, S2; witte. S2; witt, S3; witt, imp. s., S; wittow, witow, know thou, S2; wute, pl., S; wytene, ger., S2; witynge, pr. p., S2, W; wat, 1 and 3 pr. s., S, S2, S3; wate, H; wait, S3; wot, S, S2, C2; woot, S2, W; wote, S3; woȝt, S2; wost, 2 pr. s., S, C2; wostu, knowest thou, S; wostow, C2; witen, pl., S, W; wyteð, S2; wate, S2; wiste, pt. s., S, C2, G; wisten, pl., S, W; wist, S2, S3; wyst, S2, S3; wuste, pt. s., S, S2; wust, S2; wist, pp., S3, C2, G.—AS. witan, 2 pr. wást, 3 pr. s., wát (pl. witon), pt. wiste (wisse), pp. witen.

Witen (2), v. to observe, keep, guard, S, P, S2; wiste, pt. s., S; wistest, 2 pt. s., S; i-wist, pp., S. See above.

Witen (3), v. to impute, blame, S, S2; wyte, C2.—AS. wítan, to see, to blame (Grein).

Witen (4), v. to depart, to disappear, to dwindle, S, H; wyte, H; wit, S2; ute, let us, S.—AS. (ge)wítan; see Grein. See above.

Witerliche, adv. truly, S; witerlike, S; see Witter.

Wið, prep. against, towards, by, with, S, S2; wid, S, S2; wit, S, S2; wiȝth, S2. Comb.: wiðinnen, within, S; wiðinneforð, inwardly, S3, W; wiððan, provided that, S; wiððat, S, S2; wiðouten, without, S2, S3, W; wiðuten, S; wiðoutenforth, outside, S2; wiðouteforð, S3, W; withoutforth, S2.—AS. wið.

With-clepin, v. to recall, revocare, Prompt.

With-draȝen, v. to withdraw, S; wyðdraȝen, S2; wiðdroȝe, pt. s., S; withdrow, S.

Wiðer, prep. against, SD; adj., hostile, S; sb., resistance, SD. Comb.: wiðerling, adversary, S; wiðerward, contrary, SD; widerwardnesse, opposition, S; wiðerwin, adversary, HD, S2.—AS. wiðer, against.

Wiðeren, v. to resist; wiððreðð, pr. s., S.—AS. wiðerian.

Wiði, sb. a willow, a flexible twig, a withy, SD, SkD; wythy, Voc.; widdie, a rope made of twigs of willows, a halter, a whip made of twigs, JD. Comb.: wythe-bonde, boia, chain for prisoners, Prompt.; weðe-bondes, gen., S2; wið-winde, convolvulus, SD; withewyndes, gen., S2 (p. 334), P.—AS. wiðig, willow, wiðwinde, ‘viticella,’ Voc.; cp. ODu. wedewinde.

With-seye, v. to contradict, renounce, wythsay, HD (p. 935); wiðseggen, S, S2.

Wið-stod, pt. s. stood beside, S2; withstode, pl., resisted, PP.

With-take, v. to reprove, H; withtoke, pt. s., H.

With-takere, sb. reprover, H.

Witien, v. to keep, S2; wited, pt. s., S2. Der.: witunge, care-taking, S.—AS. witian, ‘providere’ (Grein).

Witing, sb. knowledge, C2. See Witen (1).

Witiȝe, sb. seer, prophet, S; witeȝe, S.—AS. wítiga, from wítan, to see; cp. OHG. wízago (Tatian) from wízan, to see (Otfrid). See Witen (3).

Witter, adj. wise, skilful, S; wyter, S2; witerliche, adv., truly, wisely, S; witerlike, S; witterly, clearly, P, HD; witerrlike, S; witterlike, S; witerli S2; witirly, H.—Icel. vitr, vitrliga.

Witti, adj. skilful, W2.—AS. wittig.

Wit-word, sb. covenant, H; witeword, S2.

Wiȝt, sb. creature, thing, S; see Wight.

Wlaffyng, sb. babbling, S2.

Wlanc, adj. proud, fine, grand, S2; wlonk, S2; wlonke, fine woman, HD.—AS. wlanc (OET).


Wlappen, v. to wrap, W, W2; lappen, W, H, Cath., SkD, HD.

Wlatien, v. to feel disgust, to abominate, W, W2, S2, HD; wlathid, pt. s. H.—AS. wlætian.

Wlat-some, adj. disgusting, abominable, S2, HD; wlatsom, C; wlatsum, S2; latsom, S2; wlathsum, H.

Wlatunge, sb. disgust, SD; wlathyngis, pl., abominations, H.—AS. wlátung, nausea (OET).

Wlech, adj. warm, S.—AS. wlæc.

Wlite, sb. beauty, splendour, form, hue, face, S.—AS. white (OET).

Wliten, v. to see, SD; wlyteð, pr. pl., S2.—AS. wlítan; cp. Icel. líta.

Wlonk, adj. fine, grand, S2; see Wlank.

Wluine, sb. she-wolf, S. See Wolf.

Wo, interj., wo!, SD; way, S; wei, S; wi, S. Comb.: wo la wo, an exclamation of sorrow, S; weylaway, S2, C3; weilawei, S; wailawai, S; wayloway, G; walawai, S; wele away, S3.—AS. : Goth. wai; cp. OHG. (Otfrid), Icel. vei.—AS. wá lá wá.

Wo, sb. also used as adj. woe, sorrowful, S, S2, C2, C3; wa, S, S2, B. Phr.: wo begon, surrounded with woe, SkD; wa worth, B; wo worthe, SD.—AS. wéa.

Woc, adj. weak, S; wooc, SkD.—AS. wác. See Wayke.

Woc, pt. s. woke, S; see Waken.

Woche, pron. which, S; see Which.

Wode, sb. wood, tree, S, S2, C2, PP; wod, S2; vod, S2; wude, S. Comb.: wode-bynde, woodbine, SkD; woode-bynde, caprifolium, Prompt., C; wod-bynde, S2 (p. 476); woode-lynde, linden-tree in a wood, G; wode-roue, woodruff, S2; woode-rys, brushwood, G; woode-schawe, thicket of the wood, G; wude-side, wood-side, S; vode-syde, S2; wode-wale, the name of a bird, also called wit-wall, Prompt., HD; wude-wale, S; wode-wose, a satyr, faun, SD, Voc., Prompt. (n); wode-wese, Prompt.; wod-wose, WA.—AS. wudu; cp. OIr. fid (Windisch).

Wode, sb. woad, S, Prompt.; wod, SkD; wad, gaudo Prompt.—AS. wád.

Wode, adj. mad, raging, S, S2, S3, C; wod, S, S2, H; wood, C2, C3, S3; woode, W; wodly, adv., madly, C. Der.: wodnes, madness, S2, H; wodenesse, S2; woodnesse, C3, W. Comb.: wodewrothe, madly angry, S3.—AS. wód: Goth. wods; cp. OHG. wuot.

Woden, sb. name of a Teutonic deity, S. Comb.: Wodnes-dei, Wednesday, SD; Wednes dai, SD; wendes dei, S.—AS. Wóden; cp. OHG. Wuotan, Icel. Óðinn.

Woh, adj. crooked, wrong; woȝe, S; woȝhe, pl., S. Adv. phr.: mid wohe, wrongfully, S; mid gret wou, S2; wiðð woȝhe, S; wið wou, S2; on wowe, S.—AS. wóh, crooked.

Woh, sb. wrong, S; wouche, S3; wowe, pl., S2.—AS. wóh, iniquity.

Woke, sb. week, W, S2; see Wike.

Wol, pr. s. will, S2; see Wille.

Wol, adv. well, very, S; see Wel.

Wolcne, sb. pl. clouds, the sky, S; see Welkene.

Wold, sb. power, meaning, force, S, S2.—AS. (ge)weald.

Wolde, sb. wold, open country, country, S, Prompt.—AS. weald, wood, forest: OS. wald.

Wolde, pt. s. was desirous, was willing, would, S, S2, C2; wulde, S; walde, S; wald, S2, B; wlde, S2; woldes, 2 pt. s., S; wolden, pl., S; wolde, S, C2; wulde, S; wuld, S2; walden, S; vald, S2, B.—AS. wolde, pt. s. of willan. See Wille.

Wolf, sb. wolf, PP; wlf, S; wlfe, Voc.; wolwes, pl., S2; wulues, gen., S. Comb.: wolues-heed, wolf’s head, outlaw, G.—AS. wulf; cp. Icel. úlfr.

Wolle, sb. wool, S, S2, C3, P. Comb.: wolle-ward, with the skin against the wool, SkD; wolward, S3; woolward, ND; wolle-websteres, wool-weavers, P.—AS. wull: Goth. wulla.

Wollen, adj. woollen, P.

Wolt, 2 pr. s. wilt, S; see Wille.

Wolx, pt. s. grew, S3; see Wexen.

Wombe, sb. venter, alvus, uterus, Prompt., S, S2, S3, C2, C3, P; wambe, S3.—AS. wamb: Goth. wamba, the belly.

Won, adj. wan, S2; see Wan.

Wonden, v. to turn aside, to fear, to hesitate, S, S2; wayndyt, pt. s., S3.—AS. wandian.

Wonder, adj. fearful, wonderful, S, S2, C2; adv., C3; wounder, S2; vounder, S2; wondir, S3, H; wunder, sb., a wonder, S; wounder, S2; wunder, pl., awful wickednesses, S. Der.: wunderlice, wonderful, S; wunderliche, adv., S; wonderlyche, S2; wonderly, C; wunderlicheste, superl., S; wunderlukeste, S. Phr.: to wundre, wrong, S.


Wondrien, v. to wonder; wondrye, S2; wondre, C; wundrien, S.—AS. wundrian.

Wondringe, pres. p. wandering, S2; see Wandren.

Wone, sb. dwelling, PP, S2, S3; won, S2; woon, S3; wun, S3; woanes, pl., S; wanes, S, S2. See Wonen.

Wone, sb. custom, habit, PP, S, S2; wune, S.—AS. (ge)wuna.

Wone, sb. want, loss, misery, S; see Wane.

Wone, adj. one, S3 (7. 97); see Oon.

Woned, pp. accustomed, S, S3; see I-woned.

Wonen, v. to dwell, PP, S, S2; wonien, S, S2, PP; wunien, S; wonyand, pr. p., S2; wonnand, S2; wounnand, S3. Der.: wonynge, dwelling, PP, S; woning, C, S2; wonyinge, S2; wunienge, pl., S.—AS. wunian.

Wonen, v. to weep, lament, SD; wanen, SD. Der.: wonyng, lamentation, S.—AS. wánian; cp. OHG. weinón (Tatian).

Wonge, sb. territorium, Prompt.; wong, low land, HD; wonges, pl., meadows, S.—AS. wang, a plain, field; cp. Goth. waggs, a field, paradise.

Wonge, sb. a cheek, SD, JD; wonges, pl., S2. Comb.: wange-toothe, molar tooth, molaris, Prompt.; wongtothe, Voc.; wangtooth, C2; wank-teeth, pl., W2; wangtotht, geminus, molaris, Voc.—AS. wange (wonge); cp. OHG. wanga (Tatian).

Wonger, sb. pillow, C2, CM. See above.

Wonne, adv., conj. when, S; see Whanne.

Wonne, Wonnen, pp. of Winnen.

Wonteð, pr. s. is lacking, S; see Wanten.

Wonung, sb. waning, S.—AS. wonung, wanung. See Wanen.

Wood, adj. mad, C2, C3, S3; see Wode.

Wooden, v. to be mad, to look madly, CM, C3.

Woon, sb. a small quantity, a few, a quantity, a number, S2, G, PP; wone, S2; woone, Prompt.; wane, S2, S3; won, PP; quhone, B. Comb.: good woon, abundantly, G; good won, PP.—AS. hwón (adj. used as sb.). Cf. Wheen.

Wop, sb. crying, loud lament, S, S2.—AS. wóp.

Wopen, pp. wept, C2; see Wepen.

Wopne, sb. urine, HD, Prompt. See Wepne.

Wopned, pp. armed, S; see Wapnen.

Worc, sb. work, S2; see Werk.

Worchen, v. to work, W, S2; see Werke.

Word, sb. beginning, CM (3. 224); see Ord.

Worde, sb. word, Prompt.; word, pl., S; weord, S; weordes, S; wordes, S.—AS. word; cp. OHG. wort (Tatian).

Wore, pt. pl. were, S2; see Was.

Woreld, sb. world, S; wordle, S2; see Werld.

Worie, adj. turbid, dirty, S; wori, S.—From AS. wór, a swampy place, perhaps identical with wós, mire, see SkD (s.v. weary). Cf. Wose.

Worm, sb. reptile, worm, snake, S, S2, C3; wurm, S; werm, S; wirm, insect, S.—AS. wyrm: OHG. wurm (Tatian); cp. Goth. waurms; see Douse, p. 56.

Wormod, sb. wormwood, W; see Wermod.

Worne, pp. spent, past, lit. worn, S3; see Werien.

Worowen, v. to choke, strangle, worry, Prompt., Cath., S2, SkD; worry, HD; wyrry, S3; wirry, SkD.—AS. wyrgan, to strangle, worry (in compounds): OHG. wurgan. Cf. Warh.

Worpare, sb. thrower, S.

Worpen, v. to throw, S; see Warpen.

Worre, sb. war, S2; see Werre.

Worri, v. to make war, S2; see Werrien.

Worschipen, v. to honour, S2; worshepen, PP; wurschepen, S2. See Worth.

Wort, sb. a plant, vegetable; wortes, pl., S2, S3, C; wortis, S2, S3, W, W2.—AS. wyrt: OS. wurt; cp. Goth. waurts, root, and Lat. rādix; see Brugmann, § 306, and Douse, p. 56.

Worth, adj. worth, esteemed, worthy, PP; wurth, S; wurthe, S, S2. Der.: worthi, PP; wurðy, S2; worþly, worthy, PP, S2; worðely, S3; wurðliche, honourably, S; worðliche, S; wurthmint, honour, S; wurðscipe, worship, honour, S; worðssipe, S2; worschupe, S2; worsipe, S; wurschipe, S.—AS. weorð; cp. Goth. wairths.

Worth, sb. value, worth, honour, PP; wurrþe, dat., S.—AS. weorð.

Worthen, v. to become, to be, to dwell, PP, S2, S3, G; wurðen, S; weorðen, S2; worst, 2 pr. s., PP; wurstow, thou 262 shalt be, PP; wurstu, S; worth, pr. s., S2, PP; wurð, S; wrþ, S; vorthis, S2; wurðeð, S; worthe, pt. s., PP; worth, S2, PP; worthed, S3; vorthit, S2; warð, S; wart, S; ward, S; wærd, S.—AS. weorðan, pt. s. wearð (pl. wurdon), pp. (ge)worden; cp. Goth. wairthan.

Wose, sb. ooze, slime, PP, Prompt.; woose, Cath. (n); wase, alga, Cath.—AS. wáse (SkD. s.v. ooze), and wase (OET): OHG. waso; whence OF. wason, gason (F. gazon); see Kluge (s.v. wasen).

Wot, 1 and 3 pr. s. know, knows, S, S2; wost, 2 pr. s. knowest, S, C2; see Witen (1).

Wouke, sb. week, W; see Wike.

Wound, sb. wound, PP, C2; wund, S.—AS. wund.

Wounden, v. to wound, S3; wowndyn, Prompt.; y-wounded, pp., S3; i-wundet, S.—AS. wundian.

Wout, sb. a vault, Voc., HD.—OF. voute (BH); Late Lat. uolta.

Wowe, sb. wall, paries, murus, Prompt., PP; woȝe, S; waghe, HD, H; waȝhe, S; wawe, S; wah, S. Comb.: waheles, wall-less, S; waȝherifft, veil of the temple, S.—AS. wáh; cp. ODu. waeg, see SkD (s.v. wainscot, p. 833); cp. also Goth. waddjus.

Wowe, sb. pl. wrongs, S2; see Woh.

Wowen, v. to incline any one to one’s own wishes, to woo, S2, C3, P, W2, S3; woȝe, S.—AS. wógian (SkD, s.v. woo), from wóh. See Woh.

Wower, sb. wooer, S3; wowar, S3; wouwere, PP; woweres, pl., PP.—AS. wógere (Voc.).

Wox, pt. s. grew, S2; see Wexen.

Wrablis, sb. pl. warblings, S2; see Werble.

Wraht, pt. s. of Werke.

Wrak, sb. that which is driven ashore, wreck, S2, S3, C3; rac, driven vapour, rack, S2, SkD; rack, Sh.—AS. wræc. Cf. Wreche and Wreken.

Wranne, sb. wren, S; see Wrenne.

Wrastlen, v. to wrestle, C, S2, G, PP; wraskle, PP; wrastylle, Cath.; wraxle, Voc. Der.: wrastling, wrestling, C2, G; wrastelyng, G.—AS. wrǽstlian (oftener wráxlian), from wrǽstan, to wrest, from wrǽst, firm, strong. Wrǽst is for wrǽðt, from wráð, pt. of wríðan, see Sievers, 232. See Wrythen.

Wrað, adj. wroth, S; see Wroth.

Wraðði, v. to get angry, S; see Wreððen.

Wraw, adj. perverse, angry, fierce, SD, Prompt., C3, CM, HD; wrau, SD. Cf. Wro.

Wrawid, pp. perverse, peevish, WA.

Wrawnesse, sb. fierceness, Prompt., CM.

Wrecche, sb. also as adj. wretch, miserable, S, S2, C, PP; wreche, S, S2, CM; wrecce, S. Comb.: wreccehed, wretchedness, S; wrecchede, S2.—AS. wrecca, an outcast, exile. See Wreken.

Wrecched, adj. wretched, S, PP; wriched, S. Comb.: wrecchednesse, misery, C2, C3, PP.

Wreche, sb. vengeance, misery, S, S2, C2, C3; wrache, S; wræche, S; wreke, S2; wrake, S2, PP; wrac, S2; wrick, S2. Comb.: wrakful, full of vengeance, S2.—AS. wracu, vengeance, misery, also wræc, exile, misery. See Wreken.

Wreken, v. to urge, wreak, drive, punish, avenge, S, S2, C2, C3, PP; wræken, S; wrak, pt. s., G; wreken, pp., S2, PP; wreke, G, PP; wroken, PP, WA; wroke, PP, HD; i-wroken, G.—AS. wrecan, pt. wræc (pl. wrǽcon), pp. wrecen; cp. Goth. wrikan, to persecute.

Wreker, sb. avenger, S2.

Wrenche, sb. a twist, trick, deceit, S, S2, S3, C3; wrink, S3; wrenkis, pl., WA.—AS. wrenc (wrence).

Wrenchen, v. to turn, twist, S. Der.: wrinching, wrenching, struggling, S3.—AS. wrencan.

Wrengðe, sb. distortion, S. See Wringen.

Wrenne, sb. wren, Voc.; wranne, S.—AS. wrenna, wrǽnna.

Wreon, v. to cover; wre, CM; wreo, pr. s. subj., S.—AS. wréon, pt. wréah (pl. wrugon), pp. wrogen, see Sievers, 383. Cf. Wrihen.

Wreten, pp. of Wryten.

Wreth, sb. wrath, S2, H; wraþþe, PP, S. Comb.: wreðful, wrathful, S, S2; wraððelees, S2.—ONorth. wrǽððo. See Wroth.

Wrethe, sb. wreath, C.—AS. wrǽð. See Wrythen.

Wreððen, v. to become angry, to make angry, S; wreaððin, S; wraððin, S, S2, G; wreðen, S, S2, H. Der.: wrath-thing, provocation, W.

Wrien, v. to twist, bend, CM, SkD (s.v. wry); wrye, S3, PP.—AS. wrigian, to drive, bend.


Wrigt (in compounds), an accusation. Comb.: wrigtful, guilty, S; wrigteles, without an accusation; wrigteleslike, causelessly, S.—Cp. AS. wróht, an accusation, from the pt. of (ge)wrégan, to accuse (cp. sécan, pt. sóhte).

Wrihels, sb. a covering, veil; wriheles, S; wriels, SD.—AS. wrígels.

Wrihen, v. to cover, S; wrie, CM; wrien, pr. pl., S.—AS. *wríhan, pt. wráh (pl. wrigon), pp. wrigen; cp. OHG. ríhan (Tatian). Cf. Wreon.

Wrikken, v. to twist to and fro, to move about, SkD (s.v. wriggle); wrickede, pt. s., S2.

Wringen, v. to wring, press, S, S2, C2; wrang, pt. s., S; wrong, S, S2, S3, C3; wronge, P; wrongen, pl., S2; wrong, pp., S.—AS. wringan, pt. wrang (pl. wrungon), pp. wrungen.

Writelinge, sb. trilling (of a nightingale), S.

Wro, sb. that which is crooked, a corner, HD; wroo, HD; wra, WA; wraa, WA; wray, WA, NQ (6. 12. 252).—Cp. Icel. (for vrá). See Wraw.

Wrohte, pt. s. of Werke.

Wrong, pp., adj. and sb. twisted awry, wrong, a wrong, S, PP; wrang, PP. Comb.: wrongwis, unjust, wicked, H, S; wrangwis, S2; wrangwislie, wrongly, S2; wrongwisly, PP; wrangwisnes, iniquity, S2. See Wringen.

Wroot, Wrot, pt. s. of Wryten.

Wroth, pt. s. of Wrythen.

Wroth, adj. wroth, fearful, S, C3, PP; wrað, S, S2, H; wroþer, comp., PP, HD; wrothe, adv., angrily, evilly, S, G; wroðliche, wrathfully, S2; wroðly, S2; wroðely, S2; wrathly, H. Comb.: wrothirhaile, calamity, WA. Phr.: to wraðer heale, to evil fortune, bad luck, S; to wroþer hele, PP.—AS. wráth.

Wryt, sb. writing, S; writ, S; writte, S2.—AS. (ge)writ.

Wryten, v. to write, C2; writen, S; wright, S3; wrot, pt. s., S, S2, PP; wroot, C2, C3; wrate, S, H; wroten, pl., W; writen, C2; wryten, pp., PP; writen, S, C2, C3; write, S; wryte, S2; wreten, S2; y-writen, S2; y-write, S2; i-wryten, S; i-writen, S.—AS. wrítan, pt. wrát (pl. wríton), pp. writen.

Wrythen, v. to writhe, twist, Prompt., S2; wroth, pt. s., PP; writhen, pl., W; wrythen, S; pp., PP; writhun, W; i-wriþen, S2. Der.: wrything, turning, C2.—AS. wríðan, pt. wráð (pl. wriðon), pp. wriðen.

Wu-; see also Wo-, Wou-.

Wuch, pron. which, S2; wulc, S; see Which.

Wude, sb. wood, tree, S; see Wode.

Wule, sb. while, S2; see While.

Wule, 1 pr. s. will, S; see Wille.

Wundi, adj. rid of, S; windi, S.

Wune, adj. accustomed, S.

Wunien, v. to dwell, S; see Wonen.

Wunne, sb. joy, S, S2; see Winne.

Wurne, v. to refuse; see Wernen.

Wurse, adj., adv. comp. worse, S; wurs, S, G; werse, S; wers, CM, S, H (p. 269); wærse, S; wrse, S; wurse, sb., the devil, S; worse, S.—AS. wyrs.

Wursien, v. to become worse, take hurt, S; i-wursed, pp., S.—AS. wyrsian.

Wurst, adv. superl. worst, S; wurste, adj. S; werste, S; werst, W2; warst, H (p. 269); werest, S; wrst, S. Worste (= Lat. nequissimi = Gr. τοῦ πονηροῦ, i.e. the devil), W.—AS. wyrst.

Wurðen, Wurstu, Wurð; see Worthen.

Wurðien, v. to honour, S; wurrþenn, S; wurðeð, pr. s., S; wurðeden, pt. pl., S. Der.: wurðing, honour, S.—AS. wurðian, weorðian, from weorð. See Worth.

Wuschen, v. to wish, S2, PP; wusshen, PP; wisshen, PP.—AS. wýscan, from wúsc: OHG. wunsc, a wish; see Sievers, 185.

Wute, imp. pl. know, S; see Witen (1).

Wy, adv. why, S; see Whi.

Wydder, v. to wither, S3; see Wederen.

Wye, sb. a man, PP; wy, S3, P; wyȝe, S2; weiȝh, S2; wiȝes, pl., S2; wies, S2.—AS. wíga, warrior, man. See Weye.

Wygge, sb. a small cake or bun, Prompt.; wigg, HD.

Wyghte, sb. weight, HD, PP, C3; wyhte, S; wiȝte, PP; wihte, S.—AS. (ge)wiht.

Wylem, adv. formerly, S; see Whilom.

Wyn, sb. wine, S, C; wyne, dat., S. Comb.: wyn-ape, ape-wine, vin de singe, C3; win-iærd, vineyard, S; wynȝord, S2; win-tre, vine, S.—AS. wín; Lat. uinum.

Wynd, sb. wind, S; wynt, S2.—AS. wind: Goth. winds: Lat. uentus; see Curtius, No. 587.

Wyndas, sb. windlass, Prompt., C2.—Icel. 264 vind-áss, a pole which can be wound round.

Wyndewen, v. to winnow, W2; wyndowen, S2; windwen, S; wynewen, W. Comb.: wynwe-schete, winnowing-sheet, S3.—AS. windwian (OET). See Wynd.

Wyne-grapis, sb. pl. vine-grapes, S3 (13. 99).

Wynk, sb. sleep, nap, PP; wink, PP, S2.

Wynken, v. to wink, nod, sleep, PP, Prompt.; winke, C2; vynke, S2. Der.: wynkynge, fit of sleepiness, PP.

Wyppyl-tre, sb. the cornel-tree, CM (2. 90); whyppyltre, C.—Cp. MLG. wipel-bom, the cornel-tree (Pritzel).

Wyrle, v. to whirl, S2; see Whyrlyn.

Wys, adj. wise, PP, S2; wis, S, S2; viss, S2; wisliche, adv., S. Der.: wisdom, learning, S.—AS. wís, Goth. weis.

Wyse, sb. mode, manner, C2, S2; wise, S, S2; wis, S; wes, S; viss, S2. Comb.: ryghtwis, righteous, PP; wrongwis, PP.—AS. wíse.

Wyue, v. to take to wife, C2; wiuen, S; wyued, pp., married, PP.—AS. wífian.

Wyuere, sb. a serpent, CM.—OF. wivre, vivre (F. givre); Lat. uipera; see BH, § 150.

Wywere, sb. a fishpond, Voc.; wayowre, piscina, Prompt.—OF. vivier; Lat. uiuarium; cp. OHG. wîwâri (Tatian), G. weiher; see Kluge.

X is written in some MSS. for sh. It constantly occurs in the Coventry Mysteries, as in xal, xalt, xuld, &c.; see HD.
Y, at the beginning of words, often represents an older Ȝ, under which letter Y-words may in some cases be found.

Y-, prefix; see Ȝe.

Yald, pt. s. of Ȝelden.

Yane, v. to yawn, HD, Palsg.; see Ganien.

Yare, adv. soon, S2, Sh.; see Ȝare.

Yate, sb. gate, C2, S3; see Gate.

Yawle, v. to howl, HD; see Ȝoulen.

Ychan, each one, HD; ychone, HD; see Eche.

Yche, adj. the same, S2; see Ilke.

Ydolastre, sb. idolater, C2.—Cp. OF. idolâtre (Cotg.); Church Lat. idolatra (Vulg.).

Ydolatrie, sb. idolatry, PP.—Church Lat. idolatria (Vulg.).

Ydole, sb. idol, C3; ydoles, pl., C3.—Church Lat. idōlum (Vulg.); Gr. εἴδωλον (LXX); cp. OF. idle, ydle (Roland); Late Lat. ídolum (accented as in Greek).

Ydre, sb. hydra, water-snake, WA.—OF. ydre; Lat. hydra; Gr. ὕδρα.

Ydres, sb. pl. water-pots (= Lat. hydriae), S.—Gr. ὑδρίαι; cp. OF. ydrie (Ducange).

Ye, sb. eye, Voc., HD; see Eȝe.

Yeant, sb. giant, HD; see Geaunt.

Yeddinges, pl. romances, songs, C; see Ȝeddynge.

Yede, pt. s. went, S, S2, S3, C3; see Eode, Ȝeode.

Yeer, sb. year, C2; see Ȝeer.

Yef, if, S, S2; see Ȝif.

Yefte, sb. a gift, S; see Ȝift.

Yeir, pl. years, S2; see Ȝeer.

Yelde, sb. a payment, S; see Gild.

Yelde-halle, sb. guild-hall, CM, C.

Yelden, v. to yield, pay, C2; see Ȝelden.

Yelderes, sb. pl. debtors, S2.

Yeldinges, sb. pl. payments, debts, S2.

Yelleden, pt. pl. yelled, C; see Ȝellen.

Yelpe, v. to boast, C; see Ȝelpen.

Yelwe, adj. yellow, C; see Ȝelow.

Yeman, sb. retainer, C; see Ȝoman.

Yeme, sb. an uncle, HD; see Eem.

Yemen, v. to heed, S; see Ȝemen.

Yemer, adj. sad, S; see Ȝemer.

Yemernesse, sb. sadness, S.


Yen, sb. pl. eyes, HL; see Eȝe.

Yep, adj. prompt, quick, HD; yepe, HD; see Ȝape.

Yer, conj. ere, before, S3; see Er.

Yerd, sb. an enclosure, S, C; see Ȝerd.

Yerde, sb. rod, C2; yeorde, S; see Ȝerde.

Yere, sb. ear, HD; see Ere.

Yerle, sb. earl, S3; see Erl.

Yerly, adv. early, S3; see Erly.

Yerne, adj. desirous, CM; see Ȝerne.

Yerthe, sb. earth, S3; see Erthe.

Yeste, sb. gest, tale, HD; see Geste.

Yete, conj. yet, S; yet, C3; see Ȝet.

Yeuen, v. to give, S; see Ȝiuen.

Yftles, adj. giftless, HD. See Ȝift.

Yh- is written in some MSS. for y-; see HD.

Yheden, pt. pl. went, S2; see Eode.

Yhode, went, S2; see Eode.

Ying, adj. young, S3, G, B; see Ȝong.

Yis, adv. yes, C2; see Ȝis.

Yistirday, yesterday, PP; see Ȝister-.

Yit, conj. yet, C2, C3; see Ȝet.

Y-kuenct, pp. quenched, S2; see Quenchen.

Ylaste, pt. s. of Ȝe-lesten.

Y-leuen, v. to believe, S2.—AS. ge-lýfan. See Leuen.

Y-liche, adv. alike, C2; see Iliche.

Ylk-oon, each one, HD; see Eche.

Ylonde, sb. island, S2; ilond, SkD.—AS. íg-land; íg, watery land, island, from OTeut. stem *auja, see Sievers, 99.

Y-mone, sb. company, S.—AS. ge-mána, ‘societas’ (Voc.).

Ympe, sb. a graft, scion, offspring, HD, PP, H; impe, Prompt., ND; imp, S3, TG.—AS. impe (BT); Low Lat. impotus, a graft; Gr. ἔμφυτος engrafted; cp. F. ente.

Ympen, v. to graft, PP; ympyd, pp., H, Prompt. Der.: ympynge, graft, scion, H; impynge, Prompt.

Ympne, sb. hymn, CM, HD.—OF. ymne; Church Lat. hymnum (Vulg.); Gr. ὕμνος see Brugmann, § 131. See Impne.

Ynkirly, adv. particularly, B; see Enkerly.

Ynow, adj., sb., and adv. enough, S2, C2, W, PP; ye-noughe, S3; inoh, S; ynoh, S2; ynou, S2, S; ynow, S3; ynouȝ, S2; innoh, S; inow, S; inouh, S; inou, S2; inoȝe, S; inoȝh, S; ynouh, S; ynowȝ, W; innoghe, S2; ynough, C2; inough, C; onoh, S; anough, CM; ynewe, HD; anew, S3; ynewch, S3; eneuch, S3; inouwe, pl., S2.—AS. genóh; cp. OHG. gi-nuht, abundance (Tatian).

Ynwyt, sb. understanding, conscience, HD; see Inwyt.

Yod, pt. s. went, S2; see Eode, Ȝeode.

Yolden, pp. of Ȝelden.

Yolle, v. to yell, C; see Ȝellen.

Yollyng, sb. yelling, clamour, C; see Ȝellen.

Yond, adv. yonder, S2, C2; see Ȝond.

Yonge, adj. young, S, C2; see Ȝong.

Yonghede, sb. youth, S; see Ȝonghede.

Yore, adv. formerly, S2, S3, C2; see Ȝore.

Yornyng, sb. desire, S3; see Ȝerning.

Youngth, sb. youth, S3; see Ȝongth.

Youngthly, adj. youthful, S3. See Ȝongthe.

Youthe, sb. youth, C2; yowthe, S2; see Ȝouthe.

Yow, pron. pl. acc. and dat. you, S, C2; see Ȝou.

Yow, sb. ewe, CM.—AS. eowu: Goth. awi; see Sievers, 106.

Yoye, v. to joy, HD; see Ioien.

Ypocrysie, sb. hypocrisy, PP; ypocrisye, C3.—AF. ipocrisie.

Ypocryte, sb. hypocrite, C2.—OF. ypocrite; Lat. hypocrita (Vulg.); Gr. ὑποκριτής.

Y-rayled, pp. covered, S3. See Reȝel.

Yre, sb. anger, H; iris, pl., W2.—Lat. ira.

Yreyne, sb. spider, W2; see Aranye.

Yrk, v. to make tired, to become tired, H: irkyn, fastidior, Prompt.; erke, SD; irkyt, 1 pt. s., S3; irked, pt. s., SD.—Swed. yrka; cp. Lat. urgere.

Yrk, adj. oppressed, tired, S3; irke, SkD. Comb.: irkesum, fastidiosus, Prompt.; irkesumnesse, fastidium, Prompt.

Yrous, adj. angry, H.

Ysche, v. to issue, to go forth, B; see Ische.

Yse, sb. ice, CM, H (Ps. 148. 8); iys, W2; ijs, S3; yse, dat., S2.—AS. ís.

Ysels, sb. pl. ashes, HD.—AS. ysle (Grein); see Curtius, No. 610. See Isle.

Ysope, sb. hyssop, W2, Voc.; ysoop, HD; ysoppe, Voc.—OF. ysoppe (Ps. 50. 7); Lat. hyssopum (Vulg.); Gr. ὕσσωπος.


Ysue, sb. issue, P; issue, PP.—AF. issue, pp. f. of issir; Lat. ex-ire. See Ische.

Ythen, adj. busy, B; ythand, B.—Icel. iðinn.

Yþez, sb. pl. waves, S2, HD; ythes, WA; see Uthe.

Y-tiȝt, pp. made tight, S3; see Thyhtyn.

Yugement, sb. judgment, HD; see Iugement.

Yuel, adj. and sb. evil, S, S2, W, W2, C3; uuel, S2, S; iuel, S, W2, S2; euel, S, W2, S2; eueyl, S2; ufel, S; yuels, pl., S2; the yuele (= malignus, i.e. the devil), W.—AS. yfel: OS. ubil (Tatian).

Yuele, adv. evilly, W; uuele, S2; euele, S.

Yuer, sb. ivory, W, W2; yuor, HD; yuour, HD; see Euour.

Yuory, sb. ivory, Prompt.; see Euorye.

Yȝe, sb. eye, HD; see Eȝe.

Ȝ (pronounced as y).

Ȝa, adv. yea, S, PP, S2, H; see Ȝea.

Ȝæn, prep. against, in comparison with, S; see Ȝeyn.

Ȝaf, pt. s. of Ȝiuen.

Ȝal, pt. s. yelled, S2; see Ȝellen.

Ȝape, adj. vigorous, strong, keen, bold, WA.—AS. geap, astute, bold (BT).

Ȝare, adv. formerly, S; see Ȝore.

Ȝare, adj. ready, S, S2, G; yare, HD; ȝaru, S; ȝarowe, S; ȝare, adv., soon, S, G; yare, S2, Sh.—AS. gearo.

Ȝarken, v. to prepare, S, S2, WA; ȝarrkenn, S; gerken, S; giarkien, S; ȝearceon, S; ȝeirken, S; ȝarketh hym, pr. s. reflex., P; ȝæarced, pp., S; i-garcket, S; iȝarked, S; giarked, S.—AS. gearcian.

Ȝarm, sb. cry, S2.—Icel. jarmr, a crying.

Ȝarme, v. to scream, yell, bellow, WA, HD.

Ȝarowe, sb. milfoil, millefolium, herb for nose-bleeding, Prompt.; yarowe, Palsg., Manip.; ȝarow, Voc.; ȝarrow, S3.—AS. gearwe (Voc.): OHG. garawa, garwa.

Ȝarowe, adj. ready, S; ȝaru, S; see Ȝare.

Ȝate, sb. gate, S2, G, H, WA; yat, HD; see Gate.

Ȝe-, a prefix before verbs and substantives.—AS. ge-. [In ME. the equivalents of ge-, viz. Ȝe-, I-, Y-, Hi-, A-, E-, are often found prefixed to past participles. For words beginning with this particle see in many cases the uncompounded form.]

Ȝe, pron. ye, S, S2, PP; ye, C2; ge, S; yhe, S2; ȝeo, S; ȝie, S.—AS. ge. See also Ȝou, Ȝoure.

Ȝea, adv. yea, PP: ȝa, S, S2, PP, H; ȝe, S, S2, PP, G; ȝhe, W; ye, S2, PP, C2; ȝie, S; ȝha, S2; ȝo, S2.—AS. géa; cp. Goth. , Icel. .

Ȝe-arnen, v. to earn, S.—AS. ge-earnian. See Ernen.

Ȝeat, pt. s. poured, S; see Ȝeten.

Ȝe-bugon, pt. pl. were obedient, S.—AS. ge-bugon, from ge-búgan. See Bowen.

Ȝe-cende, adj. natural, S; i-cundur, comp., S.—AS. ge-cynde. See Kynde.

Ȝe-ceosen, v. to choose, MD; ȝe-cas, pt. s., S.—AS. ge-céosan.

Ȝed, sb. a word; ȝeddes, pl., MD.—AS. gied, gid, gyd, song, poem, saying.

Ȝeddien, v. to speak, MD; ȝedde, to sing, S2.—AS. geddian, giddian, to sing, to speak.

Ȝeddynge, sb. a gest or romance, Prompt.; ȝeddyngis, pl., HD; yeddynges, songs, C. See above.

Ȝede, pt. s. went, S, S2; see Ȝeode.

Ȝedire, adj. vehement, WA; ȝederly, adv. quickly, S2, HD.—Cp. AS. ædre, (edre), quickly, at once: OS. adro, quick.

Ȝeer, sb. year, S3; ȝer, S, S2; gær, S; yeer, C2; ȝere, PP, S2; yere, S2, C2; yeire, S2; ȝer, pl., PP, S, S2, S3; yer, S; yeer, C2; ger, S; ȝeir, S3; yeir, S2; ȝere, PP; yere, S2; yhere, S2; ȝeres, S, PP; geres, S.—AS. gér, géar: OS. jer, jar; cp. Gr. ὥρα; see Brugmann, § 118.

Ȝeerli, adv. yearly, S3.

Ȝef, conj. if, S, S2; see Ȝif.

Ȝe-fered, sb. company, societas, S; i-ferred, MD; ifereden, MD.—AS. ge-férrǽden, companionship.

Ȝeft, sb. gift, S; see Ȝift.

Ȝe-fo, sb. foe, MD; ifo, MD; y-uo, MD; 267 ivo, S; ȝefo, pl., S; ifo, MD.—AS. ge-fá. See Foo.

Ȝe-geng, sb. company, S.—AS. gegang.

Ȝeid, pt. s. went, S2; see Ȝeode.

Ȝeien, v. to cry out, S, MD; ȝeide, pt. s., MD.—Icel. geyja, to bark (a strong vb.).

Ȝeir, pl. years, S3; see Ȝeer.

Ȝe-laðien, v. to invite, S.—AS. ge-laðian.

Ȝe-laðiere, sb. inviter, S.

Ȝeld, sb. payment; yelde, S; ȝielde, S; gildes, pl., S; gæildes, S.—AS. gild.

Ȝelden, v. to pay, yield, S, PP, S2, G, W; yelden, C2; ȝulde, PP; yhelde, S2; yheld, S2; ȝelt, pr. s., PP; ȝilt, PP; ȝald, pt. s., PP, S2, S3; yald, PP, S2; yalt, HD; ȝelde, PP, S2; ȝelte, PP; ȝelt, PP; geld, S; ȝeldide, W; yolden, pp., C; ȝoldun, W; ȝolde, W; iȝolde, S, S2.—AS. geldan, pt. geald (pl. guldon), pp. golden: cp. Goth. gildan.

Ȝeldingus, sb. pl. payments, debts, S3.

Ȝe-lesten, v. to fulfil, to perform, to continue, last, extend, S; i-leste, S; i-lest, pr. s., S; i-lested, S; gelest, pt. s., S; y-laste, S2; i-laste, S, S2.—AS. ge-lǽstan.

Ȝe-limpen, v. to happen, MD; ȝelamp, pt. s., S; ilomp, S.—AS. ge-limpan. See Limpen.

Ȝelke, sb. yolk of an egg, Prompt.

Ȝellen, v. to yell, MD; yolle, C; ȝolle, S; ȝellynge, pr. p., howling, W; ȝal, pt. s., MD, S2; ȝulle, pl., MD; ȝelliden, MD; yelleden, C.—AS. gellan (giellan), pt. geall (pl. gullon), pp. gollen.

Ȝellynge, sb. yelling, MD; yollyng, C; ȝollinge, S.

Ȝelow, adj. yellow, MD; ȝeoluwe, S; ȝeolewe, S; ȝeluwe, S; ȝolewe, S; yelwe, C; yalu, HD.—AS. geolw- stem of geolu (geolo); see Sievers, 300; cp. G. gelb.

Ȝelpe, sb. boasting, S.

Ȝelpen, v. to boast, S; yelpe, C; yalp, pt. s., MD; yelp, MD.—AS. gilpan (gielpan), pt. gealp (pl. gulpon), pp. golpen.

Ȝelpynge, sb. boasting, Prompt.

Ȝeman, sb. youth, servant, MD; see Ȝoman.

Ȝemanry, sb. yeomanry, B.

Ȝeme, sb. care, S, S2, G; yeme, HD; geme, S.—AS. géme (in compounds), gýme.

Ȝeme-leas, adj. careless, S: ȝemeles, S.—AS. gémeléas.

Ȝemeleaste, sb. carelessness, S; ȝemeleste, S; ȝemeles, S.—AS. gémelést, gýmeléast.

Ȝemen, v. to care for, to heed, S, HD, S2, S3; yemen, S, G; yem, S2; ȝiemeð, pr. s., S; yhemes, pl., S2; ȝemed, pt. s., S2; ȝemedd, pp., S; ȝemmde, pl., S.—AS. géman, (gýman); cp. Icel. geyma, mutated form from Icel. gaumr, heed, attention; see Sievers, 21. See Gome.

Ȝemer, adj. sad, MD; yemer, S; ȝeomer, S; ȝomere, adv., S.—AS. géomer.

Ȝe-meten, v. to meet, S; i-meten, to find, S: y-mete, S; ȝe-met, pr. s., S; i-metten, pt. pl., S; y-mette, pp., C2, PP.—AS. ge-métan, pt. s. gemétte. See Meten.

Ȝemsall, sb. keeping, B. See Ȝemen.

Ȝene, v. to reply, S; see Geȝnen.

Ȝeode, pt. s. went, S, PP; ȝede, PP, S, S2; ȝeid, S2, S3; ȝude, S2; yede, S, S2, S3, C3; yhode, S2; yod, S2; yheden, pl., S2 (s.v. forth-).—AS. ge-éode. See Eode.

Ȝeolewe, adj. yellow, S; see Ȝelow.

Ȝeomer, adj. sad, S; see Ȝemer.

Ȝeorne, adv. eagerly, S, S2; see Ȝerne.

Ȝeornen, v. to yearn, desire, S; see Ȝernen.

Ȝeoten, v. to pour, S; see Ȝeten.

Ȝep, adj. prompt, HD; see Ȝape.

Ȝer, sb. year, S, S2; see Ȝeer.

Ȝerd, sb. an enclosure, court, field, garden, W; yerd, S, C; ȝerde, G; ȝard, S3.—AS. geard: Goth. gards, house; cp. Lat. hortus; see Douse, p. 73. See Garth.

Ȝerde, sb. rod, stick, yard, staff, Prompt., W, S, S2, P; yerde, C2; yeorde, S; ȝerd, S2; ȝerdis, pl., W; ȝerden, dat. pl., S.—OMerc. gerd (VP): Goth. gazds; cp. Lat. hasta; see Douse, p. 73.

Ȝe-redie, adj. ready, S; iredy, S2; ireadi, adv., S. See Redi.

Ȝerne, v. to run, S.—AS. ge-ærnan. See Rennen.

Ȝerne, adv. eagerly, S, S2, S3, PP; yerne, C3; ȝeorne, S, S2; ȝorne, HD; ȝierne, S; ȝern, S2.—AS. georne.

Ȝernen, v. to yearn, S, S2, PP; ȝeornen, S, S2; ȝirnen, S; ȝarnand, pr. p., S2; ȝirnde, pt. s., S; ȝornde, S; ȝyrnden, pl., S2; i-ȝirnd, pp., S; yȝyrned, S2.—AS. geornan, also gyrnan; see Sievers, 79.

Ȝernful, adj. desirous, MD: ȝeornful, S.

Ȝerning, sb. desire, MD; yornyng, S3; yherninges, pl., S2.—AS. geornung.

Ȝernliche, adv. diligently, MD; ȝeornliche, S.—AS. geornlice.


Ȝerre, sb. outcry, loud lament, WA.—Cp. AS. georran, to make a noise.

Ȝe-sceaft, sb. creature; ȝesceafte, dat., S.—AS. ge-sceaft. Cf. Schaft.

Ȝe-sceapen, v. to create, MD; ȝescop, pt. s., S; ȝesceop, S; ȝescepe, pp., S.

Ȝe-sceod, sb. distinction, difference, discrimination, reason, S; ȝescod, S.—AS. ge-scéad, ge-scád. See Scheden.

Ȝescung, sb. covetousness, S; see Ȝiscunge.

Ȝe-secðe, sb. sight, S; see I-sihðe.

Ȝet, conj. yet, S, S2; giet, S; gæt, S; ȝiet, S; yete, S; ȝeiet, S; ȝut, S, S2, P; ȝete, S; ȝette, S; ȝute, S, S2; yhit, S2; ȝit, W; ȝhit, S3; yit, C2, C3; yet, C3; ȝyt, S2; get, S.—AS. get.

Ȝeten, v. to pour, MD; ȝeoten, MD, S; ȝett, WA, Cath.; ȝeat, pt. s., S; ȝet, S; ȝoten, pp., PP; ȝotun, molten, W2; ȝeten, PP.—AS. géotan, pt. géat (pl. guton), pp. goten: Goth. giutan; cp. Lat. fundo (for fu-d-no); see Douse, p. 112.

Ȝeten, v. to say yea, to grant, S; ȝaten, MD; ȝettien, S, MD; ȝettede, pt. s., S; ȝetede, S; ȝette, S; i-ȝette, S; gatte, S, MD; gat, MD; gatten, pl., S; gett, pp., S2.—AS. géatan, pt. s. géatte (pl. géatton); cp. Icel. játa, to say yea, confess, grant, see Fick, 7. 243. See Ȝea.

Ȝett, sb. gate, S3; ȝet, B; see Gate.

Ȝeu, Ȝew, pron. you, S; see Ȝou.

Ȝe-wealden, v. to control, MD; ȝe-wold, pt. subj. pl., S.—AS. ge-wealdan. See Welden.

Ȝe-wer, adv. everywhere, S.—AS. ge-hwǽr.

Ȝe-winne, v. to contend, S.—AS. ge-winnan.

Ȝeyn, prep. and prefix, against, in comparison with; ȝæn, S.—AS. gegn; cp. Icel. gegn.

Ȝeynbowght, pt. s. redeemed, HD; see Biggen.

Ȝeyncome, sb. return, HD.

Ȝeynsey, v. to gainsay; ȝeinseye, SkD.

Ȝha, adv. yea, S3: ȝhe, W; see Ȝea.

Ȝhis, adv. yes, W; see Ȝis.

Ȝicchen, v. to itch, MD; ȝitchinge, pr. p., W.—AS. giccan, also gyccan (see OET): OHG. juochen: OTeut. *jukkjan.

Ȝielde, sb. a payment, S; see Ȝeld.

Ȝierne, adv. eagerly, S; see Ȝerne.

Ȝiet, conj. yet, S; see Ȝet.

Ȝif, conj. if, S, S2, G, H; ȝiff, S; ȝyf, S2; yif, S; gif, S2; yf, S; gief, S; ȝief, S; gef, S; ȝef, S, S2; yef, S, S2; ef, S, C2; geue, S3; gife, S3, H.—AS. gif = ge + if (cp. Icel. ef, and OIcel. if, if): Goth. jabai; see Brugmann, § 123.

Ȝife, sb. gift, grace, S; giue, S; gyue, S; gife, S; ȝieue, S; gief, S.—AS. gifu.

Ȝift, sb. gift, PP; ȝyft, S2; yefte, S; yifte, C3; ȝiftes, pl., PP; ȝeftes, S; yeftes, S; ȝiftus, S2; yiftes, C3.—Icel. gipt.

Ȝimmes, sb. pl. gems, jewels, S; ȝymmes, WA.—AS. gim; Lat. gemma; see Sievers, 69. See Gemme.

Ȝim-stones, sb. pl. jewels, S.—AS. gim-stán.

Ȝing, adj. young, S3, G; see Ȝong.

Ȝirnan, v. to desire, S; see Ȝernen.

Ȝis, adv. yes, MD; ȝys, Prompt.; yis, C2; ȝus, PP, S2; ȝhis, W.—AS. gese for géa + the particle -se, -si (for Goth. sai, OHG. , behold); see Sievers, 338.

Ȝiscare, sb. covetous person, S; ȝitsere, MD; ȝietceres, pl., S.—AS. gítsere.

Ȝiscen, v. to covet, desire, MD.—AS. gítsian, gídsian; cp. Goth. gaidw, want; see Sievers, 198, 205.

Ȝiscunge, sb. covetousness, S; ȝescung, S; ȝitsunge, MD.—AS. gítsung.

Ȝister-, adj. yester-, MD.—AS. geostra, gystra: Goth. gistra.

Ȝister-dai, yesterday, W2; yistirday, PP.

Ȝister-evin, yester-eve, S3.

Ȝit, conj. yet, W; see Ȝet.

Ȝiu, you, S; see Ȝou.

Ȝiuen, v. to give, S, S2, PP; ȝifenn, S; ȝyue, W, S2; gyuen, S; geuen, S; ȝeuen, S, S2, S3; ȝefen, S; yiuen, C2; yeuen, S; ȝeouen, S; ȝieuen, S; ȝefue, S; ȝiefe, S; ȝief, S; geyff, S3; yef, imp. s., S; yif, S, S2; gif, S2; ȝeueþ, pl., S2; gifð, pr. s., S; yeft, S; yefþ, S2; gaf, pt. s., S, S2; ȝaf, S, S2, G; ȝæf, S; ȝifuen, pl., S; yaf, S, C2; iaf, S; ȝiaf, S; gef, S; ȝef, S, S2; gaiff, S3; yafe, S3; ȝaue, S2; ȝeue, pl., S2; ȝauen, W; iafen, S; iauen, S; geuen, pp., S; gyuen, S; ȝiuen, S; yiuen, C2; iiuen, S; iȝiue, S; yeuen, S2, C2; y-ȝeue, S2, G; ȝouen, S2; ȝouun, S2, W; iȝiue, S, S2.—AS. gifan, pt. geaf (pl. géafon), pp. gifen; see Sievers, 391.

Ȝiuer, adj. greedy, MD; ȝiure, S.—AS. gífre; cp. G. geifer, drivel.

Ȝoill-evyn, sb. Yule-even, Christmas eve, B. See Ȝole.


Ȝok, sb. yoke, W, W2; ȝockis, pl., W, W2.—AS. geoc: Goth. juk; cp. Lat. iŭgum, Gr. ζυγόν; see Brugmann, § 133.

Ȝolde, pp. paid, W; see Ȝelden.

Ȝole, sb. Yule, Christmas, HD, SkD.—AS. géola; cp. Goth. jiuleis, Grimm, p. 702; see Sievers, 220.

Ȝoman, sb. a youth, MD, Cath.; ȝeman, MD; yeman, servant, retainer, C; ȝemen, pl., HD, PP; ȝoumen, PP.

Ȝomere, adv. sadly, S; see Ȝemer.

Ȝomerly, adj. sad, S2.—AS. géomorlic.

Ȝon, adj. yon, MD, PP; ȝone, PP, S2.—AS. geon, (SkD); cp. Goth. jains; see Sievers, 338, and Brugmann, § 123.

Ȝond, prep. through, MD; ȝeond, S; ȝont, S; ȝeon, S.

Ȝond, adv. yonder, there, MD, S3; yond, S2, C2; ȝonde, PP.

Ȝonde, used as adj. yon, PP; yond, S2, S3, Sh.—AS. geond, through, also yonder.

Ȝonder, adv. yonder, G; used as adj., PP.

Ȝong, adj. young, S, S2, S3, W, PP; ȝung, S; ȝonge, G; yonge, S, C2; yunge, S; ȝyng, S3; gunge, S; iunge, S; yhung, S2; ying, S3, G; ȝing, S3, G; yonger, comp., S; ȝeunger, S; ȝungre, S; gungest, superl., S; gunkeste, S; ȝongost, S2; ȝongest, G.—AS. geong: Goth. juggs (for jungs); cp. Lat. iuuencus; see Kluge (s.v. jugend).

Ȝonghede, sb. youth, MD; yonghede, S, CM; ȝunghede, MD.

Ȝonglyng, sb. young man, disciple, MD, W; iunglenges, pl., S.

Ȝongthe, sb. youth, W; ȝungthe, HD, Prompt.; youngth, S3.

Ȝop, adj. bold, HD; see Ȝape.

Ȝore, adv. formerly, S2, G; yore, S2, S3, C2: ȝare, S.—AS. geára, for géara, gen. pl. of géar. See Ȝeer.

Ȝorle, sb. earl, HD; see Erl.

Ȝornde, pt. s. yearned, S; see Ȝernen.

Ȝoskinge, sb. sobbing, WA; ȝyxynge, Prompt.—Cp. AS. giscian (BT).

Ȝotun, pp. molten, W2; see Ȝeten.

Ȝou, pron. pl. acc. and dat. you, S, S2, W, PP; ȝow, S2, G, PP; yow, S, C2; ȝew, S; ȝeu, S; ȝuw, S; ȝiu, S; giu, S; gu, S; ow, S, S2; ou, S, S2; eu, S; eou, S; eow, S.—AS. éow. See also Ȝe.

Ȝoulen, v. to howl, cry, MD; goulen, S, S2; ȝaulen, MD; yawle, HD; gowland, pr. p., S3.—Icel. gaula.

Ȝoure, pron. pl. gen. of you (also poss. pron., your), S; eouwer, S; æoure, S; ȝure, S; ȝiure, S; ȝowre, PP; eure, S; gur, S; ȝeur, S; ower, S; oure, S2; our, S; ore, S2; or, S2; youres, C2.—AS. éowre, gen. of éow, you. See Ȝe.

Ȝou-selue, yourselves, S; ȝou-silf, W; ȝow-seluen, PP; ȝow-self, PP; ow-seolf, S; ow-seoluen, S; ou-suluen, S.

Ȝouthe, sb. youth, PP, S2; youthe, C2; ȝowthe, PP; yowthe, S2; yhouthe, S2; yhowthe, S2; ȝieuð, S; ȝuheðe, S; ȝuȝeðe, S.—AS. geoguð, guguð, iuguð; see Sievers, 74.

Ȝouthede, sb. youth, MD; youthede, MD; guðhede, S.—AS. geoguðhád.

Ȝouen, pp. of Ȝiuen.

Ȝowle, sb. Yule, HD; see Ȝole.

Ȝoȝelinge, sb. guggling noise, S.

Ȝude, pt. s. went, S2; see Ȝeode.

Ȝuheðe, sb. youth, S; see Ȝouthe.

Ȝus, adv. yes, S2; see Ȝis.

Ȝut, conj. yet, S, S2, P; see Ȝet.

Ȝyng, adj. young, S3; see Ȝong.

R   S   Ta-, Te-   Th   Ti-Ty   U, V (vowel)   V U (consonant)   Wa-We   Wh   Wi-Wy   X   Y   Ȝ

The subdivision of T, U/V, and W, and the format of their headers, is as in the original. Note that Th includes Þ.

Introduction (separate file)

A-F (separate file)

G-Q (separate file)